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Nuclear News - 9/6/2005
RANSAC Nuclear News, September 6, 2005
Compiled By: Julia Myers


A.  Cooperative Threat Reduction
    1. Strains from biological weapons program sent to U.S., Jeff Zeleny, Chicago Tribune (9/2/2005)
B.  Nonproliferation Diplomacy
    1. Russian Foreign Ministry rejects U.S. State Department report , RIA Novosti (9/1/2005)
C.  US-Russia
    1. UPDATE: Moscow court upholds decision to prolong Adamov's arrest , RIA Novosti (9/5/2005)
    2. Bush To Host Russian President Putin September 16; Will discuss ways to broaden and deepen U.S.-Russian partnership, U.S. Department of State/Bureau of International Information Programs (9/2/2005)
    3. U.S. Department of Justice will not cancel extradition request for former Russian nuclear power minister , Aleksei Berezin, RIA Novosti (8/30/2005)
D.  Russia-Iran
    1. Russia cool on Iran nuclear concerns, UPI (9/6/2005)
    2. Russia should continue cooperation with Iran - expert , RIA Novosti (9/6/2005)
    3. Russia opposes reporting Iran to Security Council, Reuters (9/5/2005)
E.  Russia-North Korea
    1. North Korea offers to resume six-way talks on September 13 , AFP (9/5/2005)
    2. Russia approves date for resuming North Korean nuclear talks , Alexei Yefimov, RIA Novosti (9/2/2005)
F.  Nuclear Forces
    1. Russia to focus on strategic naval nuclear forces , RIA Novosti (9/5/2005)
    2. Putin Sacks Commander of Russian Navy , Vladimir Isachenkov, Associated Press (9/4/2005)
    3. Russia hints At ABM Cooperation With Europe, Martin Sieff, UPI (8/30/2005)
G.  Nuclear Industry
    1. Russia, China to discuss construction of Tianwan NPP, RIA Novosti (9/6/2005)
H.  Nuclear Safety
    1. Chernobyl helped make nuclear plants safer -IAEA, Francois Murphy, Reuters (9/6/2005)
I.  Official Statements
    1. PRESS RELEASE: Concerning IAEA Report on Iranian Nuclear Program , Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation (9/5/2005)
    2. Vladimir Putin rearranged the Navy's command personnel, The Kremlin (9/4/2005)
J.  Items of Interest
    1. Chernobyl : The True Scale of the Accident, IAEA (9/6/2005)
    2. Two years after the K-159 tragedy: the submarine remains at the bottom, Bellona Foundation (9/1/2005)
    3. Adherence to and Compliance with Arms Control, Nonproliferation, and Disarmament Agreements and Commitments, U.S. Department of State (8/30/2005)



A.  Cooperative Threat Reduction

1.
Strains from biological weapons program sent to U.S.
Jeff Zeleny
Chicago Tribune
9/2/2005
(for personal use only)


BAKU, Azerbaijan - (KRT) - More than 60 dangerous and deadly bacterial strains that are a legacy of the former Soviet Union's elaborate biological weapons program were transferred Friday to the United States from Azerbaijan as part of the two countries' joint fight against the threat of biological terrorism.

Copies of the strains, including bacteria that cause plague and anthrax, left Baku aboard a U.S. military aircraft in a mission cloaked in secrecy. The pathogens were scheduled to arrive at Dover Air Force Base in Delaware by Saturday, officials said, and government scientists will begin their analysis next week in Washington.

Sen. Richard Lugar, R-Ind., chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee who concluded the agreement here with Azerbaijan President Ilham Aliyev, said the data would be "important in the war against terror and combating biological warfare." The sharing, Lugar said, also adds fresh and unique strains to a library of worldwide pathogens to help swiftly diagnose an international plague or prevent a disease outbreak.

The transfer of the strains is part of the Cooperative Threat Reduction Program, which the U.S. has used to forge relationships with former Soviet republics to reduce nuclear, chemical or biological threats.

The U.S. formalized a biological agreement with Azerbaijan in June. Under the deal, the United States provides money to help the country improve security for its pathogens to prevent theft that could lead to bio-terrorism.

In exchange for the aid, Azerbaijan agreed to share copies of its strains with the United States, which could prove helpful in the event of future anthrax attacks similar to the mail contamination nearly four years ago in Washington and New York. Those cases remain unsolved.

