Partnership for Global Security: Leading the World to a Safer Future
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Nuclear News - 6/29/2010
PGS Nuclear News, June 29, 2010
Compiled By: Brandi Bohannon

A.  G-8 Summit
    1. Experts Disappointed by Failure to Extend G-8 Global Partnership, Fissile Materials Working Group (6/26/2010)
    2. G-8 Leaders Statement on Countering Terrorism  (6/26/2010)
    3. G8 Muskoka Declaration Recovery and New Beginnings (6/26/2010)
B.  Iran
    1. Mullen: Iran Will Continue to Strive for Nukes, Kimberly Dozier, Associated Press (6/29/2010)
    2. U.S., Russia Offer Iran Talks on Fuel for Reactor, Lavrov Says, (6/29/2010)
    3. Russia Alarmed by CIA View of Iran's Weapons, Reuters (6/27/2010)
    4. Iran Postpones Nuclear Talks as 'Punishment' for UN Sanctions, Ian Black , The Guardian
    1. NKorea: G-8 'Evil' For Criticism over Ship Sinking, Kwang-Tae Kim, Associated Press (6/29/2010)
    2. N.Korea Vows to Bolster Nuclear Deterrent, Simon Martin, AFP (6/28/2010)
    3. North Korea Warns U.S. Over "Heavy Weapons" at DMZ, Reuters (6/28/2010)
    4. US Warns N Korea amid Concern that Missile Test Planned, BBC News (6/25/2010)
D.  Nuclear Cooperation
    1. Kingdom Insists on Keeping NPT Rights in Any US Deal , The Jordan Times (6/29/2010)
    2. Arab Nuclear Conference Ends , United Press International (6/25/2010)
    3. Kuwait, US sign MOC on Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy, Kuwait Times (6/25/2010)
E.  Nuclear Industry
    1. EOn and CEA to Cooperate on Nuclear R&D, World Nuclear News (6/28/2010)
F.  Nuclear Safety
    1. NRC Chairman Says Safety is Job No. 1, Judy Fahys , Utah News  (6/29/2010)
G.  Nonproliferation
    1. Deception and Denials in Myanmar, Bertil Lintner , Southeast Asia (6/30/2010)
    2. Medvedev Calls for Strict Monitoring of Nuclear Material Trafficking, June 29, RIA Novosti, RIA Novosti (6/29/2010)
H.  U.S.-Russia Joint Statements
    1. Joint Statement on Strategic Stability, The White House (6/24/2010)
    2. Joint Statement on U.S.-Russia Presidential Commission , The White House (6/24/2010)
    3. Joint Statement Strategic Partnership in Innovation, The White House (6/24/2010)

A.  G-8 Summit

Experts Disappointed by Failure to Extend G-8 Global Partnership
Fissile Materials Working Group
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The Fissile Materials Working Group (FMWG), a coalition of leading nuclear security experts, is disappointed G-8 leaders’ failed to renew their commitment to address the spread of materials and weapons of mass destruction, and to prevent nuclear terrorism. Leaders instead opted to “evaluate” the geographic expansion and renewed funding commitments for the G-8 Global Partnership.

“The G-8 Global Partnership is a vital multilateral mechanism for securing nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction. Its geographic expansion and renewed funding commitment are essential for international security,” said Kenneth Luongo, president of the Partnership for Global Security and co-chair of the FMWG.

“It is very disappointing, and extremely short-sighted, for the G-8 to have not extended the Global Partnership program – an effort specifically designed to lock down or eliminate weapons of mass destruction that threaten every corner of the globe. With the US already picking up about $1.5 billion of the $2 billion per year for that program the rest of the G-8 nations would have only had to contribute a half a billion per year collectively, or $ 5 billion over 10 years. With the G-8 nations representing 44% of global GDP, that is more than an affordable investment in preventing a WMD terrorist incident. If a nuclear or biological terrorist event occurs, it will significantly impact the economy of every nation.”

Alexandra Toma, Program Director at the Connect U.S. Fund and co-chair of the FMWG, underscored the challenge ahead: “Nuclear terrorism is a top security threat to not only the United States but to many countries across the world. We must continue to work with our international partners to keep vulnerable nuclear materials from getting in the hands of those who wish to do us harm.” She added, “The G-8 Global Partnership is a crucial part of combating that threat. So, we are very disappointed that world leaders did not agree to extend this vital multilateral effort to prevent WMD proliferation.”

Matthew Bunn, associate professor at the Harvard Kennedy School and author of the Securing the Bomb series, said any delay in the renewal of the Global Partnership is dangerous.

“We must avoid repeating the delays and funding shortfalls of the early days of the Global Partnership, if nuclear security improvements are to get to these stockpiles before terrorists and thieves do.”

The Fissile Materials Working Group (FMWG) is a coalition of more than 40 leading experts in nuclear security. It was formed to support and help implement the goal of securing all vulnerable nuclear materials as quickly as possible.

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G-8 Leaders Statement on Countering Terrorism
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We, the Leaders of the G-8, reiterate our absolute condemnation of terrorism in all of its forms and manifestations, and our commitment to work together to eradicate this threat. Recent events, such as the attempted bombing on December 25, 2009 of the airline en route to Detroit and the brutal attacks of March 29, 2010 on the Moscow subway, are reminders of the terrorist threat. We express our deepest sympathies for lives lost and disrupted by these senseless acts.

Terrorism threatens people everywhere and undermines peace, stability and security. All acts of terrorism are criminal, inhumane, and unjustifiable irrespective of motivation. We condemn suicide bombings, and we abhor in particular the practice of recruiting the young or disadvantaged to carry out such acts. We deplore the upsurge in hostage-takings perpetrated by terrorists, as such abductions are repugnant to our fundamental notions of freedom, and we commit to work together to prevent their proliferation and bring those responsible to justice. We express our concern about the links of some terrorists to illicit drug trafficking and organized crime – we are determined to disrupt these partnerships of convenience. As highlighted at the Washington Summit on Nuclear security, nuclear terrorism is one of the most challenging threats to international security.

Terrorism will not be defeated by force alone. It is critical to address the conditions conducive to the spread of terrorism, and, in particular, that governments promote the rule of law, the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms, democratic values, good governance, tolerance and inclusiveness to offer a viable alternative to those who could be susceptible to terrorist recruitment and to radicalization leading to violence. We are committed to helping countries address their basic development needs and meet the legitimate aspirations of their people. All peoples everywhere deserve security in their communities, education for their children, opportunity for employment and a sense of dignity and self-worth.

We reaffirm that full respect for human rights, fundamental freedoms and the rule of law is critical to an effective counter-terrorism strategy, and we reject the false choice between our security and our democratic values. All of our actions against terrorism must be consistent with the UN Charter and applicable international law. We reiterate the central role of the UN in the fight against terrorism and stress the importance of full implementation of the UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy and relevant UN Security Council resolutions. We strongly urge all states to join and implement the international conventions and protocols against terrorism. We welcome improvements to the UN al-Qa’ida and Taliban sanctions regime, most recently the adoption of UN Security Council Resolution 1904, and we underscore the importance of further progress in its implementation, and continuing work in support of fair and clear procedures.

Terrorism is a global threat that requires a global response. No single country or group of countries can hope to defeat terrorism. Since the attacks of September 11, 2001, extensive international cooperation has weakened the ability of terrorists to recruit, train, fund and execute attacks. We are committed to further enhancing international cooperation, by strengthening old partnerships and building new ones with governments, multilateral organizations and the private sector. We also recognize the crucial role of civil society in effective counter-terrorism efforts. We pledge to strengthen the cooperation between relevant UN bodies and the G-8 and, together with committed partners, we will work to broaden, deepen and make more robust the global multilateral counter-terrorism umbrella.

We recognize the role of the G-8 Roma/Lyon Group (comprised of our counter-terrorism and anti-crime experts) in the global fight against terrorism, as well as the work of the Counter-Terrorism Action Group (CTAG), which seeks to build capacity and political will to assist countries in addressing the terrorist threat. We applaud Canada’s leadership in bringing strategic focus to the groups’ efforts through the preparation of a robust action plan on counter-terrorism and organized crime. We endorse this plan.

We underscore our determination to work cooperatively on key challenges, including transportation security, border security and identity integrity, preventing chemical, biological, nuclear and radiological terrorism, combating terrorism financing, countering violent extremism, radicalization leading to violence, and recruitment. Given the complex nature of the terrorist threat, an integrated and coordinated G-8 response is essential to meeting this challenge.

We acknowledge that terrorist groups and other criminal organizations tend to flourish where governments lack the capacity and resiliency to address security vulnerabilities, in some cases threatening the stability of states. We emphasize the essential role capacity-building can play to support countries in need of assistance to fulfill their international counter-terrorism commitments. Addressing the institutional weaknesses that allow terrorists to operate freely is a critical element of our efforts. Building upon the efforts of the CTAG, we emphasize the need to improve the coordination of the growing bilateral and multilateral counter-terrorism capacity-building initiatives, and to make these efforts more innovative, far-reaching and sustained. We recognize the profound effects of terrorism on these countries and regions, and we are mindful of their needs. We, the G-8 countries, stand together to support them, in particular, Afghanistan, Pakistan, the Sahel, Somalia and Yemen. We will seek to build closer cooperation among relevant G-8 partner programs to make our effort to address terrorism and related security threats more coherent and effective.

Despite our operational successes against al-Qa’ida and other terrorist groups, radicalization leading to violence remains a source of serious concern. Special attention must be paid to curtailing the influence of violent extremists, undermining their false narrative, isolating them from the people they pretend to serve and disrupting their misuse of the internet. Our work will focus on identifying the drivers of violent extremism and then on preventing those most at risk of recruitment and radicalization from becoming terrorists.

By preying on the innocent and vulnerable, terrorists cause unspeakable harm to the very fabric of society. Their actions impact not only the victims, but their families, friends and fellow citizens. Survivors of terrorism and their families have risen against terrorism in the aftermath of horrific attacks. We reiterate our commitment to further develop initiatives that assist them. They are giving a voice to victims while bravely speaking out against violent and extremist ideologies. We stand with them and their families, and we are committed to ensuring that their voices are heard and that the victims are never forgotten.

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G8 Muskoka Declaration Recovery and New Beginnings
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1. We, the Leaders of the Group of Eight, met in Muskoka on June 25-26, 2010. Our annual summit takes place as the world begins a fragile recovery from the greatest economic crisis in generations.

2. What binds the G8 together is a shared vision that major global challenges must and can be addressed effectively through focus, commitment and transparency, and in partnership with other concerned members of the global community. The G8 has demonstrated the capacity to design credible approaches to meet the challenges of our times. For over thirty years, it has shown that its collective will can be a powerful catalyst for sustainable change and progress. At Muskoka in 2010, we are focussing on an effective agenda to address key challenges in development, international peace and security, and environmental protection.

3. This economic crisis exposed and exacerbated vulnerabilities already embedded in integrated global economies, development efforts, and collective security. Progress is being made, through the work of the G20, towards the sustainable recovery of our global economic and financial system. For development, a decade of policy commitments and joint efforts with our partners has brought significant progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), but both developed and developing countries must do more; meanwhile, the crisis has jeopardized advancement toward meeting some of the 2015 targets. Renewed mutual commitments are required. We must also ensure that the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, terrorism and organized crime, as well as many other challenges faced by states to address their security vulnerabilities, including climate change, remain at the forefront of public policy. We, the G8, are determined to exercise leadership and meet our obligations.

4. Moreover, and beginning at the 2008 Hokkaido Toyako Summit, we have recognized the importance of demonstrating that the G8 is committed to reporting transparently and consistently on the implementation of its commitments. In 2009 at the L’Aquila Summit, we tasked senior officials to report on the implementation of our development and development-related commitments with a focus on results. We welcome the Muskoka Accountability Report: Assessing action and results against development-related commitments and will ensure follow up on its conclusions and recommendations. It shows that important progress has been made in many areas, but more needs to be done. We emphasize the importance of regular reports on the progress made in implementing our commitments and in this regard will focus the Accountability reporting in 2011 on health and food security.

