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Nuclear News - 8/2/2005
RANSAC Nuclear News, August 2, 2005
Compiled By: Jeffrey Read


A.  Chemical Weapons Destruction
    1. Russia Chooses Site for CW Disposal Facility, Global Security Newswire (8/1/2005)
    2. Russia: Funds Provided for Health Aspects of Chemical Weapons Disposal Program, Interfax (7/31/2005)
B.  Export Controls
    1. Russian, US Customs Discussing WMD Control Measures, ITAR-TASS (8/1/2005)
C.  Submarine Dismantlement
    1. Fire in Scrapped Submarine Kills 2 in Russia Region, ITAR-TASS (8/2/2005)
    2. Russia to Spend $175m For Submarine Decommissioning in 2005, Bellona Foundation (8/1/2005)
    3. Russian Legislators Ratify Accord With Canada That Will Help Dismantle Nuclear Subs, Bellona Foundation (7/29/2005)
D.  Russia-Iran
    1. Iran Has Right to Develop Nuclear Fuel Cycle - Russian Official, RIA Novosti (8/2/2005)
    2. Russia Will Help Iran Despite Nuclear Moves, Reuters (8/2/2005)
    3. Russia: Iran's Nuclear Fuel Cycle to be Within Limits of Law, Interfax (8/2/2005)
    4. Russia Asks Iran to Continue Talks With Europe, IAEA, MosNews (8/1/2005)
E.  Russia-North Korea
    1. Russia Wants Proof North Korea Will Comply With Denuclearization, Alexei Yefimov, RIA Novosti (8/2/2005)
    2. Denuclerization Implies Giving Up Nukes, Not Peaceful Atom - Moscow, ITAR-TASS (8/1/2005)
    3. Russia Backs Chinese Stance at North Korea Nuclear Talks, MosNews (8/1/2005)
    4. Russia Can't Cooperate With IAEA Non-Members, RIA Novosti (8/1/2005)
    5. Russia Could Build Nuclear Power Plant in North Korea in 6-7 Years - Source, BBC Monitoring and Itar-Tass (8/1/2005)
F.  Nuclear Forces
    1. Russia Scraps Entire Division of Missile Launchers, Global Security Newswire (7/29/2005)
G.  Nuclear Industry
    1. Armenia Plans To Build New Nuclear Power Units, Gamlet Matevosyan, RIA Novosti (7/29/2005)
H.  Nuclear Safety
    1. An Idea Sinkable Even As It Is Floated, Miranda Darling, Sydney Morning Herald (8/2/2005)
    2. Military Officials Say Destroying Ballistic Missile Silos Does Not Harm Environment, Health, RIA Novosti (8/2/2005)
I.  Official Statements
    1. Beginning To Transform the State Department To Meet the Challenges of the 21st Century, U.S. Department of State (7/29/2005)
    2. Remarks - Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice With Senator Richard Lugar On the U.S. Department of State and the Challenges of the 21st Century, U.S. Department of State (7/29/2005)



A.  Chemical Weapons Destruction

1.
Russia Chooses Site for CW Disposal Facility
Global Security Newswire
8/1/2005
(for personal use only)


The first phase of a new chemical weapons disposal facility is expected to be completed by the end of this year at the Maradykovo depot in Russia�s Kirov region, ITAR-Tass reported last week (see GSN, July 28).

The storage facility at Maradykovo houses 40,822 bombs and warheads containing toxic substances, according to Leonid Ogarkov, head of the conventional issues department at the regional administration.

Of the 6,936 tons of chemical weapons stored at Maradykovo, 4,000 are expected to be destroyed by the end of April 2007. The entire arsenal is scheduled to be destroyed by 2010, according to BBC (ITAR-Tass/BBC Worldwide Monitoring, July 29).


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2.
Russia: Funds Provided for Health Aspects of Chemical Weapons Disposal Program
Interfax
7/31/2005
(for personal use only)


Around 1 billion rubles are to be provided under Russia' chemical weapons disposal program to organize medical services for citizens residing in areas where chemical weapons disposal facilities are located.

"In total, 967.56 million rubles will be used to organize medical services for residents of such zones," member of the State Commission for Chemical Weapons Disposal, State Duma Deputy Nikolai Bezborodov, told Interfax.