"I see this as proof that Azerbaijan is serious about cooperating with the United States on combating global terrorism," said Andy Weber, adviser to the Cooperative Threat Reduction program at the Department of Defense.

During the Cold War, the U.S. believes, thousands of scientists were creating a massive Soviet biological weapons program. While Russia has denied having such an extensive program, the country has declined to share its biological strains and has urged former Soviet republics not to share their pathogens.

So the strains from Azerbaijan, along with an agreement reached late last year with the government of nearby Georgia, allows U.S. scientists to learn more about the Soviet-era biological weapons program. Previously, it could take scientists days to determine the origin of a strain, officials said, but a growing global library of pathogens could reduce that time considerably.

Fearing the arrangement might collapse, U.S. officials said the transfer of the pathogens was timed to coincide with Lugar's visit so he could secure the support of President Aliyev. Sen. Barack Obama, D-Ill., who was traveling with Lugar to learn about nuclear and biological threats, also discussed the strains over dinner with Aliyev.

Shortly after Lugar and Obama left Azerbaijan on Thursday, the pathogens were packaged in a container about the size of a large camping cooler. They were secretly taken to the airport, where an Army captain from the Walter Reed Institute of Research was waiting to transport the strains back to the U.S.

Jennifer Brewer, the U.S. cooperative threat manager for biological weapon programs in Azerbaijan, said the transfer was complicated slightly when airport officials in Baku insisted the strains go through the airport X-ray machine. But fearing the radiation could damage the pathogens, Azerbaijan government ministers granted a special waiver.

"If we didn't have the full cooperation of the Azerbaijan government, we couldn't have gotten it done," Brewer said Friday.

The pathogens were flown to a U.S. air base in Germany before their scheduled arrival in Delaware. The materials will be analyzed by the U.S. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology in Washington.


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B.  Nonproliferation Diplomacy

1.
Russian Foreign Ministry rejects U.S. State Department report
RIA Novosti
9/1/2005
(for personal use only)


The Russian Foreign Ministry has rejected several clauses in 2005 Report issued by the U.S. State Department that criticize Russia for a failure to honor its commitments in arms control, non-proliferation, and disarmament.

"Those are not new accusations," the ministry said in a statement. "The Russian Foreign Ministry has had to comment on similar points in other 'research papers' that put Russia in a group of countries violating non-proliferation agreements without providing any evidence many times before."

The Russian view was that the report gave "a one-sided and distorted picture of the implementation of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty."

The report also accuses Russia of failing to honor its commitments under the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC), but the ministry said the State Department had provided no evidence on this score whatsoever. The ministry said Russia remained committed to implementing the conventions.

Moreover, the ministry did not agree with the State Department's view on how Russia had fulfilled its obligations under the Treaty of Conventional Armed Forces in Europe.

The ministry said the State Department had made the wrong conclusions that Russia was continuing to share "sensitive" missile technology with China, India, Iran, and other countries, thereby violating the Missile Technology Control Regime.

The ministry said publishing such reports was not conducive to friendly, partnership relations between the two countries.


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C.  US-Russia

1.
UPDATE: Moscow court upholds decision to prolong Adamov's arrest
RIA Novosti
9/5/2005
(for personal use only)


A Moscow court has upheld a decision to prolong the arrest of former nuclear power minister Yevgeny Adamov, now held in a Swiss prison, until October 8.

The court turned down the appeal filed by Adamov's lawyer, Timofei Gridnev, who had insisted the arrest was illegal.

On August 1, Moscow's Basmanny Court made the decision, at a meeting not attended by the defendant, to prolong his confinement until October 8.

"Extending confinement in the defendant's absence is illegal," Gridnev said, adding that it was only allowable if documents verifying that the defendant could not attend were presented to the court.

However, Gridnev said, prosecutors did not provide such documents from the Swiss Federal Department of Justice.

Basmanny Court issued an arrest warrant on May 14 for Adamov who had been arrested in Switzerland on U.S. misappropriation charges.

Adamov, Russia's Nuclear Power Minister in 1998-2001, was arrested in Berne on May 2 on the United States' request. Adamov, 66, has been held in a Berne prison since that time.

The United States accused Adamov and his business partner, U.S. citizen Mark Kaushansky, of misappropriating $9 million allocated for Russia's nuclear safety projects.