5. As recovery takes hold, we are at an important crossroads where nascent hope and optimism must be channelled into building more secure, equitable, inclusive and sustainable societies globally, where greater attention is paid to improving and effectively assessing the well-being of people.


6. Support for development, based on mutual responsibility, and a strong partnership with developing countries, particularly in Africa, remains a cornerstone of the G8’s approach. We will pursue our comprehensive approach to development aiming at sustainable outcomes. We reaffirm our commitments, including on ODA and enhancing aid effectiveness. We call on developing country governments to meet their primary responsibilities for social and economic development and good governance, in the interests of their citizens. Since the most vulnerable states have made the least progress towards the MDGs, we will place special emphasis on helping them build the foundations for peace, security and sustainable development.

7. The global community is now at the two-thirds point between adoption of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the target date of 2015. To achieve the MDGs the effort needs to be truly global, encompassing a comprehensive, whole-of-country approach, including actions not only from all governments, but also from the private sector, foundations, non-governmental organizations and civil society, as well as international organizations, focussing more on the protection and empowerment of individuals and communities to improve human security. In this regard, we welcome the UN Secretary General’s report “Keeping the Promise” and the UNDP International Assessment on meeting the MDGs. The G8 supports the priorities outlined in the Assessment, and reaffirms the view that progress must be driven by domestic strategies, policies and interventions and national ownership. We call on all development partners, at the September 2010 UN High-Level Plenary Meeting on the MDGs, to strengthen the collective resolve to accelerate progress towards these targets and call for an action-oriented outcome. Consequently, all public and private financial resources should be mobilized efficiently, and enabling conditions created for private and financial sector development and investment and resource flows.

8. Progress towards MDG 5, improving maternal health, has been unacceptably slow. Although recent data suggests maternal mortality has been declining, hundreds of thousands of women still lose their lives every year, or suffer injury, from causes related to pregnancy and childbirth. Much of this could be prevented with better access to strengthened health systems, and sexual and reproductive health care and services, including voluntary family planning. Progress on MDG 4, reducing child mortality, is also too slow. Nearly 9 million children die each year before their fifth birthday. These deaths profoundly concern us and underscore the need for urgent collective action. We reaffirm our strong support to significantly reduce the number of maternal, newborn and under five child deaths as a matter of immediate humanitarian and development concern. Action is required on all factors that affect the health of women and children. This includes addressing gender inequality, ensuring women’s and children’s rights and improving education for women and girls.

9. G8 members already contribute over US$4.1 billion annually in international development assistance for maternal, newborn and under-five child health (MNCH). Today, we, the Leaders of the G8, working with other Governments, several Foundations and other entities engaged in promoting maternal and child health internationally[1] endorse and launch the Muskoka Initiative, a comprehensive and integrated approach to accelerate progress towards MDGs 4 and 5 that will significantly reduce the number of maternal, newborn and under five child deaths in developing countries. The scope of the Muskoka Initiative is specified in Annex I. Our collective undertaking will support strengthened country-led national health systems in developing countries, in order to enable delivery on key interventions along the continuum of care, i.e., pre-pregnancy, pregnancy, childbirth, infancy and early childhood.

10. To this end, the G8 undertake to mobilize as of today $5.0 billion of additional funding for disbursement over the next five years[2]. Support from the G8 is catalytic. We make our commitments with the objective of generating a greater collective effort by bilateral and multilateral donors, developing countries and other stakeholders to accelerate progress on MDGs 4 and 5. We therefore welcome the decisions by other governments and foundations to join the Muskoka Initiative. The Governments of the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Republic of Korea, Spain and Switzerland, subject to their respective budgetary processes, and the Bill and Melinda Gates and UN Foundations have now or have recently committed to additional funding of $2.3 billion to be disbursed over the same period.

11. We fully anticipate that, over the period 2010-2015, subject to our respective budgetary processes, the Muskoka Initiative will mobilize significantly greater than $10 billion.

12. As a consequence of the commitments made today towards the Muskoka Initiative, this support, according to World Health Organization and World Bank estimates, will assist developing countries to: i) prevent 1.3 million deaths of children under five years of age; ii) prevent 64,000 maternal deaths; and iii) enable access to modern methods of family planning by an additional 12 million couples. These results will be achieved cumulatively between 2010-2015. We will track progress on delivering commitments through our accountability reporting, which, in 2011, will focus on health and food security. In line with the principle of mutual accountability, we expect these joint commitments will encourage developing countries to intensify their own efforts with regard to maternal and child health, leading to the saving of many more millions of lives of women, newborn and young children.

13. It is possible to build a broad coalition of the committed. We the partners to the Muskoka Initiative trust today’s launch will give added momentum to the UN-led process to develop a Joint Action Plan to Improve the Health of Women and Children, and make a key contribution towards the September 2010 UN High-Level Plenary Meeting on the MDGs. Given the interconnected nature of the Goals, we expect that our commitments will have positive impacts on the other MDGs

14. We will also focus efforts on training of medical personnel and on establishing stronger health innovation networks in Africa and other regions.

15. We reaffirm our commitment to come as close as possible to universal access to prevention, treatment, care and support with respect to HIV/AIDS. We will support country-led efforts to achieve this objective by making the third voluntary replenishment conference of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria in October 2010 a success. We encourage other national and private sector donors to provide financial support for the Global Fund. We commit to promote integration of HIV and sexual and reproductive health, rights and services within the broader context of strengthening health systems. G8 donors also remain steadfast in their support for polio eradication and remain committed to a polio-free world. We continue to support the control or elimination of high-burden Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs).

16. Food security remains an urgent global development challenge, exacerbated by climate change, increasing global food demand, past underinvestment in the agricultural sector, and extreme price volatility which has strong damaging impacts on the most vulnerable. In 2009 in L’Aquila, we together with other countries and organizations adopted fundamental principles to enhance food security: use a comprehensive approach; invest in country-led plans; strengthen strategic coordination; leverage benefits of multilateral institutions; and deliver on sustained and accountable commitments. We launched the L’Aquila Food Security Initiative (AFSI) based on these principles and ultimately mobilized with US$22 billion for sustainable agriculture development over three years, while maintaining a strong commitment to ensure adequate emergency food aid. The initiative helped achieve a wide consensus and enabled progress to be made in reforming the Committee on Food Security and advancing the Global Partnership for Agricultural and Food Security. As of April 30, 2010, we have disbursed/allocated USD $6.5 billion and remain committed to disburse/allocate the full amount of our individual commitments by 2012. We are working actively to ensure a coordinated approach nationally, regionally and globally, while maintaining our focus on country-led initiatives. We are pleased with the launch of the Global Agriculture and Food Security Program hosted at the World Bank, which has $880 million in commitments, and other mutually complementary initiatives or mechanisms, such as the African Agriculture Fund. We underline the critical importance of accountability for ensuring that these collective commitments are met. We underline the key contribution of research to fight hunger and poverty, notably by increasing sustainable agricultural productivity and reiterate our support to the ongoing reform of the global research networks. Reduced malnutrition is a primary outcome of our Food Security Initiative and will contribute to improved maternal and child health.

17. Reflecting the key connection between cross-border investment and development and the fact that official development assistance alone is not sufficient to achieve global food security, we stress the importance of enhancing international investment in developing countries in a responsible and sustainable way. In this context, we support continued efforts to develop principles for investment in the agricultural sector undertaken by the World Bank, regional development banks, FAO, UNCTAD, and IFAD.

18. The G8 remains concerned about the illicit exploitation of and trade in natural resources – including minerals and timber. These activities play a major role in fuelling conflict. We support efforts of regional mechanisms and organizations to prevent, curb and eradicate these illegal activities. We support efforts of the Kimberley Process to manage the trade of rough diamonds and ensure compliance by all participants with its standards. The illicit exploitation of and trade in natural resources from the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo has directly contributed to the instability and violence that is causing undue suffering among the people of the DRC. We urge the DRC to do more to end the conflict and to extend urgently the rule of law. We welcome the recent initiatives of the private sector and the international community to work with the Congolese authorities and to enhance their due diligence to ensure that supply chains do not support trade in conflict materials. We also urge candidate countries to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), including the DRC, to complete the EITI implementation process as a mechanism to enhance governance and accountability in the extractive sector. The recent inclusion of coltan and cassiterite in the DRC’s EITI reporting is a step in the right direction. Further, we welcome the ongoing research and advocacy of international NGOs and local civil society as an important contribution to reducing the conflict opportunities of natural resources.


19. G8 Leaders met in Muskoka with the Heads of State or Government of Algeria, Ethiopia (as Chair of the NEPAD Heads of State and Government Orientation Committee), Malawi (as Chair of the African Union), Nigeria, Senegal and South Africa. Egypt was also invited but was unable to attend. G8 Leaders welcome the increased ownership that Africa has over its development process and, with African Leaders, noted the high economic growth rates that had been attained in Africa immediately prior to the onset of the global economic and financial crisis. Leaders reaffirmed their shared commitment to continued collaboration between G8 and African partners in support of African-led efforts to build a more stable, democratic and prosperous Africa, to advance economic and social development, and to promote the rule of law.

20. G8 and African Leaders recognize that the attainment of the MDGs is a shared responsibility and that strategies based on mutual accountability are essential going forward. They noted that, while significant progress has been made in some areas, greater efforts are required by all actors in order to achieve the MDGs in Africa. In this regard, African Leaders expressed support for the Maternal, Newborn and Child Health Muskoka Initiative. Mindful of the central importance that maternal and child health has to development and Africa’s ability to achieve the MDGs and of the consequent need for urgent action, Leaders undertook to explore how to accelerate progress in the implementation of their respective commitments in Africa. African partners also welcomed the G8’s continued efforts to help strengthen the African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA), including institutional capacity, to prevent and manage conflict through, inter alia, peacekeeping training centres in Africa. G8 Leaders acknowledged the important contribution of African Leaders to the L’Aquila Food Security Initiative.

Environmental Sustainability and Green Recovery

21. Among environmental issues, climate change remains top of mind. As we agreed in L’Aquila, we recognize the scientific view that the increase in global temperature should not exceed 2 degrees Celsius compared to pre-industrial levels. Achieving this goal requires deep cuts in global emissions. Because this global challenge can only be met by a global response, we reiterate our willingness to share with all countries the goal of achieving at least a 50% reduction of global emissions by 2050, recognizing that this implies that global emissions need to peak as soon as possible and decline thereafter. We will cooperate to that end. As part of this effort, we also support a goal of developed countries reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in aggregate by 80% or more by 2050, compared to 1990 or more recent years. Consistent with this ambitious long-term objective, we will undertake robust aggregate and individual mid-term reductions, taking into account that baselines may vary and that efforts need to be comparable. Similarly, major emerging economies need to undertake quantifiable actions to reduce emissions significantly below business-as-usual by a specified year.

22. We strongly support the negotiations underway within the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). We reiterate our support for the Copenhagen Accord and the important contribution it makes to the UNFCCC negotiations. We urge those countries that have not already done so to associate themselves with the Accord and list their mitigation commitments and actions. Recognizing the scientific view that the increase in global temperature should not exceed 2 degrees Celsius, we also call for the full and effective implementation of all the provisions of the Accord, including those related to measurement, reporting and verification thereby promoting transparency and trust. In this context, we are putting in place our respective fast-start finance contributions to help address the most urgent and immediate needs of the most vulnerable developing countries and to help developing countries lay the ground work for long-term, low-emission development. We express our commitment to cooperate actively and constructively with Mexico as the President of the sixteenth meeting of the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties on November 29 – December 10, 2010. We support related initiatives, including the UN Secretary-General’s High-Level Advisory Group on identifying long-term public and private financing, and the Paris-Oslo Process on REDD+. We want a comprehensive, ambitious, fair, effective, binding, post-2012 agreement involving all countries, and including the respective responsibilities of all major economies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

23. While remaining committed to fighting climate change, we discussed the importance of ensuring that economies are climate resilient. We agreed that more research was needed to identify impacts at the global, regional, national and sub-national levels, and the options for adaptation, including through infrastructural and technological innovation. We particularly recognize the situation of the poorest and most vulnerable countries. We will share our national experiences and plans for adaptation, including through a conference on climate change adaptation in Russia in 2011.