He said medical centers were built in the village of Gorny in the Saratov region in 2002, in the town of Shchuchye in the Kurgan region in 2004 and in the town of Kambarka in Udmurtia 2005. The construction of a medical center in the town of Maradykovsky in the Kirov region is nearing completion," Bezborodov said.

Medical centers are to be established in the towns of Pochep in the Bryansk region, in Leonidovka in the Penza region in 2007, and in the town of Kizner in Udmurtia in 2009, he said.


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B.  Export Controls

1.
Russian, US Customs Discussing WMD Control Measures
ITAR-TASS
8/1/2005
(for personal use only)


Russian and U.S. customs officials met in the far eastern port city of Vladivostok on Monday to discuss measures of control over weapons of mass destruction.

The discussion are held within the framework of the seminar titled Export Control and Safety of Sea Ports. Among the participants are customs agents of the Maritime Territory, Sakhalin, Kamchatka and the Magadan region, as well as representatives of the U.S. coastguard service and the U.S. Embassy in Russia.

During the next four days, customs officials will be exchanging experience in inspecting containers and detecting illegal supplies of weapons of mass destruction. They will also stage a hands-on inspection of cargoes at the Vladivostok port, the press service of Russia's far eastern customs department told Itar-Tass.

The incidents in which dangerous cargoes are found during customs checks are not infrequent in Vladivostok. The latest was reported just a month ago. Customs agents found a strontium rod in one of the cars that arrived at the Vladivostok port. The source was emitting 300 microroentgen per hour.

It was found in a heap of scrap metal loaded on a truck, by means of a radiation control device, which is standard equipment at Russia's Maritime customs points.


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C.  Submarine Dismantlement

1.
Fire in Scrapped Submarine Kills 2 in Russia Region
ITAR-TASS
8/2/2005
(for personal use only)


A fire at the scrapped nuclear powered submarine at Severodvinsk�s shipyard Zvyozdochka has left two people dead.

The shipyard�s chief engineer Oleg Frolov told Itar-Tass on Tuesday that all work to cut the submarine had been suspended.

A commission is probing into causes of the fire.

A massive fire occurred during cutting operations in the third compartment of the submarine.

A 18-year-old worker died on the spot and another, 22, was taken to hospital with severe burns. He died in the night to Tuesday.

One of versions of the accident is conflagration of diesel fuel fumes.

The submarine has fuel tanks, the content of which must be removed before scrapping operations.

The commission is to find out whether this was done.

The incident occurred at the submarine of Viktor-3 class that is dismantled on funds issued by Canada under the programme Global Partnership adopted at a Group of Eight summit in 2002.

Frolov stressed that �there has been no impact on nuclear reactors of the submarine, from which spent nuclear fuel had been unloaded�.

�The radiation safety service has carried out an examination and has not registered a radiation leak,� he said.


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2.
Russia to Spend $175m For Submarine Decommissioning in 2005
Bellona Foundation
8/1/2005
(for personal use only)


The western countries will provide the major part of this sum in the frames of non-proliferation efforts.

The head of the State Duma's Committee on Industry, Construction, and Science Intensive Technologies, Martin Shakkum announced the exact sum in the beginning of July, Kommersant reported. The Russian budget allocated $66.8m, the western donors will provide the rest. The western aid is increasing every year from $21m in 2002 till $94.5m in 2004 while the Russian share is the same, Shakkum said.

He added that total 195 nuclear power submarined and two surface nuclear-powered ships were taken out of service in Russia, 112 nuclear submarines have been dismantled.


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3.
Russian Legislators Ratify Accord With Canada That Will Help Dismantle Nuclear Subs
Bellona Foundation
7/29/2005
(for personal use only)


On July 6, legislators in Russia's upper house of parliament Wednesday ratified a Russian-Canadian accord that will help Russia decommission nuclear submarines.

The Russian Foreign Ministry said that under the agreement, which was signed last June and ratified by the parliament's lower house on Friday, Canada will initially provide Russia with about $300 million Cdn.

The agreement is part of the Group of Eight wealthiest nations' program on fighting the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Under the program, Canada has agreed to provide a total of $1 billion over 10 years.

On July 1, Russian President Putin approved ratification of the similar agreement with Italy.