On June 24, 2005, the U.S requested that Switzerland extradite Adamov, who faces up to 60 years in jail and $1.75 million in fines in the U.S.

Russia then opened a criminal case against Adamov on charges of fraud and abuse of office, issued an arrest warrant, and also filed an extradition request.

In late August, Adamov agreed to a simpler procedure of extradition to Russia and said he wanted to stand trial on the U.S. charges in Russia.

It is up to the Swiss Federal Department of Justice to decide which of the countries will get Adamov.


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2.
Bush To Host Russian President Putin September 16; Will discuss ways to broaden and deepen U.S.-Russian partnership
U.S. Department of State/Bureau of International Information Programs
9/2/2005
(for personal use only)


President Bush will host Russian President Vladimir Putin at the White House September 16.

The two presidents will consult on a number of bilateral and global issues and discuss ways to broaden and deepen the U.S.-Russian partnership in facing the challenges and opportunities of the 21st century, according to a White House announcement.

Bush and Putin last met in May in Moscow, where Putin welcomed the American president to a commemoration of the 60th anniversary of the end of World War II in Europe.

The two leaders also met in February in Bratislava, Slovak Republic, where they committed themselves to enhanced cooperation in the areas of nuclear security, Russia�s bid for membership in the World Trade Organization, energy, counterterrorism, space exploration, as well as humanitarian, social and people-to-people cooperation.


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3.
U.S. Department of Justice will not cancel extradition request for former Russian nuclear power minister
Aleksei Berezin
RIA Novosti
8/30/2005
(for personal use only)


The U.S. Department of Justice does not intend to recall its request for the extradition of former Russian nuclear power minister Yevgeny Adamov from Switzerland, U.S. Attorney Mary Beth Buchanan of the West Pennsylvania district said Tuesday.

American authorities accuse Adamov and his business partner, American citizen Mark Kaushansky, of embezzling $9 million, which was allocated to Russia by the U.S. government for nuclear security projects.

Russia sent a request for the extradition of Adamov on May 17 after an arrest warrant was issued by Moscow's Basmanny Court. The Russian General Prosecutor's office filed a case against Adamov on charges of fraud and abuse of authority.

Adamov, the Russian nuclear power minister in 1998-2001, initially refused a simplified extradition to the U.S. as well as to Russia, having denied all charges against him. However, he recently agreed to be extradited to Russia.

Adamov was arrested in Switzerland on May 2 at the request of the U.S. Department of Justice.


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D.  Russia-Iran

1.
Russia cool on Iran nuclear concerns
UPI
9/6/2005
(for personal use only)


Russia is not immediately supporting the U.S. and European desire to report Iran to the U.N. Security Council over alleged nuclear infractions.

Russian President Vladimir Putin said he would not rule out a future referral to the U.N. body, but said he couldn't endorse such a move this month.

Senior Kremlin officials said Iran had not violated the rules of the nuclear non-proliferation treaty, and its development should continue to be dealt with by the U.N. Vienna-based nuclear watchdog, International Atomic Energy Agency.

Last month, talks between Tehran and Britain, France and Germany, broke down, leading the three to join the Bush administration on calling for economic sanctions, the Financial Times said Tuesday.

Iran insists its nuclear construction is for domestic electricity supplies only, and would have no ability to manufacture weapons-grade materials.


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2.
Russia should continue cooperation with Iran - expert
RIA Novosti
9/6/2005
(for personal use only)


Russia should maintain its course of developing strategic ties with Iran, a Russian political expert said Tuesday.

"We must continue the course on strategic cooperation with Iran and develop economic ties with that country as our reliable partner in the region," Vladimir Orlov, director of the PIR Center (Center for Political Studies in Russia), said at a press conference at RIA Novosti headquarters.

According to the expert, the efforts of Russian and foreign diplomats could bring about a positive resolution to monitoring Iran's nuclear programs.

"We can convince Iran to allow unprecedented control over its nuclear programs, constantly monitoring the dynamics of their development and possible changes in Iran's intentions," he said.

"If [Russia] notice[s] even slight attempts to use peaceful nuclear programs for military purposes, we will stop our cooperation in this area," Orlov added.


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3.
Russia opposes reporting Iran to Security Council
Reuters
9/5/2005
(for personal use only)


Russia opposes reporting Iran to the U.N. Security Council over its nuclear programme, a senior diplomat was quoted as saying on Monday.