24. To address climate change and increase energy security, we are committed to building low carbon and climate resilient economies, characterized by green growth and improved resource efficiency. We recognize the opportunities provided by a transition to low carbon and renewable energies, in particular for job creation. We encourage the IEA to develop work on an International Platform for low-carbon technologies, in order to accelerate their development and deployment. The elimination or reduction of tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade in environmental goods and services is essential to promote the dissemination of cleaner low-carbon energy technologies and associated services worldwide. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) can play an important role in transitioning to a low-carbon emitting economy. We welcome the progress already made on our Toyako commitments to launch the 20 large-scale CCS demonstration projects globally by 2010 and to achieve the broad deployment of CCS by 2020, in cooperation with developing countries. Several of us commit to accelerate the CCS demonstration projects and set a goal to achieve their full implementation by 2015. We also recognize the role nuclear energy can play in addressing climate change and energy security concerns, acknowledging the international commitment to safety, security and safeguards for non-proliferation as prerequisites for its peaceful use. We also recognise the potential of bioenergy for sustainable development, climate change mitigation and energy security. We welcome the work of the Global Bioenergy Partnership (GBEP) and commit to facilitating swift adoption of voluntary sustainability criteria and indicators, as well as on capacity building activities.

25. In 2010, the UN International Year of Biodiversity, we regret that the international community is not on track to meeting its 2010 target to significantly reduce the rate of loss of biodiversity globally. We recognize that the current rate of loss is a serious threat, since biologically diverse and resilient ecosystems are critical to human well being, sustainable development and poverty eradication. We underline our support for Japan as it prepares to host the tenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity this October and in particular we underline the importance of adopting an ambitious and achievable post-2010 framework. We recognize the need to strengthen the science-policy interface in this area, and in this regard we welcome the agreement to establish an Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES).

Trade and Investment

26. As a means of sustaining recovery from the global economic crisis, the G8 affirms its longstanding commitment to free and open markets. G8 members of the WTO renew their commitment to the successful conclusion of the Doha Development Agenda, building on the progress already made. We direct our representatives to engage in the spirit of give and take through all negotiating avenues with the goal of achieving the increased level of ambition necessary to facilitate an agreement, recognizing the changes in the global economy since the launch of the Agenda. We will continue to resist protectionist pressures, and to promote liberalization of trade and investment under the WTO, through the national reduction of barriers, as well as through bilateral and regional negotiations.

International Peace and Security

27. We, the Leaders of the G8, remain deeply concerned about serious threats to global peace and security. We are all affected by threats from the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, terrorism, international organized crime (including drug trafficking), piracy and from political and ethnic conflict. Prosperity, development and security are inextricably linked, and the economic well being and security of our own countries and those around the world are therefore interdependent. We share a vision of a peaceful world, based on the principles of freedom, democracy, respect for human rights and the rule of law, and remain ready to continue to work on this basis in partnership with each other and other concerned countries to address security challenges that affect us all.

28. We cannot be complacent about the grave threat posed to the security of present and future generations by the proliferation of nuclear weapons. We therefore welcome the outcome of the Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty Review Conference, and will pursue the follow on actions it recommended by consensus. We call upon all states to do the same. We are committed to seeking a safer world for all and to creating conditions for a world without nuclear weapons, in accordance with the goals of the Treaty. We will pursue concrete disarmament efforts to this end. In this respect, we particularly welcome the New Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty signed by the Russian Federation and the United States. We call upon all other states, in particular those possessing nuclear weapons, to join these disarmament efforts, in order to promote international stability and undiminished security for all.

29. We urge all states to take and support resolute action to address non-compliance with the Treaty’s non-proliferation obligations, including safeguards obligations. We call upon states that have not yet done so to conclude a Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency, together with an Additional Protocol, which will become the new universally accepted standard for the verification of peaceful uses of nuclear energy. We support the exchange, in conformity with the obligations of the Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty, of equipment, materials and scientific and technological information for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, in particular for developing countries. We reiterate our commitment as found in paragraph 8 of the L’Aquila Statement on Non-Proliferation. As we approach the 25th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident in 2011, we will take the necessary steps to complete the final stages of the Chernobyl safety and stabilization projects, and we urge all entities to pursue the highest levels of nuclear safety, security and safeguards when developing new civil nuclear installations.

30. We face a new era of threats from non-state actors, particularly terrorists, who seek to acquire weapons of mass destruction and related technology and materials. The consequences of failing to prevent this could be severe. We reaffirm our commitment to work together for our shared security, including fulfilment of the commitments we made at the Washington Nuclear Security Summit, especially to work cooperatively to secure all vulnerable nuclear material in four years.

31. In this respect, we welcome the concrete achievements and measurable results of the Global Partnership against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction, launched at the Kananaskis Summit in 2002, and we remain committed to completing priority projects in Russia. We recognize the continuing global threats before us, and we all recognize the importance of continuing our joint efforts as partners to address them in the years ahead. Toward that end, we ask our senior experts to evaluate the results of the Global Partnership to date, as a point of departure for developing options for programming and financing beyond 2012, focusing on nuclear and radiological security, bio security, scientist engagement and facilitation of the implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 1540, as well as the potential participation of new countries in the initiative.

32. The adoption by the UN Security Council of Resolution 1929 reflects the concerns of the international community on the Iranian nuclear issue, and we call on all states to implement it fully. While recognizing Iran’s right to a civilian nuclear program, we note that this right comes with international obligations that all states, including Iran, must comply with. We are profoundly concerned by Iran’s continued lack of transparency regarding its nuclear activities and its stated intention to continue and expand enriching uranium, including to nearly 20 percent, contrary to UN Security Council Resolutions and the International Atomic Energy Agency Board of Governors. We call upon Iran to heed the requirements of the UN Security Council and the International Atomic Energy Agency, and implement relevant resolutions to restore international confidence in the peaceful nature of Iran’s nuclear program. Our goal is to persuade Iran’s leaders to engage in a transparent dialogue about its nuclear activities and to meet Iran’s international obligations. We strongly support the ongoing efforts in this regard by China, France, Germany, Russia, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union High Representative, and we welcome their commitment to the resolution of all outstanding issues through negotiation. We also welcome and commend all diplomatic efforts in this regard, including those made recently by Brazil and Turkey on the specific issue of the Tehran Research Reactor.

33. Recalling the concerns we expressed at the 2009 L’Aquila Summit, we urge the Government of Iran to respect the rule of law and freedom of expression, as outlined in the international treaties to which Iran is a party.

34. We deplore the attack on March 26 that caused the sinking of the Republic of Korea’s naval vessel, the Cheonan, resulting in tragic loss of 46 lives. Such an incident is a challenge to peace and security in the region and beyond. We express our deep sympathy and condolences to the victims and their families and to the people and Government of the Republic of Korea, and call for appropriate measures to be taken against those responsible for the attack in accordance with the UN Charter and all other relevant provisions of international law. The Joint Civilian-Military Investigation Group, led by the Republic of Korea with the participation of foreign experts, concluded that the Democratic Peoples’ Republic of Korea was responsible for the sinking of the Cheonan. We condemn, in this context, the attack which led to the sinking of the Cheonan. We demand that the Democratic Peoples’ Republic of Korea refrain from committing any attacks or threatening hostilities against the Republic of Korea. We support the Republic of Korea in its efforts to seek accountability for the Cheonan incident, and we remain committed to cooperating closely with all international parties in the pursuit of regional peace and security.

35. We call on the international community to ensure the comprehensive enforcement of all existing UN Security Council resolutions pertaining to the Democratic Peoples’ Republic of Korea. At the same time, we express our gravest concern that the nuclear test and missile activities carried out by the Democratic Peoples’ Republic of Korea have further generated increased tension in the region and beyond, and that there continues to exist a clear threat to international peace and security. We reaffirm support for efforts to achieve a comprehensive resolution to this threat and to implement the 2005 Joint Statement of the Six Party Talks. Recalling the importance of full and transparent implementation of UN Security Council resolutions, we strongly urge the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea to act strictly in accordance with its nuclear safeguards agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency, and to abandon all nuclear weapons and existing nuclear and ballistic missile programs, as well as proliferation activities, in a complete, verifiable and irreversible manner in accordance with UN Security Council Resolutions 1718 and 1874. The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea does not, and cannot, have the status of a nuclear-weapon state in accordance with the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. We also urge the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea to take prompt actions to address the concerns of the international community on humanitarian matters, including the abduction issue.

36. The Kabul Conference in July will be an important opportunity for the Government of Afghanistan to present its detailed plans and show tangible progress in implementing the commitments made in the January 2010 London Conference Communiqué, including measures to combat corruption, address illicit drug production and trafficking, improve human rights, improve provision of basic services and governance, make concrete progress to reinforce the formal justice system and expand the capacity of the Afghan National Security Forces to assume increasing responsibility for security within five years. To this end, we fully support the transition strategy adopted by International Security Assistance Force contributors in April, as well as the on-going efforts to establish an Afghan-led national reconciliation and reintegration process. In this respect, the June Peace Jirga was an important milestone. Clear steps by Afghanistan towards more credible, inclusive and transparent parliamentary elections in September will be an important step forward in the country’s maturing democracy. We reaffirm our commitment to support Afghanistan in this process of transition and development.

37. We welcome and encourage Pakistan’s ongoing efforts to root out violent extremists, especially in its border areas with Afghanistan. We underscore the need for a broad regional approach to countering violent extremism. It is essential that Pakistan be supported by the international community as it addresses its political, economic and social reforms. We welcome and encourage the recent steps taken by the Governments of Pakistan and India to advance their bilateral relationship, and urge all countries of the region to work together actively in the interests of regional peace and stability.

38. We are pleased that progress is being made, in association with multilateral donors, on two key projects under the G8 Afghanistan Pakistan Border Region Prosperity Initiative: a Peshawar-Jalalabad expressway and a feasibility study for a Peshawar-Jalalabad rail link. We are confident that these projects and others – realized with the efforts of the Governments of Afghanistan and Pakistan — will deliver tangible benefits to the Afghan and Pakistani people and help to foster regional stability.

39. We welcome the start of the proximity talks between the Palestinians and Israel, and urge them both to create conditions conducive for direct talks, with the aim of the establishment of an independent, contiguous and viable State of Palestine, living side by side in peace and security with each other and their neighbours. We deeply regret the loss of life and the injuries suffered in the events off the coast of Gaza on May 31. We welcome the decision of the Israeli government to set up an independent public commission to investigate these events, which includes international participation, in the expectation that it will bring to light all the facts surrounding this tragic incident in line with the Statement of the President of the UN Security Council of June 1. We urge all parties to work together to implement UN Security Council Resolution 1860 and to ensure the flow of humanitarian and commercial goods and persons, to and from Gaza. The current arrangements are not sustainable and must be changed. We welcome the Israeli Cabinet’s announcement of a new policy towards Gaza as a positive development. We urge full and effective implementation of this policy in order to address the needs of Gaza’s population for humanitarian and commercial goods, civilian reconstruction and infrastructure, and legitimate economic activity as well as the legitimate security concerns of Israel that must continue to be safeguarded. We will continue to support the strengthening of Palestinian Authority institutions and the development of a viable Palestinian economy, and stand ready to provide further support for the economic, security and political development of the West Bank and Gaza in the context of a peace agreement once it is reached. We also call for progress in Israeli-Syrian and Israeli-Lebanese relations, reiterating our firm commitment to a comprehensive, just and lasting peace solution in the Middle East. We call for the immediate release of the abducted Israeli soldier, Gilad Shalit.

40. We urge the Government of Myanmar to take the steps necessary to allow for free and fair elections. Full and inclusive democratic participation is essential to this. We urge the Government to release without delay all political prisoners, including Aung San Suu Kyi, and engage the democratic opposition and representatives of ethnic groups in a substantive dialogue on the way forward to national reconciliation. We are also deeply concerned by the recent ethnic tensions in the Kyrgyz Republic resulting in death and injury to many, and appeal to all parties to show restraint. We urge the relevant parties to urgently resolve the conflict in Darfur and to pursue the full implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in Sudan, which is now entering a critical period. All Sudanese actors, and interested countries in the region and beyond, must do their utmost to preserve peace and stability regardless of the outcome of the referendum on the future status of southern Sudan. Recognizing the challenges faced by countries in the aftermath of natural disasters to provide security and basic services to civilians, we reaffirm our commitment to support Haiti and will work to strengthen existing international coordination mechanisms to improve the timeliness, effectiveness and coordination of the international response to such disasters and will continue to support the United Nations Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction. To that end, we will convene a meeting of experts to consider what further steps we might take.

41. Conflict, crime, piracy and terrorism continue to threaten global stability, security and prosperity. We, the G8, are committed to helping partner states and regions to continue to build the civilian security capacities they need to deal with these vulnerabilities. G8 Leaders and African partners were joined by the Presidents of Colombia and Haiti and the Prime Minister of Jamaica to address security vulnerabilities such as terrorism, proliferation, drug trafficking, the flow of illicit funds and transnational organized crime. We therefore agreed to task our ministers to consult jointly with interested partners from Africa and the Americas, as well as other parties, and to consider additional steps that might be taken to address these security vulnerabilities. To this end, we commit to strengthening: the international availability of civilian experts to support rule of law and security institutions; the capacities of key littoral states and regional organizations for maritime security; and international peace operations. The scope of our on-going efforts is elaborated in Annex II.

42. We remain concerned about the continuing threat from terrorist groups, as well as their increasing presence in Yemen, Somalia and across the Sahel. Further, we are concerned about the threat of growing links between terrorists, other criminals and insurgents, and the increasing ties between drug trafficking organizations in Latin America, the Caribbean and West Africa, as well as between those across Asia. Extensive concerted action among the G8 and across the international community has weakened the ability of terrorists to prepare and execute attacks, and of transnational organized crime groups to operate. However, we recognize the need to do more to counter crime and terrorism (including violent extremism and radicalization leading to violence, as well as recruitment), including through the strengthening of security institutions and governance institutions, by continued attention to combating the corruption that facilitates such transnational threats, and by addressing underlying political, social and economic factors in vulnerable countries. We emphasize that such actions must be based on the principles of democracy, rule of law and respect for human rights, which underpin our security. We are also concerned about cybercrime as a growing threat. We will deepen our work together to weaken terrorist and criminal networks, and have adopted a robust plan of action for this purpose. We have set out our views in a separate statement on countering terrorism.

43. Leaders welcomed the offer of the President of France to host the next Summit in France in 2011.
Annex I

The G8 Muskoka Initiative: Maternal, Newborn and Under-Five Child Health[3]
Muskoka, Canada, June 26, 2010

1. Principles: The Initiative is based on a set of core principles for long-lasting results:

* ensuring sustainability of results;
* building on proven, cost-effective, evidence-based interventions;
* focussing in the countries with the greatest needs while continuing to support those making progress;
* supporting country-led national health policies and plans that are locally supported;
* increasing coherence of development efforts through better coordination and harmonization;
* improving accountability; and
* strengthening monitoring, reporting and evaluation.

2. Scope: The Initiative is related to MDGs 4 and 5, as well as elements of MDGs 1 (nutrition) and 6 (HIV/AIDS, malaria). The Initiative is focused on achieving significant progress on health system strengthening in developing countries facing high burdens of maternal and under-five child mortality and an unmet need for family planning. Improving maternal and under-five child health requires comprehensive, high impact and integrated interventions at the community level, across the continuum of care, i.e., pre-pregnancy, pregnancy, childbirth, infancy, and early childhood.

3. This Initiative includes elements such as: antenatal care; attended childbirth; post-partum care; sexual and reproductive health care and services, including voluntary family planning; health education; treatment and prevention of diseases including infectious diseases; prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV; immunizations; basic nutrition and relevant actions in the field of safe drinking water and sanitation.

4. Information: Efforts to strengthen health systems must also include improved health information systems, inter alia vital statistics registration, regular household surveys and applied research to monitor and evaluate implementation. More and better implementation and evaluation of research will identify options to achieve results faster and more efficiently.

5. Innovation: Better synthesis and sharing of innovations can help to overcome delivery bottlenecks more quickly and accelerate results. Existing innovations include novel uses of mobile phones, means of civic registration to improve vital statistics, and task shifting to make better use of scarce health workers.

6. Effectiveness: It is critical to maximize the impact of all investments in development through improved coherence, coordination and harmonization of development efforts, and increasing the effectiveness of existing mechanisms and approaches. We are also supportive of efforts by World Bank, Global Fund and GAVI to establish, in close coordination with the WHO, a joint platform for health systems strengthening.

7. Mechanisms: We are not creating new funding mechanisms. Each donor is free to choose the mechanisms they consider most effective, including multilateral agencies, civil society partners, and direct bilateral support to developing country partners.

8. Global Targets:

a) Between 2010 and 2015, the G8 will work with multiple partners throughout the global community with the objective of achieving the targets set in 2001 for Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5:

i) reduce by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate;
ii) reduce by three-quarters, also between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio; and
iii) achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive health.

b) Reaching these overall targets requires a major, sustained global effort including developed, emerging and developing countries, foundations, international agencies, non-governmental organizations, the private sector, and other constituencies.

9. Indicators: We are pleased that the WHO is working with relevant partners to identify a set of core indicators to measure progress in developing countries. These efforts should aim at harmonizing indicators and reporting requirements in order to reduce the burden of reporting on developing countries. As donors, we will work within these commonly agreed indicators. We will also support country reporting capacities and health information systems.

10. Methodology and Accountability: Recognizing the importance of transparency and accountability, we will track progress on delivering commitments through our accountability reporting which, in 2011, will focus on health and food security. We have also made public the methodology used to define our baseline and commitments.
Annex II

Strengthening Civilian Security Systems
Muskoka, Canada, June 26, 2010

Building on our past efforts and those of our partners, the G8 commits to a set of three interrelated initiatives to strengthen civilian security systems, in accordance with our respective national priorities and programs. These initiatives will aim to reduce the intensity of conflict-related instability, protect civilians in situations of armed conflict, counter terrorism, combat piracy and transnational crime and help establish an enabling environment for growth, investment and democratic development.

I. Civilian Reinforcements for Stabilization, Peacebuilding and Rule of Law

Responding to post-conflict and post-crisis situations requires the early and sustained engagement of civilian experts. Civilian experts help build much needed capacity for security, governance, and the rule-of-law, through the transfer of knowledge and technology, mentoring and training, in full partnership with local institutions. Where necessary, they work along side military forces to help rebuild, reconstruct, and ensure lasting stability and security. Despite these requirements, there is a chronic shortage of ready and trained civilian experts, and few coordinated national, regional and international mechanisms available to effectively manage the magnitude and complexity of the required deployments. This limits the tools available to help states and regions tackle conflict, crime, terrorism and trafficking – vulnerabilities that affect us all.

G8 members will work with other international partners to help build capacity to recruit, roster, deploy, sustain and reintegrate civilian experts from developing countries and emerging donors. G8 members will also identify, prepare and support the deployment of additional experts from G8 countries across a range of disciplines for international engagement. This commitment will increase deployable civilian capacities to reinforce state institutions and advance the rule of law.

This commitment will respond to the needs expressed by our key partners, including the United Nations. The UN Secretary General’s 2009 Report on Peacebuilding in the immediate aftermath of conflict calls for enhanced global capacities in civilian deployments. The G8 is responding to this call.

II. Maritime Security Capacity

When coastlines are without effective governance, they offer a haven for criminals, traffickers, pirates and terrorists. With close to 90,000 ships plying the seas, growing problems of piracy and billions of dollars worth of drugs and other contraband on the move are threatening global stability and security. We reaffirm our commitment to fight piracy off the coast of Somalia, and are concerned with its spread to nearby waters.

By contributing to ongoing international efforts, the G8 will continue to assist key littoral states and regional organizations in maritime security. This will include capacity building in areas such as maritime governance, patrol aviation, coast guards, fisheries enforcement, and maritime intelligence sharing and fusion, as well as legislative, judicial, prosecutorial and correctional assistance. The goal will be to improve the operational effectiveness and response time of states and regional organizations in maritime domain awareness and sovereignty protection. These efforts will help to better secure coastlines and prosecute pirates, as called for by UN Security Council Resolution 1918 (2010). Moreover, they will help counter the growing links between criminal and terror networks that undermine the stability and governance of many states in Latin America, the Caribbean and Africa.

Our commitments will complement and support the efforts of our international partners and seek enhanced international cooperation.

III. International Police Peace Operations

Since the 2004 G8 Sea Island Summit, G8 members and other international partners have contributed to an improvement in the quality and availability of military and police forces for international peace operations. In view of the growing demand, significant gaps remain. The United Nations increasingly relies on Formed Police Units (FPUs) to provide strong and agile support for public order and security. FPUs are cohesive, self-sufficient teams of personnel who deploy as a group and are able to operate in high-risk environments. Not enough units are available to meet demand, and some of those deployed are not fully capable.

G8 members commit to mentoring, training and, where appropriate, equipping police, including new FPUs for duty on UN and AU peace operations. In this regard, G8 countries will also collaborate with other donors and police contributing countries, including developing countries and emerging donors. We will work to ensure that the new FPUs possess appropriate equipment and materiel, and are fully trained and prepared for deployment according to UN standards. This will entail capacity-building for regional training centres in Africa, Asia and the Americas, and continued support for the development and dissemination by the United Nations of doctrine, tactics, tasks and procedures for FPUs. This commitment will be implemented in close coordination with the UN and AU to ensure that their priority needs for on-going or new operations are addressed early.
[1] Apart from the G8, the following endorse the Muskoka Initiative: the Governments of Australia, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Republic of Korea, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland, and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the Hewlett Foundation, the McCall McBain Foundation, the Packard Foundation, the Rockefeller Foundation, the United Nations Foundation, as well as the group of eight international agencies in the health sector (the World Health Organization, the Global Fund, UNICEF, GAVI, the World Bank, the UNFPA, UNAIDS, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation), the Heads of the Schools of Public Health of 22 universities in the United States and the Micronutrient Initiative based in Canada.

[2] While this figure includes five year commitments by most of the G8, it comprises an initial two-year commitment by the United States covering the years 2010 and 2011; the President’s six-year Global Health Initiative places increased emphasis on US programming to maternal health, including family planning, and child health. The United Kingdom has yet to determine its plans beyond 2011, but expects to increase its efforts over the period 2012-2015 so as to double the number of maternal, newborn and children’s lives saved. The EU will target to increase its already substantial support to maternal and child health during 2011-2013, and MNCH will also be addressed in the new Financial Framework as of 2013.

[3] The Muskoka Initiative was developed in consultation with expert bodies, including the United Nations, the World Health Organization, the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health, the OECD, the G8 Academies of Science, and the Countdown to 2015. We have also consulted with the African Union and through the G8 Africa Personal Representative (APR) network.

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B.  Iran

Mullen: Iran Will Continue to Strive for Nukes
Kimberly Dozier
Associated Press
(for personal use only)

Adm. Mike Mullen said Monday he believes Iran will continue to pursue nuclear weapons, even if sanctions against the country are increased.

Speaking at the Aspen Security Forum, the chairman of the joint chiefs of staff said it would be "incredibly dangerous" for Iran to achieve nuclear weapons, and that there's "no reason to trust" Iran's assurances that it is only pursuing a peaceful nuclear program, especially after the discovery of the secret nuclear facility in Qom.