U.S. and European Union officials have warned they will push for Iran's nuclear case to be sent to the Security Council -- which could impose sanctions -- if Tehran does not halt all nuclear fuel work and resume negotiations with the EU.

"Moscow sees no reason why the question of Iran's nuclear programme should be sent to the U.N. (Security Council)..." Alexander Yakovenko, a deputy foreign minister, told Interfax news agency.

Russia has a permanent seat in the Council.

The West fears Iran's nuclear programme, which the oil-rich state insists is aimed only at the peaceful generation of nuclear power, conceals ambitions to develop atomic weapons.

Russia, which has built a nuclear power plant for Iran and sees Tehran as a key ally in the Middle East, has warned before against using force to stop Tehran's nuclear programme.

Iran denies harbouring secret plans to make atomic bombs. It says it has no intention of freezing uranium conversion at its Isfahan plant -- where U.N. seals were broken and work resumed last month.

Iran says it has answered almost all the U.N. nuclear watchdog's outstanding questions about its nuclear programme and that nothing has been uncovered which would justify sending Tehran to the Security Council.


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E.  Russia-North Korea

1.
North Korea offers to resume six-way talks on September 13
AFP
9/5/2005
(for personal use only)


North Korea has offered to resume six-way nuclear disarmament talks in Beijing on September 13. China, host of the talks, has received the North Korean offer which was then relayed by Beijing to the Seoul government, Yonhap news agency said.

South Korean Foreign Ministry spokesman Lee Kyu-Hyung said he was unable to confirm the Yonhap report but expected an official announcement from Beijing soon.

"China is soon expected to announce a final date for the talks to resume after consultations with other dialogue partners," Lee told AFP.

The fourth round of talks, which involve the two Koreas, the United States, China, Russia and Japan, broke off on August 7 for a three-week recess and were originally due to resume in the final week of August.

But North Korea delayed the talks for another two weeks, announcing they would resume at sometime in the week of September 12, citing annual South Korea-US war games for the delay.

Talks will resume with the United States and North Korea still at loggerheads over Pyongyang's demand for the right to retain its nuclear power plants for peaceful use.

The nuclear standoff flared in October 2002 with the United States accusing North Korea of developing a secret uranium-enrichment program in violation of a 1994 arms control pact.

Pyongyang has denied the US charges but declared in February this year that it had already built nuclear bombs.

Since 2003, both Koreas, the United States, Japan, Russia and China have held talks to disarm North Korea in exchange for diplomatic and economic benefits and security guarantees.


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2.
Russia approves date for resuming North Korean nuclear talks
Alexei Yefimov
RIA Novosti
9/2/2005
(for personal use only)


Russia approves of North Korea's proposal to resume six-party talks over the nuclear problem on the Korean Peninsula in mid-September, a Russian Embassy spokesman in China said Friday.

On August 29, a representative of the North Korean Foreign Ministry said that Pyongyang was ready to resume the talks, which involve North Korea, the United States, China, Russia, South Korea, and Japan, during the week beginning September 12. The Chinese Foreign Ministry has also agreed to this date.

The fourth round of talks, which started on July 26, was suspended on August 7.


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F.  Nuclear Forces

1.
Russia to focus on strategic naval nuclear forces
RIA Novosti
9/5/2005
(for personal use only)


Russia will focus on the development of its strategic naval nuclear forces, newly appointed Commander of the Russian Navy Vladimir Masorin told a news conference Monday. "We will prioritize the development of Russia's strategic naval nuclear forces," he said. According to Masorin, the new leadership of the Russian navy is planning to follow the development strategy adopted by the previous leadership.

Masorin said that other branches of the navy, particularly naval aviation and the marines, would receive proper attention as well.

Masorin said he would base his work on the provisions of the main documents on the development of the Russian navy.

"Our country builds the navy...according to fundamental documents, and it is my priority to follow their provisions," Masorin said.


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2.
Putin Sacks Commander of Russian Navy
Vladimir Isachenkov
Associated Press
9/4/2005
(for personal use only)


NOVO-OGARYOVO, Russia - President Vladimir Putin fired the head of Russia's Navy on Sunday, and called on the new commander to boost discipline in the flagging fleet following a pair of submarine disasters.