But he said a military strike against Iran would be "incredibly destabilizing" to the region, and that he believed U.S. ally Israel understands that. The admiral was responding to questions about whether he shared the assessment of CIA Director Leon Panetta, who said on Sunday that Iran likely has enough nuclear material to make two weapons, but is at least a year away from being able to carry that out.

Mullen has just returned from a multination tour that included a stop in Tel Aviv, where he met with his Israeli military counterpart to discuss Iran's continuing defiance of the international community over the nuclear issue.

The U.N. Security Council approved new sanctions against Iran earlier this month. Congress and the European Union followed with additional measures aimed at discouraging Iran from continuing its uranium enrichment program, which they fear could be used to produce a nuclear weapon.

Mullen said there was no reason to expect Iran to conform to international norms, given its past behavior, but he declined to describe what measures the U.S. was considering. He has often said that all options remain on the table.

He explained that the hardest part about trying to decide what to do about Iran is how much the U.S. does not know about the country's nuclear progress.

When asked whether he thought Israel would give the United States time to see whether tougher sanctions or talks would produce more cooperation from Iran, he would only say that he believes the U.S. and Israel are "in synch" with their current policies.

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U.S., Russia Offer Iran Talks on Fuel for Reactor, Lavrov Says
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Russia and the U.S. offered to hold talks with Iran on the provision of nuclear fuel for its Tehran medical reactor, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov said.

Iran wants to enrich uranium to the 20 percent concentration needed for a reactor because it hasn’t been able to get imported fuel, Lavrov told reporters today in Jerusalem. Iran said today it will continue to enrich uranium to 20 percent for the reactor, though only when needed. The United Nations Security Council imposed a fourth round of sanctions on Iran June 9 over its nuclear development.

“I very much hope that Iran will agree to this and this will give an opportunity to prevent the deterioration of the situation,” Lavrov said. Russia and the U.S. consulted the UN’s International Atomic Energy Agency before proposing the negotiations, which are aimed at eliminating the need for Iran to enrich its own uranium, he said.

The Security Council left open the possibility of diplomatic talks to resolve the impasse over Iran’s nuclear program after imposing the latest sanctions. Iran rejects allegations that the atomic work may be hiding a weapons program, saying the technology is for civilian purposes such as power generation and the production of medical isotopes. It has rebuffed Security Council demands to suspend uranium enrichment.

“The fuel of 20 percent concentration has a specific use,” Iranian Foreign Minister Manouchehr Mottaki was cited as saying today by the state-run Islamic Republic News Agency. “We will produce it when we need it, and will stop production when we don’t.”

Nuclear Trade

The sanctions prohibit nuclear trade with Iran except where Iran can prove to the UN that the transactions aren’t intended for activities banned under the international Non-Proliferation Treaty.

President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad said yesterday in a televised news conference that his country prefers to buy fuel for the Tehran reactor because enrichment to 20 percent is costly. Four new reactors are being designed, he said, without elaborating.

By September 2011, Iran will begin operating a plant to convert its 20 percent uranium into fuel to run the Tehran reactor, Vice President Ali Akbar Salehi, who heads Iran’s atomic agency, said June 23. Under a proposed international deal brokered by Turkey and Brazil on May 17, Iran had said it would swap some of its 3.5 percent-enriched uranium for imported fuel to run the reactor.

While Iran has proved it can enrich uranium to 20 percent, it doesn’t own the patented technology needed to package the heavy metal for use inside the Tehran reactor. The uranium needs to be put inside unique fuel panels that fit the reactor, built by San Diego, California-based General Atomics in 1967.

Iran’s timeline for a plant to produce its own fuel panels is “rather optimistic,” and the reactor may run out before an Iranian-made supply is available, Paul Ingram, executive director of the London-based British American Security Information Council, said in a June 23 phone interview.

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Russia Alarmed by CIA View of Iran's Weapons
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Russian President Dmitry Medvedev said Sunday he was alarmed by U.S. assertions that Iran may have enough fuel for two nuclear weapons and warned that if confirmed the Islamic Republic may face new measures.

Central Intelligence Agency Director Leon Panetta told ABC's "This Week" television program that the agency thinks Iran has enough low-enriched uranium now for two weapons, but that Tehran would have to further enrich the material first.

"As to this information -- it needs to be checked," Medvedev told reporters in Toronto, where he was attending the Group of 20 summit of rich and emerging nations.

"In any case, such information is always alarming because today the international community does not recognize the Iranian nuclear program as transparent," Medvedev said.

Russian leaders rarely comment on CIA statements and Medvedev's sharp comments indicate the gulf that has grown between Moscow and Tehran over recent months.

The Kremlin and Tehran had a public row last month after Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad admonished the Kremlin for bowing to what he said was U.S. pressure to agree further sanctions.

Urged on by the Obama administration, the U.N. Security Council -- which includes Russia -- this month passed a resolution to impose new sanctions on Iran over its nuclear development.

"If it is shown that what the American special services say is true then it will of course make the situation more tense, and I do not exclude that this question would have to be looked at additionally," Medvedev said.

The United States, key European Union powers and Israel say Iran is trying to use its civilian nuclear program to hide an attempt to create an atomic bomb, an assertion Tehran denies.

Russia has repeatedly called on Iran to remove the doubts that the international community have and earlier this year one of Russia's top security officials said that Western concerns were valid.

The CIA said that for Iran to have enough nuclear material for bombs, it would have to enrich its low-enriched uranium.

"We would estimate that if they made that decision, it would probably take a year to get there, probably another year to develop the kind of weapons delivery system in order to make that viable," CIA chief Panetta said.

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Iran Postpones Nuclear Talks as 'Punishment' for UN Sanctions
Ian Black
The Guardian
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Iran is to postpone nuclear talks with the west as a "punishment" for the imposition of new UN sanctions that are designed to it stop enriching uranium, President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad said today.

Negotiations would be put off until after Ramadan in late August, he said, though no talks have in fact been scheduled. "It's a punishment to teach them a lesson to know how to have a dialogue with nations," he told reporters in Tehran. Ahmadinejad also repeated that Iran would retaliate if attempts were made to inspect its ships, as sanctions permit.

Earlier, the Iranian leader had complained of a hidden agenda. "The western and US sanctions and threats are not only aimed at putting the brakes on Iran's progress in nuclear technology, but come to keep Iran from becoming an economic and industrial power," he told a crowd in Natanz in Isfahan province.

Separately, Iran's foreign ministry dismissed as "psychological warfare" an assessment by the CIA that the Islamic republic already has enough uranium to make two nuclear weapons. Ramin Mehmanparast, the ministry spokesman, called the comments by Leon Panetta, the CIA chief, "propaganda" intended to allow the US to avoid nuclear disarmament. "What Iran is pursuing is only in the framework of the rights that its membership of the International Atomic Energy Agency entitles it to," Mehmanparast said. "The real concern is disarmament and non-proliferation."

Panetta said on ABC TV's This Week on Sunday that Iran has amassed enough low-enriched uranium to produce two nuclear weapons within two years. Earlier this month there was a similar assessment from the UN's nuclear watchdog, the International Atomic Energy Agency.

Iran says its nuclear programme is for civilian power generation and has rebuffed demands by the UN security council that it suspend uranium enrichment. On 9 June the council approved a fourth set of sanctions on Iran, while the US Congress last week approved new bilateral measures, as did the EU.

Panetta also said he believed the sanctions would "probably not" deter Iran from pursuing its nuclear ambitions and pointed to US disagreements with Israel over Iran's intentions. "There is a continuing debate right now about whether or not they [Iran] ought to proceed with a bomb. But they clearly are developing their nuclear capability and that raises concerns," Panetta said.

His comments brought an expression of concern from Russia's president, Dmitry Medvedev. "Such information is always worrying and all the more so because the international community does not recognise the Iranian nuclear programme as transparent," he told reporters at the G20 summit. "If this is proved, it would make the situation even more tense."

Russia has in the past been reluctant to impose hard-hitting sanctions but backed the latest UN resolution following Tehran's repeated defiance and clashed publicly with Iran over its change of tack. Israel's president, Shimon Peres, today expressed "appreciation" of Medvedev's statement.

Reports from Dubai said that the UAE central bank has ordered financial institutions to freeze 41 Iran-linked accounts, in line with the UN sanctions. UN resolution 1929 calls for measures against new Iranian banks abroad if a connection to the nuclear or missile programmes is suspected, as well as vigilance over transactions with any Iranian bank.

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NKorea: G-8 'Evil' For Criticism over Ship Sinking
Kwang-Tae Kim
Associated Press
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North Korea on Tuesday rejected Group of Eight criticism over its alleged deadly sinking of a South Korean warship, a day after the isolated communist nation threatened to bolster its nuclear capability.

The North's Foreign Ministry accused the G-8 leaders of a "sinister political purpose," saying in a report carried by the country's official Korean Central News Agency that the G-8 has been reduced to an "evil group."

An international investigation led by South Korea concluded in May that North Korea torpedoed the 1,200 ton vessel near the two Koreas' disputed western sea border in March. Forty-six South Korean sailors died.

Top world leaders at a G-8 meeting near Toronto over the weekend condemned the ship's sinking, citing the probe that found North Korea responsible. The leaders also criticized the North's nuclear program.

The G-8 consists of Britain, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia and the United States.

Seoul has asked the U.N. Security Council to punish Pyongyang over the sinking. The North denies the allegation and has warned any punishment would trigger war.

North Korea also threatened Monday to beef up its nuclear weapons capability, citing what it alleged was hostile U.S. policy toward it.

Separately, the U.S.-led U.N. Command on Tuesday dismissed North Korea's allegation that the U.S. and South Korea brought heavy weapons to the truce village of Panmunjom inside the Demilitarized Zone separating the two Koreas.

The U.N. Command oversees the armistice that ended the 1950-53 Korean War. No peace treaty has been signed to replace the cease-fire. The U.S. stations about 28,500 troops in South Korea as a deterrent against the North.

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N.Korea Vows to Bolster Nuclear Deterrent
Simon Martin
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North Korea vowed Monday to strengthen its nuclear weaponry in the face of what it branded US hostility, as world leaders intensified pressure on Pyongyang over the sinking of a South Korean warship.

Recent developments underscore the need for the North "to bolster its nuclear deterrent in a newly developed way" to cope with persistent US hostility and its military threat, a foreign ministry spokesman said.

No details were given. Baek Seung-Joo of the (South) Korea Institute for Defence Analyses, said the statement indicates the North would start developing nuclear weapons based on highly enriched uranium.

After years of denial, the hardline communist state last September announced it had reached the final stage of enriching uranium -- a second way of making nuclear bombs in addition to its original plutonium-based operation.

Tensions have been high on the peninsula since Seoul, citing a multinational investigation, accused its neighbour of sinking a South Korean warship near the disputed border in March with the loss of 46 lives.

The North, which angrily denies responsibility, has threatened a military response if the UN Security Council takes action over the issue.

Monday's statement followed last week's disclosure that the United States studied a plan for tactical nuclear strikes on North Korea in 1969, as one possible option in response to the downing of a US spy aircraft.

This showed that the United States "has always watched for a chance to use nuclear weapons" against the North, the ministry spokesman said.

"Historical facts prove that the DPRK was quite right when it made a decision to react to nukes with a nuclear deterrent."

The North has carried out two atomic weapons tests, in 2006 and 2009. It is thought to have enough plutonium to make around six nuclear weapons, but it is unclear whether it has the means of delivering them.

The North also announced on May 12 it had conducted a nuclear fusion reaction, a process that can be used in making a hydrogen bomb. It did not link this to its atomic weapons programme.

In another statement, Pyongyang's military accused the United States of bringing heavy weapons into the border truce village of Panmunjom.

It warned of "strong military countermeasures" at the village, a top tourist attraction for visitors from the South, unless they are withdrawn.

A US military spokesman was checking the report.

South Korea has won strong US backing for its move to censure the North at the Security Council but permanent veto-wielding members China and Russia have been hesitant.

US President Barack Obama, speaking on the sidelines of a G20 summit in Toronto Sunday, said he held "blunt" talks with Chinese President Hu Jintao on the issue of North Korea.

While he understood that North Korea and China were neighbours, Obama said: "I think there's a difference between restraint and willful blindness to consistent problems.

"My hope is that President Hu will recognise as well that this is an example of Pyongyang going over the line."

China is North Korea's main ally and provides vital economic and diplomatic support to the impoverished country.

In a communique after a Group of Eight meeting on Saturday, members including Russia noted the investigation results, condemned "in this context" the warship attack and demanded that the North refrain from hostile actions against the South.

South Korean media noted that the statement did not explicitly accuse the North of sinking the ship.

North Korea said Sunday it was open to inter-Korean military talks to address the sinking, but it repeated refusals to deal with US "imperialist aggressor" forces on the issue.

It repeated demands to send its investigators to the South to examine the evidence on the sinking, but Seoul has refused.

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North Korea Warns U.S. Over "Heavy Weapons" at DMZ
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North Korea warned of military action against South Korea and the United States Monday, claiming the allied forces had brought "heavy weapons" into the DMZ truce village of Panmunjom.

Reclusive North Korea, the focus of stalled six-party talks aimed at halting its nuclear weapons program, also said it had no choice but to bolster its nuclear deterrent in the face of a hostile United States.

The North, accused by the South and the United States of sinking one of its naval vessels in March, has already raised tension to a new height by threatening war if it is punished for the naval attack which it says was fabricated by the South.

South Korean and U.S. forces remain in a tense standoff with the North at Panmunjom that straddles the Demilitarised Zone after it was established at the end of the 1950-53 Korean War.

"U.S. forces introduced weapons (to the truce village) at around 7:25 a.m. on June 26," the North's official KCNA news agency said, quoting its military, adding that the weapons must be withdrawn immediately.

"If it does not comply with the principled demand of the Korean People's Army, strong military counter-measures will be taken in the area," the agency said.

North Korea's military, with 1.2 million troops, is one of the largest in the world. The two sides are technically still at war as the 1950-53 conflict ended with a truce, not a peace treaty.

A U.S. military spokesman could not immediately comment on what may have occurred in the truce village Saturday that triggered the North's comments.

Sunday, the North rejected a call for a meeting of the commission overseeing the truce and demanded direct military talks with the South to discuss the sinking of the South Korean navy corvette in which 46 sailors died.

A delegation from the U.S.-led U.N. Command is probing whether North Korea violated the armistice by sinking the Cheonan, a probe the North has denounced as a sham.

North Korea said, not for the first time, that it faced a U.S. administration bent on imposing a nuclear threat and that it had no choice but to bolster its own nuclear deterrent.

"Historical facts prove that the DPRK was quite right when it made a decision to react to nukes with a nuclear deterrent," KCNA said, referring to North Korea by its official name, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

"The recent disturbing development on the Korean peninsula underscores the need for the DPRK to bolster its nuclear deterrent in a newly developed way to cope with the U.S. persistent hostile policy toward the DPRK and military threat toward it."

U.S. President Barack Obama said Sunday the world needs to rally around South Korea in order to send North Korea a clear message over the sinking of the corvette.

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US Warns N Korea amid Concern that Missile Test Planned
BBC News
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The United States has warned North Korea to refrain from "actions that increase tensions in the region," amid concerns that Pyongyang may be preparing a new round of missile tests.

The State Department said it was aware North Korea had issued a nine-day ban on shipping off its western coast.

This type of notification has preceded missile tests in the past.

The South Korea Defence Ministry said the ban could be linked to regular North Korean artillery exercises.

But Seoul said it was looking into the possibility that Pyongyang may be preparing to test short-range missiles.

"We would hate to see North Korea go through another round of missile launches," US State Department spokesman Philip Crowley told the AFP news agency.

North Korea conducted artillery drills off its western coast in January of 2010 after issuing a notification banning ships.

The country also issued a ban in May 2009 before firing missiles and carrying out a nuclear test.

Tensions between North and South Korea have increased following the 26 March sinking of a South Korean warship, which an international investigation concluded was sunk by a torpedo from a North Korean submarine.

"We would encourage North Korea to avoid further provocative actions that increase tensions in the region," Mr Crowley said.

He added: "Now is the time to take steps to improve relations with its neighbours and cease any provocative behaviour."

The US's latest warning comes on the 60th anniversary of the start of the Korean War.

North and South Korea have remained divided since the war ended in a cease-fire that was never replaced by a peace treaty.

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D.  Nuclear Cooperation

Kingdom Insists on Keeping NPT Rights in Any US Deal
The Jordan Times
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Jordan will not relinquish its right to peaceful nuclear power as guaranteed by international treaties as part of a nuclear cooperation deal with the US, Agence France-Presse (AFP) quoted an official as saying on Monday.

Khaled Toukan, chairman of the Jordan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC), told AFP that the US expects Jordan to sign a nuclear cooperation agreement (NCA) similar to a deal they reached with the UAE.

"The United Arab Emirates has relinquished all its NPT rights to sensitive nuclear technology indefinitely," he told AFP, adding: "Why should we give up our rights?"

"We are sticking and adhering to the NPT, and [we want] full rights and privileges under the NPT," the agency quoted Toukan as saying.

The JAEC chief told the agency that negotiations over an NCA are ongoing between Jordan and the US, but "we still don't have common ground".

Jordan has already signed NCAs with France, Spain, China, South Korea, Canada, Russia, the UK and Argentina. An agreement with Japan was drafted earlier in June and is expected to be signed by the end of this year.

In March, the Kingdom unveiled its first storage facility for radioactive waste, which US officials said was funded in part by the US Department of Energy through its Global Threat Reduction Fund. At the time, US embassy and Department of Energy representatives expressed interest in closer cooperation with Jordan in the nuclear field in the near future.

Also yesterday, AFP reported from Paris that former Israeli justice minister Yossi Beilin had criticised his country for trying to block Jordan from enriching its own uranium.

Writing in the International Herald Tribune, Beilin, who is currently head of the Geneva Initiative group seeking to resolve the Palestinian-Israeli conflict, also noted that the US was trying to persuade the Kingdom not to produce its own atomic fuel, AFP reported.

Jordan, which imports 95 per cent of its energy needs at a cost of 13 per cent of its gross domestic product, is known to have significant uranium reserves, although the full extent of these reserves is not yet known.

Uranium mining activities are currently expected to begin in early 2013.

The Kingdom’s peaceful nuclear energy programme is a central part of its strategy to achieve energy independence and become a net energy exporter by 2030.

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Arab Nuclear Conference Ends
United Press International
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European experts and a representative of the U.N. nuclear watchdog attended an Arab conference on nuclear power, which ended Friday in Tunis.

Yury Sokolov, deputy director of the International Atomic Energy Agency, told delegates to the First Arab Conference on the Prospects of Nuclear Power for Electricity Generation and Seawater Desalination his agency believes international cooperation is important to nuclear development, reported. He also spoke of the need for transparency.

The conference began Wednesday. On the final day a number of resolutions were adopted on the need for training and cooperation among Arab countries, KUNA, the Kuwaiti national news agency, reported.

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Kuwait, US sign MOC on Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy
Kuwait Times
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Kuwait signed here Wednesday a Memorandum of Cooperation (MOC) with the US Government on nuclear safeguards and other nonproliferation topics. The MOC was signed by Secretary General of the Kuwait National Nuclear Energy Committee (KNNEC) Dr. Ahmad Bishara and the Administrator of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Thomas D'Agostino during a ceremony held at the Department of Energy.

The MOC proposes cooperation in nuclear legislation and regulations; human resource planning and modeling; nuclear safeguards and security; radiation protection; environmental, safety and health issues; low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste management; reactor operations, safety and best practices.

During the ceremony, D'Agostino said "it is clear that both of our countries recognize the importance of preventing nuclear proliferation, and keeping dangerous nuclear materials out of the hands of terrorists and proliferators. "This agreement is an important milestone further underscoring the commitment of the United States and Kuwait to address the global challenges of nuclear nonproliferation, safeguards and security," he added.

Understanding, developing and implementing proper nuclear safeguards is an important part of any successful nuclear energy program, and this agreement helps strengthen nonproliferation efforts around the world," D'Agostino noted.

He indicated that under this agreement, INSEP program will work with KNNEC to help "establish the laws and regulations to govern a safe, secure, and peaceful nuclear energy program; maintain effective implementation of the IAEA Small Quantities Protocol and Additional Protocol; establish a State System for Accounting and Control of nuclear material; and develop the human capital and best practices necessary to operate and regulate nuclear power plants.

According to the Administrator, a roadmap of cooperation will be developed jointly with KNNEC, where the "planned activities in the roadmap will be tailored to Kuwait's unique needs." In a statement he gave to KUNA and KTV, D'Agostino said "one of the opportunities that we have is to provide our expertise and make sure that it is available to the people of Kuwait." "This is a great day for us; it is an opening of a partnership on nuclear safeguards," he remarked.

For his part, Kuwait Ambassador to the US Sheikh Salem Abdullah Al-Jaber Al-Sabah said "this is a great day for our relationship; Kuwait and the US already enjoy a very strong relationship, this will add another aspect to our relationship." "As Kuwait looks forward to its energy needs in the future, of course nuclear power is one of the options we are looking at very seriously and I see no better partner to work with other than the US on this venture that we are about to embark on," he pointed out.

Kuwait is an oil-producing country but that does not put aside our willingness and ability to look into other sources of energy as our population increases and as our demand for electric generation increases," he affirmed.

The Ambassador indicated that nuclear energy is a "natural way for us to look at partnering with the US, and especially with the Department of Energy, to move forward." "This Memorandum of Cooperation is a very important document for us. It is a very important step for Kuwait and a very important step for our relationship with the US," the Ambassador affirmed.

Sheikh Salem also said "today is an important day and it opens new horizons for cooperation between Kuwait and the US, especially in the nuclear energy field." He affirmed that Kuwait's interest in nuclear energy is a "natural matter, as it is a means to provide future energy needs of Kuwait." He also noted that this MOC is "of great importance, as we will work with a friendly country, an ally, and benefit from its expertise in providing nuclear energy for Kuwait." He added that Kuwait will also work with
full transparency in its nuclear program and in conformity with its friends and allies in and out of the region.

The Ambassador stressed that Kuwait's nuclear program will be a "transparent one and it will oblige to all the international commitments." This memorandum will further boost the bilateral relations between Kuwait and the US and it will open new cooperation horizons in a new field," he remarked.

Meanwhile, Dr. Bishara said at the signing ceremony that Kuwait has studied the options of nuclear energy and that the US has agreed to provide assistance to Kuwait in this field, noting "we look forward to working with the US." The Secretary General said the MOC is an "important phase" in the relations between Kuwait and the US as it will "open an important window of opportunities for the two countries to cooperate in the field of peaceful uses of nuclear energy and the associated infrastructures in their
respective countries." "All of this is in accordance with Article IV of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and the applicable IAEA Safeguards Agreement," he indicated.

Expertise exchange
Dr. Bishara reaffirmed that today is an "important" day with the signing of this memorandum. We hope to benefit from the US' long and important expertise in the nuclear energy, adding that nuclear energy is one of the options in the electrical energy field and the Committee is tasked to study alternatives in this field.

The purpose of the MOC is to establish a cooperative institutional framework for a relationship between the signatories for the exchange of unclassified, non-proprietary technological, scientific, and other information regarding peaceful nuclear energy infrastructure; and to facilitate additional forms of cooperation to the extent permitted by laws, regulations and policies of their respective Governments.

Under the MOC, cooperative activities would include projects that establish effective nuclear infrastructure while promoting best practices in nuclear safeguards, safety and security. This MOC is part of NNSA's INSEP (International Nuclear Safeguards and Engagement Program).

A key component of NNSA's Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), INSEP strengthens international nuclear safeguards by improving nuclear material accountancy and control and promoting secure and sustainable nuclear infrastructure through collaboration with international partners.

NGSI is a robust, multi-year program to develop policies, concepts, technologies, expertise and international infrastructure necessary to strengthen and sustain the international safeguards system.