Putin did not give a specific reason for sacking Adm. Vladimir Kuroyedov and replacing him with Adm. Vladimir Masorin. But he indicated that Kuroyedov was bearing the blame for a series of embarrassments in the navy.

Last month, a mini-sub with seven men aboard was trapped at the bottom of the Pacific Ocean. The Navy had no means of rescuing them without emergency help from abroad.

Kuroyedov also presided over the Navy during the 2000 Kursk submarine sinking that killed 118 crew members. Last year, he publicly said that a Russian nuclear-powered missile cruiser was in such dire condition that it could explode at any moment. He was forced to retract the statement.

At a meeting at his suburban residence with the two admirals and Russian Defense Minister Sergei Ivanov, Putin told Kuroyedov that the Navy he inherited when he took command in 1997 was in poor shape and that it had showed signs of improvement.

"At the same time, there were difficult events, tragedies," Putin said during the meeting, which was attended by reporters. "But I would like to underline once again that with all these problems, all these tragedies, the main thing is that the Navy is undergoing a revival."

He told Masorin that he faced a difficult task, in spite of progress.

"We have seen the level of training of navy pilots and sailors, which has grown. Many naval ships have been repaired and others were launched and some of them were already commissioned," Putin said.

"We would not be able to solve all these problems even with the state's economic potential growing if we do not strengthen discipline and order and solve tasks of social protection of seamen."

Unlike the Kursk sinking, the August mini-sub crisis ended with all seven crewmen surviving unhurt thanks to an underwater robotic vehicle sent from Britain.

The need for foreign help underlined the troubles of a Navy that once was formidable but has fallen prey to money shortages and, many critics say, poor leadership. Sea rescue vehicles were among the first Soviet-built vessels to be scrapped amid the desperate funding shortages that followed the 1991 Soviet collapse.


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3.
Russia hints At ABM Cooperation With Europe
Martin Sieff
UPI
8/30/2005
(for personal use only)


Russian Defense Minister Sergei Ivanov Tuesday dangled the carrot of anti-ballistic missile cooperation with the 25-nation European Union.
Speaking at Ashuluk airfield in the southern Russian Astrakhan region, Ivanov said the creation of a single European anti-missile defense system was possible.

"It is possible in principle," Ivanov said according to a RIA Novosti news agency report. "Russia has proposed establishing a nonategic ABM system in Europe," he said after attending a Commonwealth of Independent States air defense exercise.

Ivanov also said Russia could make a serious contribution to the European air defense system. "Russia will sufficiently contribute to this system, including using the weapons that were shown today at Ashuluk," the minister said.

Russia in the past has launched diplomatic balloons and dropped hints about offering European nations strategic cooperation agreements that would weaken their ties to the United States and NATO, but so far no significant substantive offers or initiatives have come of them.


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G.  Nuclear Industry

1.
Russia, China to discuss construction of Tianwan NPP
RIA Novosti
9/6/2005
(for personal use only)


MOSCOW - The session of the Russian-Chinese sub-commission on nuclear issues that opened Tuesday will discuss the schedule for the construction of the Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in China, a spokesman for the Russian Federal Nuclear Agency Rosatom said Tuesday.

The session will also discuss the construction in China of a reactor for the fast breeder plant, cooperation on the construction of floating nuclear power plants and science and technical cooperation in the conversion sphere.

Rosatom head Alexander Rumyantsev chairs the Russian section of the sub-commission and Zhang Yunchuan, the head of the Chinese Scientific and Technological Industry Committee of National Defense, heads the Chinese delegation.


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H.  Nuclear Safety

1.
Chernobyl helped make nuclear plants safer -IAEA
Francois Murphy
Reuters
9/6/2005
(for personal use only)


VIENNA- The world's worst nuclear accident at Chernobyl in 1986 helped improve nuclear safety by showing the importance of international cooperation, the head of the U.N. nuclear watchdog said on Tuesday.

The explosion at a Ukrainian nuclear reactor at Chernobyl spewed a cloud of radioactivity over Europe and the Soviet Union, killing 56 people to date, U.N. agencies said on Monday. Roughly 4,000 would die in total because of radiation exposure at the time, fewer than previously thought, they added.

"What might be considered one of the few positive aspects of 'Chernobyl's legacy' is today's global safety regime," International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) chief Mohamed ElBaradei said in a statement.