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E.  Nuclear Industry

EOn and CEA to Cooperate on Nuclear R&D
World Nuclear News
(for personal use only)

German energy group EOn and French national nuclear energy commission the CEA have signed a framework agreement on future cooperation in nuclear energy research and development. The CEA has also signed a cooperation agreement with French car maker Renault.

The agreement with EOn "provides the basis for new research projects focused on the future use of nuclear energy, which are in both CEA's and EOn's interest," according to the press release issued by both EOn and the CEA. It will cover projects relating to so-called second generation nuclear reactors - most of the world's currently operating nuclear power fleet - as well as third generation plant construction projects that are currently underway and future reactors and options for fourth generation fuel cycles, which according to the two bodies are expected to reach technical maturity for commercial use by the middle of this century.

Under the cooperation agreement, EOn will gain access to the CEA's research results, while the CEA will expand its European focus. It will also be able to include types of reactors in its research program that are planned or operated outside France.

In addition to several other European cooperation projects, the two companies are already partners in the European Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform (SNETP) and in various communities of interest under the European Commission's Strategic Energy Technology Plan.

Advanced nuclear reactors, of which third generation plants are an example, include standardised, simplified designs and extensive use of passive, or inherent, safety features to deliver long, reliable operating lives with enhanced safety at lower capital costs and with lower fuel consumption than second generation reactors. The first third generation reactors, GE-Toshiba-Hitachi advanced boiling water reactors (ABWRs), started up in Japan in the 1990s, with two more starting in 2004 and 2005. Third generation plants are under construction in various locations in Finland, France and China.

Generation IV reactors are being developed by an international task force for deployment between 2020 and 2030. Six types are currently being studied, all of which operate at higher temperatures than today's reactors and represent advances in sustainability, economics, safety, reliability and proliferation resistance.

Renault and CEA to cooperate

The CEA has also signed a new research and development agreement with French car manufacturer Renault to work together on cleaner vehicles and sustainable mobility for all. The agreement follows on from previous joint studies which have identified areas of possible synergy. Under the new three-year agreement, Renault will aim to achieve "technological breakthroughs" to offer cleaner, widely affordable vehicles, while the CEA will provide "input and suggestions".

The CEA's full title is the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, and according to CEA chairman Bernard Bigot the agreement fits well with its aims. "This strategic cooperation with Renault perfectly illustrates the CEA's new mission in the field of alternative energies," he said.

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F.  Nuclear Safety

NRC Chairman Says Safety is Job No. 1
Judy Fahys
Utah News
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The head of the nation’s nuclear-regulation agency said Monday that long-term public health and safety — not the nuclear industry’s agenda — are driving decisions on the radioactive waste allowed in Utah.

“Our staff’s focus is 100 percent on safety,” said Gregory B. Jaczko, who was in Salt Lake City to address the Health Physics Society annual meeting.

The NRC must look at the technical questions, the science and the law as it determines if the EnergySolutions site is the right place to bury forever unusual forms of low-level radioactive waste, including depleted uranium and blended waste being generated by the tons.

“People are proposing to dispose of it. We have to figure out how it can be safely disposed of, or if it can be safely disposed of,” he said later in the day in a meeting with The Salt Lake Tribune editorial board.

Jaczko’s visit to Utah came at a time when nearly 1,200 radiation-safety experts from government, business and academia met to discuss the future of the nuclear industry and technical issues in the field.

It also coincided with a contentious discussion about disposal at the specialized EnergySolutions landfill in Tooele County, a mile-square site 75 miles from Salt Lake City that is the sole option for low-level radioactive waste from government cleanup sites and nuclear power plants in 36 states.

The Salt Lake City-based nuclear services company, backed by its customers in the nuclear industry and at the U.S. Energy Department, wants clarification on the restrictions for DU, enrichment waste that becomes more hazardous over time, and down-blended waste, mixtures of more hazardous forms of low-level waste and less-hazardous material designed to get around Utah’s legal restrictions.

On DU, the NRC is proposing additional measures that need to be taken to make sure that an intruder who builds a home on the site thousands of years in the future, when its output of cancer-causing radon accelerates, will not be exposed to excessive radiation. Those federal performance-assessment standards are expected in 2012.

On blended waste, it will probably be a few months before the NRC decides whether or not it will change its current guidelines, Jaczko said Monday. He described blended waste as being no different than combining tea of various strengths, but he also acknowledged that it is uncertain now whether blended waste will settle someday into “hotspots” of too-hazardous waste.

EnergySolutions spokesman Mark Walker said Monday the problem of hotspots has been solved by the industry and is no more than a red herring being used by a waste-processing competitor, a company called Studsvik.

“This issue has been raised by Studsvik to try and make issue of blending to compete for business,” he said But, for Utah officials, the NRC’s handling of DU and down-blending can be summed up in the adage, too little, too late.

State regulators, the Radiation Control Board and Gov. Gary Herbert have objected to blending when it’s done to change the waste’s classification, thus circumventing Utah’s five-year-old ban on Class B and C waste. There currently is no licensed disposal for B and C waste generated in 36 states.

DEQ Director Amanda Smith said the state would like the NRC to develop a rule on blending to help clarify the health and safety issues, among others. But, meanwhile, the state is exploring its own regulation to address the safety of the Utah site for “unique waste streams” like blended waste.

And, with more DU already headed to Utah as the NRC crafts long-term site performance guidelines, the state has put a hold on any additional DU — there are already 49,000 tons buried at EnergySolutions — until state regulators have reviewed and approved a state site-performance assessment.

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G.  Nonproliferation

Deception and Denials in Myanmar
Bertil Lintner
Southeast Asia
(for personal use only)

Myanmar's military government issued pro-forma denials after al-Jazeera aired an investigative report by the Oslo-based Democratic Voice of Burma (DVB) alleging that Myanmar is attempting to develop nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles. But as the international community weighs the evidence, the regime could soon face United Nations-imposed sanctions for its military dealings with North Korea.

On June 11, a week after the television network showed the program, Myanmar's Foreign Ministry issued a statement claiming that "anti-government groups" in collusion with the international media had made the allegation with the goal of "hindering Myanmar's democratic process and tarnishing the political image of the government". Myanmar "is a developing nation" which "lacks adequate infrastructure, technology and finance to develop nuclear weapons", the statement continued.

The North Koreans issued a similar denial, blaming the United States for the report. Ten days after the Myanmar denial, the official Korean Central News Agency reported: "The United States is now making much fuss, floating the sheer fiction that the Democratic People's Republic of Korea [North Korea] is helping Myanmar in its 'nuclear development', not content with labeling the DPRK 'provocative' and 'bellicose'."

In its next sentence, the report denounced US State Department spokesman Philip J Crowley for what Pyongyang seemed to consider an equally serious crime. Crowley, the KCNA stated, had been "making false reports that the DPRK conducted unlicensed TV relay broadcasts about the World Cup matches".

While the North Korean statement could be dismissed as comical, the Myanmar Foreign Ministry's denial is more revealing. It did not mention Myanmar's program to develop ballistic missiles or the extensive network of bunkers, culverts and underground storage facilities for the military that has been constructed near the new capital Naypyidaw and elsewhere where the North Koreans have reportedly been active.

More intriguingly, the Foreign Ministry found it necessary to deny reports that a North Korean ship that docked in Myanmar on April 12 this year was carrying military-related material. The ship, the ministry said, "was on a routine trip to unload cement and to take on 10,000 tons of Myanmar rice".

However, if carrying only innocuous civilian goods, as the statement maintains, there would seemingly have been no reason for authorities to cut electricity around the area when the Chong Gen, a North Korean ship flying the Mongolian flag of convenience, docked on the outskirts of Yangon.

According to intelligence sources, security was tight as military personnel offloaded heavy material, including Korean-made air defense radars. The ship left the port with a return cargo of rice and sugar, which could mean that it was, at least in part, a barter deal. On January 31 this year, another North Korean ship, the Yang M V Han A, reportedly delivered missile components also at Yangon's Thilawa port.

Rogue ties
In November 2008, General Shwe Mann, the third-highest ranking member of the ruling junta, the State Peace and Development Council, paid a visit to North Korea. It was supposed to be a secret trip, but the visit was leaked to Myanmar exiles and reports of his rounds appeared on several Internet news sites. During the visit, Shwe Mann was taken to a missile factory and an air defense radar facility and a memorandum of understanding was signed to outline the nature of cooperation between the two countries, which only recently reestablished diplomatic relations.

However, the full extent of the North Korean presence in Myanmar is still a matter of conjecture. The first report of a delegation from Myanmar making a secret visit to Pyongyang dates to November 2000, where the two sides held talks with high-ranking officials of North Korea's Ministry of the People's Armed Forces. In June 2001, a high-level North Korean delegation led by Vice Foreign Minister Park Kil-yon paid a return visit to Yangon, where it met Myanmar's Deputy Defense Minister Khin Maung Win and reportedly discussed defense-industry cooperation.

In 2003, the first group of North Korean technicians were spotted at naval facilities near the then-capital Yangon. North Korean planes were also seen landing at military airfields in central Myanmar. Three years later, North Korean tunneling experts arrived at Naypyidaw, and Myanmar military sources began to leak photographs of the North Koreans as well as the underground installations they were involved in digging under and near the new capital.

On June 24, the DVB reported that a new radar and missile base had been completed near Mohnyin in Myanmar's northern Kachin State. It is not clear in which direction the installations are pointed, as Mohnyin is located on the railway line that cuts through Kachin State and is approximately equidistant between the Indian and Chinese borders.

Work on similar radar and missile bases has been reported from Kengtung in eastern Shan State, 160 kilometers north of the Thai border town of Mae Sai. Since Myanmar is not known to have imported radars and missile components from any country other than North Korea, the installations would appear to be one of the first visible outcomes of a decade of military cooperation.

Until recently reports of such cooperation were met with skepticism among analysts because Myanmar had severed diplomatic relations with North Korea in 1983 after three secret agents planted a bomb at Yangon's Martyrs' Mausoleum and killed 18 visiting South Korean officials, including then-deputy prime minister So Suk-chun and three other government ministers. But the two pariah states seem to have built a bond around their common antagonism with the United States.

Expert confirmation
The DVB investigative report shed new light on the nature of this secretive cooperation and of Myanmar's nuclear ambitions. Photographs and documents smuggled out of the country by a defector from the Myanmar army, Major Sai Thein Win, were scrutinized by international arms experts and found to be credible. Among the experts was Robert Kelley, a former Los Alamos weapons scientist who was a director with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) from 1992 to 1993 and again from 2001 to 2005. Now based in Vienna, he conducted weapons inspections in Libya, Iraq, and South Africa, as well as compliance inspections in Egypt, Turkey, South Korea, Taiwan, Syria, Tanzania, Pakistan, India, and Congo, among others.

Kelley concluded after a careful study of material produced by Sai Thein Win and other Myanmar military defectors: "Our assessment of multiple sources is that Burma [Myanmar] is really developing nuclear technology, that it has built specialized equipment and facilities, and it has issued orders to cadre to build a program."

It remains to be proven that the North Koreans are involved in Myanmar's fledgling nuclear program. Even if they are, it is not clear how advanced Myanmar's program may be. Many skeptics assume the project is an illusion of grandeur bordering on megalomania among Myanmar's ruling generals.

North Korean involvement in Myanmar's missile program is more certain, but even so it is unclear that the country's largely unskilled technicians would be able to produce a missile that works. One intelligence source described it as more of a "phallic fantasy", a large projectile that Myanmar's generals would like to show off at the annual March 27 Armed Forces Day parade. "Just imagine how proud they would be to see a truck towing a big and impressive missile past the grandstand," the source said.

Western intelligence sources are aware of the current presence of 30 to 40 North Korean missile technicians at a facility near Minhla on the Irrawaddy River in Magwe Division. At least some of the technicians reportedly arrived overland by bus from China, to make it appear as if they were Chinese tourists.

According to a Myanmar source with knowledge of the area: "There are several defense industries, DI, around Minhla. More importantly, these are not very far from the Sidotara Dam and suspected DI-20, Pwintbyu and Myaing. In other words, there are many military activities in that area."

In power-starved Myanmar, it is logical that defense production facilities have been situated near a power-generating dam. Myaing is where Sai Thein Win worked as deputy commander of a top-secret military factory before he defected earlier this year. While Myanmar authorities have denied his testimonies publicly, intelligence agents swooped on his home town of Kyaukme in Shan State soon after the DVB report was aired internationally. His family has been interrogated, but so far no one has been arrested.

On the contrary, the Shan Herald Agency for News, an exile-run news group in Chiang Mai in northern Thailand, reports that Sai Thein Win has become somewhat of a local hero since he went public with his revelations. "Among the security officials who visited Kyaukme, one was also reported to have said that he admired Sai's courage and his 'well done expose'," the news group reported.

If accurately reported, that sentiment would reflect one reason why Sai Thein Win decided to defect: Myanmar's experiments with nuclear technology and missiles amount to little more than a waste of money in a country that desperately needs more funds dedicated to public health and education.

Meanwhile, the regime's budding cooperation with North Korea threatens to cost the country more internationally. US Senator Jim Webb, a staunch advocate of engagement with Myanmar's ruling generals, was forced to cancel his scheduled visit to the country when he learned al-Jazeera would air the DVB report while he was there.

As it becomes increasingly apparent that both countries have violated United Nations Security Council Resolution 1874, which bans North Korea from exporting all types of weapons, Myanmar could soon be penalized with more international sanctions. The prospect of that happening - and already deep dissatisfaction over the close relationship with a pariah regime like Pyongyang, which is even more isolated than the one in Naypyidaw - is reportedly stoking resentment among the Myanmar officer corps.

Other officers like Sai Thein Win may therefore be waiting in the wings for an opportunity to defect and shed more light on Myanmar's deep and dark nuclear secrets.

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Medvedev Calls for Strict Monitoring of Nuclear Material Trafficking, June 29, RIA Novosti
RIA Novosti
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Russian President Dmitry Medvedev believes that strict monitoring of nuclear material trafficking and maintaining high security standards in the nuclear sphere is crucial for modern society.

"At this stage, creating effective mechanisms that rule out the unauthorized acquisition of nuclear materials and technologies has special importance. This approach was endorsed at the recent Nuclear Security Summit and NPT Review Conference," Medvedev said in a letter to a plenary session of the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism.

"The key issues of nuclear nonproliferation and finding the best mechanisms for combating the threat of nuclear terrorism are on the agenda of your meeting. Only coordinated measures can solve these global problems," the letter said.

Medvedev said that the Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism has grown stronger over the past year and is now "firmly on the path towards practical implementation."

"We expect that the number of participants who share common goals will continue to grow steadily. Russia is committed to ... continuing work on enhancing and strengthening the global nuclear nonproliferation regime," the president said.

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H.  U.S.-Russia Joint Statements

Joint Statement on Strategic Stability
The White House
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The United States of America and the Russian Federation are committed to continuing the development of a new strategic relationship based on mutual trust, openness, predictability, and cooperation by following up on the successful negotiation of the Treaty on Measures for the Further Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms, which is focused on the reduction of strategic offensive arms and provides a basis for consideration of further mutually beneficial measures.

They have submitted the Treaty on Measures for the Further Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms to the Senate of the United States and the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, and plan to coordinate closely on their respective efforts to secure its prompt ratification and entry into force.

In addition, the Arms Control and International Security Working Group of the U.S.-Russia Bilateral Presidential Commission plans to discuss potential ways to promote strategic stability and a more transparent strategic relationship.

The United States of America and the Russian Federation intend to continue cooperation to establish a mechanism to exchange data on launches of ballistic missiles and space launch vehicles obtained from their national early warning systems. The ultimate goal of such cooperation would be the creation of an international system to monitor, and exchange data on, the launches of ballistic missiles and space launch vehicles. U.S. and Russian experts will meet soon to begin this process.

The United States of America and the Russian Federation are also committed to working with all our partners this year to strengthen the conventional arms control regime in Europe, and modernize it for the 21st century.

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Joint Statement on U.S.-Russia Presidential Commission
The White House
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The Presidential Commission is broadening and deepening cooperation between the United States and Russia. Its mandate is broad and its agenda ambitious. Since its establishment last July, over 100 meetings and exchanges have taken place under the auspices of the Commission, bringing together over 60 Russian and United States government agencies, not to mention an increasing number of business and non-profit partners. The Commission has brought fresh faces and new issues to our bilateral agenda and has created new channels of cooperation to advance strategic stability, international security, our mutual economic well-being, and stronger ties between Russians and Americans.

Security cooperation is an important focus of the Commission. The new START treaty is an example of greater U.S.-Russia collaboration on the global issues we are facing today. The co-chairs of the Policy Steering Group have intensified consultation and coordination on the Iranian and North Korean nuclear programs and on Middle East peace. New routes have been opened for the transit of personnel and equipment to support international efforts to stabilize Afghanistan. The Arms Control and International Security Working Group is examining cooperation on missile defense, developing ways to enhance stability and transparency, and jointly assessing 21st century threats and challenges. Through the Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Security Working Group, we have carried out initiatives to secure and eliminate nuclear materials around the globe, and in April, we concluded an agreement on the Protocol to amend the 2000 Plutonium Management and Disposition Agreement, which will dispose of enough weapons-grade plutonium for 17,000 nuclear warheads. We are also continuing to work with other nations to secure and eliminate excess stocks of proliferation sensitive nuclear materials worldwide. Joint activities are being conducted to promote the safe use of civilian nuclear power and to work toward entry into force of the Agreement for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy.

In addition, the Counterterrorism and Counternarcotics Working Groups have generated closer collaboration on issues vital to our shared security. We have started sharing financial intelligence to fight illicit financial flows related to drug smuggling and our law enforcement agencies are conducting joint investigations to target regional drug traffickers along the Afghan northern distribution route. Cooperative measures are being undertaken to prevent terrorist attacks on our transportation systems, to launch a joint initiative within the G8 to assist victims of terrorism, and to counter the roots of violent extremism. The Military Cooperation Working Group is improving relations between our armed forces as illustrated by the inaugural participation of American forces in Victory Day festivities in Red Square and the June docking of the Russian Pacific Fleet’s flag ship in San Francisco. In addition to cooperation in counter-piracy operations in the Gulf of Aden, our armed forces are planning a counterterrorism exercise involving an aircraft hijacking scenario.

Beyond the security arena, we recognize that both our countries can each play a vital role in this century as engines of sustainable growth and centers of innovative thinking. The Innovation Dialogue, which bridges several Commission working groups, has established ties among high-
tech industries, venture capitalists, scientific institutions, and idea-makers to promote innovation-based entrepreneurship across economic sectors and to utilize communication technologies to improve educational, cultural, and public health services.

The Business Development and Economic Relations Working Group is addressing ways to remove barriers to trade and developing measures to encourage investment, strengthen intellectual property protection, and facilitate the development of small business in both countries. Working Groups on Energy and Science and Technology have brought together government experts, academics, and businessmen to advance cooperation on energy efficiency, the development of low carbon fuels and climate science, e-government, and nanotechnology. New pilot projects on cutting-edge “smart grid” technology will help stimulate greater economic growth as well as help us address climate change. The positive momentum generated by the Commission’s activities in these areas is stimulating the growth in Russian-American economic ties and creating thousands of jobs in both countries.

The Commission is also bolstering joint efforts to safeguard the health of our people and our planet. Key achievements of the Health Working Group include the launching of a Health Science Forum to promote joint biomedical research and the completion of more than a dozen medical professional and research exchanges related to HIV/AIDS research, maternal and child health, and healthy lifestyles best practices. Under the auspices of the Environment and Agriculture Working Groups, we are collaborating on environmental issues in the Arctic and supporting tiger, polar bear, and other wildlife conservation efforts. We are also cooperating on water quality and hazardous sites clean-up. Building on more than 50 years of cooperation, our forest service agencies have also enhanced efforts to sustainably manage forests and stop illegal logging. Combined efforts in Haiti and Russia’s offer of assistance in the Gulf of Mexico show that we are strengthening our capacity to respond to disasters and crises under the Emergency Situations Working Group. American and Russian space agencies interact regularly in the Space Cooperation Working Group, including on shared use of the International Space Station, and they are discussing potential projects to expand cooperation in space exploration.

Finally, the Commission has achieved remarkable success in broadening the contacts between American and Russian citizens. For example, the Education, Culture, and Sports Working Group has launched new exchange initiatives and nearly doubled the number of partnerships between American and Russian universities. In May, the group completed its first youth basketball exchange in the United States; over the next several months, exchanges in swimming, volleyball, and youth hockey will take place in the U.S. and Russia. Cultural exchanges have also expanded, supporting over 40 cultural events in the U.S. and Russia, and steps are being taken to protect common cultural heritage, including the Fort Ross historical landmark in California. The Civil Society Working Group has opened an unprecedented dialogue between our governments and among Russian and American non-governmental organizations on issues of common concern, including fighting corruption and the exploitation and trafficking of children in addition to prison reform and migration issues. Taken together, these efforts are making a difference. Opinion polls show that Russians and Americans already have more positive attitudes towards each other’s country.

Looking ahead over the next twelve months, we recommend an expansion of the Commission’s mandate to include a new working group on intelligence issues to strengthen our common security. We also agree to redouble our efforts to realize the unmet potential of our economic and trade relations. In this regard, we recommend the Commission devote greater attention to the development of joint activities to help increase our capacities for creativity and dynamism, facilitate innovation-based entrepreneurship, and advance our mutual prosperity and well-being.

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Joint Statement Strategic Partnership in Innovation
The White House
(for personal use only)

The United States of America and the Russian Federation, recognizing the growing role of technological innovation in the economies of both countries, as well as the importance of bilateral cooperation in this area, express their intent to begin new and dedicated efforts to promote collaboration in the areas of development of civil technologies, open standards, and innovation and technology policy. These collaborative measures will be made in equal partnership and for mutual benefit and will foster long term relationships in the areas of economic development, national competitiveness, and the development of a world-class workforce.

In this context the United States and Russia are considering the generation of new innovative ideas, their broad dissemination and their commercialization as an important component for developing an innovation ecosystem and fostering economic growth in both countries.

Implementation of these ideas is dependent upon a trained world class workforce with twenty-first century knowledge and skills, unfettered access to ideas and information, and a business environment that fosters fair competition, and the rule of law, to include ensuring protection of intellectual property rights. At the same time efficient capital markets and openness to international trade and investment are fundamental for an effective innovation strategy, and are key to supporting the development of innovative products and ventures.

To build upon existing measures in innovation and technology policy the United States and Russia propose to develop cooperation in the following key areas:

Invest in the Building Blocks of Innovation. For purposes of successful innovation development the United States and Russia will take steps that will foster and develop bilateral and international collaboration, including: support of research and development, and the creation of human, physical, and technological capital needed to perform that research and transfer those innovations.

Promote Productive Entrepreneurship. Both countries commit to create environments conducive to entrepreneurship, including policies that support the venture capital industry, that will allow companies based in the United States and Russia to be internationally competitive in a global exchange of ideas and innovation.

Catalyze Breakthroughs for Shared Priorities. The United States and Russia are committed to fostering innovation in sectors of exceptional importance to both countries, in particular: developing alternative energy sources, energy efficiency and conservation, advanced transportation technologies, nanotechnology, space technology, biotechnology, security technologies, and computer and information technology.

For these purposes the United States and Russia are committed to supporting and developing cooperation on innovation in science and technology through both existing mechanisms of
strategic partnership and through new cooperation instruments at the level of government institutions, non-governmental organizations and the private sector. These instruments will serve primarily to create opportunities for quality training and mentoring of scientists, entrepreneurs and innovators; foster targeted bilateral investments in basic and applied research and development, including through targeted grants; support leading universities and scientific research organizations; and provide for joint commercialization of research and development.

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