"The first lesson that emerged from Chernobyl was the direct relevance of international cooperation to nuclear safety ... It also made clear that nuclear and radiological risks transcend national borders -- that 'an accident anywhere is an accident everywhere'," the statement said.

The statement, delivered by IAEA deputy director general Tomihiro Taniguchi at a conference on Chernobyl, was backed by the Chernobyl Forum made up of U.N. agencies and the governments of the worst-hit countries -- Ukraine, Belarus and Russia.

The IAEA oversees nuclear safety and polices the global pact against the spread of nuclear weapons -- the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty -- but also promotes the peaceful use of nuclear energy.

A report by the Chernobyl Forum released on Monday, which provided the expected death toll of 4,000, said roughly 350,000 people in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia were evacuated from their homes because of the disaster.

"Since that time, international cooperation has become a hallmark of nuclear safety, resulting in innumerable peer reviews, safety upgrades, bilateral and multilateral assistance efforts, safety conventions, and the body of globally recognised IAEA safety standards," the statement said.

The Forum aims to provide an authoritative account on Chernobyl's effects so a scientific consensus can be reached.

ElBaradei said that now, 19 years after Chernobyl, the nuclear industry had regained a reputation for safety.

"It has taken nearly two decades of strong safety performance to repair the industry's reputation," he added.


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I.  Official Statements

1.
PRESS RELEASE: Concerning IAEA Report on Iranian Nuclear Program
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation
9/5/2005
(for personal use only)


IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei on September 2 circulated a report on the application of Agency safeguards in Iran. The report had been prepared in accordance with the resolution adopted on August 11 by the IAEA Board of Governors, who had considered the question of the Iranian nuclear program in the wake of a partial withdrawal by Iran from its voluntary moratorium on uranium enrichment work.
The report notes that the entire resumed plutonium conversion activity is being carried out under the control of IAEA. It stresses the steady progress being made in clarifying the questions the Agency still has about the Iranian nuclear program and in taking measures to rectify Iran's past omissions in carrying out the Safeguards Agreement. No new facts of violation by Iran of its nonproliferation obligations have been identified.

At the same time, Iran still has to answer a number of questions on its previous nuclear activities, questions that require some additional investigation by the Agency in cooperation with the Iranian side.

The report of ElBaradei creates a good basis for continuing the professional, depoliticized work within the IAEA to settle this problem as soon as possible. Of course, this is only possible with full and enterprising cooperation on the part of Iran and with compliance by Teheran with the relevant resolutions of the IAEA Board of Governors. We are ready, as before, to actively assist this in close coordination with all concerned countries.

We expect that a thorough discussion of the report will take place in the course of an upcoming session of the IAEA Board of Governors on September 19 and that further steps will be outlined for the solution of the issues still outstanding. In these conditions we see no grounds for the referral to the UN Security Council of the question which the IAEA is actively and productively concerned with at present.


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2.
Vladimir Putin rearranged the Navy's command personnel
The Kremlin
9/4/2005
(for personal use only)


Vladimir Putin dismissed the Chief Commander of the Navy, Vladimir Kuroedov from the military service.

Admiral Vladimir Masorin, previously Chief of Naval Operations and first Deputy Chief Commander of the Navy, was appointed in his place.

Mikhail Abramov, previously Commander of the Northern Fleet, was appointed Chief of Naval Operations and first Deputy Chief Commander of the Navy.

Today the President met with Defence Minister Sergei Ivanov, Vladimir Masorin and Vladimir Kuroedov.


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J.  Items of Interest

1.
Chernobyl : The True Scale of the Accident
IAEA
9/6/2005
(for personal use only)
http://www.iaea.org/NewsCenter/Focus/Chernobyl/index.shtml


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2.
Two years after the K-159 tragedy: the submarine remains at the bottom
Bellona Foundation
9/1/2005
(for personal use only)
http://193.71.199.52/en/international/russia/navy/northern_fleet/incidents/k..


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3.
Adherence to and Compliance with Arms Control, Nonproliferation, and Disarmament Agreements and Commitments
U.S. Department of State
8/30/2005
(for personal use only)
http://www.state.gov/t/vc/rls/rpt/c15720.htm


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DISCLAIMER: Nuclear News is presented for informational purposes only. Views presented in any given article are those of the individual author or source and not of RANSAC. RANSAC takes no responsibility for the technical accuracy of information contained in any article presented in Nuclear News.

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