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D.  Russia-Iran

1.
Iran Has Right to Develop Nuclear Fuel Cycle - Russian Official
RIA Novosti
8/2/2005
(for personal use only)


Russia has always acknowledged Iran's right to develop a nuclear fuel cycle (NFC), although it urged countries without an NFC to avoid developing nuclear programs, a source at the Russian Federal Agency for Nuclear Power, Rosatom, said Tuesday.

He said the resumption of work on NFC development would not affect scheduled deliveries of nuclear fuel from Russia to Iran.

Russia is finishing the construction of the first power-generating unit with a 1,000 MW capacity at the Bushehr nuclear power plant (NPP) on the Iranian coast of the Persian Gulf. The plant will become operational in 2006. According to a protocol signed in the beginning of the year, Russia will deliver up to 80 metric tons of nuclear fuel to the Bushehr NPP.

"We will deliver up to 80 tons of low-grade uranium, and only when it is necessary for technological purposes," the source said.

Commenting on the decision of Iranian authorities to break the IAEA seals on the equipment at the Isfahan nuclear facility in order to resume work on uranium enrichment, the Rosatom official said, "It should be done only by IAEA experts because it's the agency's seals, after all."

Iranian authorities notified the IAEA about their readiness to resume the activities at the Isfahan facility on Monday. Later, spokesman for Iran's Supreme National Security Council Ali Aghamohammadi announced that Iran has decided to meet the global community halfway and postpone the resumption of activities at the Isfahan nuclear facility for at least two days.


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2.
Russia Will Help Iran Despite Nuclear Moves
Reuters
8/2/2005
(for personal use only)


Russia will maintain support for Iran's nuclear program despite Tehran's decision to restart the enrichment of uranium, Russian news agencies quoted sources in Russia's atomic agency, Rosatom, as saying on Tuesday.

"We always stressed Iran's right to develop its nuclear fuel cycle, though we at the same time urge countries not possessing the cycle to refrain from developing it," Interfax and RIA Novosti agencies quoted a Rosatom source as saying.

A spokesman for Rosatom did not comment on the specific situation, but repeated Russia's position that Iran has a right to the peaceful use of atomic energy.

He said the latest moves, which have sparked a crisis that could go to the United Nations Security Council, did not undermine that.

Russia is building a nuclear power station for Iran at Bushehr on the Gulf, despite Washington's concern that Tehran could use Russian know-how to build an atomic bomb.

Britain, France and Germany have been trying to broker a deal that would give Iran nuclear, political and economic incentives to halt its enrichment activities.

But Iran has now said it is impatient with the talks, and wants to restart nuclear fuel work -- prompting the European powers to move closer to the U.S. view that Iran should be referred to the Security Council for possible sanctions.

The EU trio told Iran on Tuesday that a resumption of its nuclear activities would end negotiations on the nuclear issue and it would have to pursue "other courses of action."

A spokesman for Rosatom said only a U.N. resolution or a decision by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) could provide the legal basis for Russia to break its contracts and stop working with Iran.

"It goes without saying that we would fulfill those," Nikolai Shingaryov said.

Russia sees Iran as a key market for its atomic technology, and has previously said it is keen to expand their partnership with more lucrative power stations.


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3.
Russia: Iran's Nuclear Fuel Cycle to be Within Limits of Law
Interfax
8/2/2005
(for personal use only)


Iran's possible resumption of a program to develop a nuclear fuel cycle - a series of industrial processes to produce electricity in nuclear reactors - is no reason for Russia to revise its relations with Iran concerning the civilian use of nuclear energy, a Russian government source said.

Iran has signed the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons and a deal with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) that gives IAEA inspectors more powers, so the country "is completely within the limits of law," the source, who is close the top echelon of Russia's Federal Atomic Energy, Agency (Rosatom), told Interfax.


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4.
Russia Asks Iran to Continue Talks With Europe, IAEA
MosNews
8/1/2005
(for personal use only)


Russia has said Iran should continue talks with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and with the �European trio� (UK, Germany and France) on the settlement of the nuclear problem.

A source in the Russian Foreign Ministry quoted by Interfax news agency said on Monday Iran should observe the IAEA resolutions which call on Tehran to continue the moratorium on uranium enrichment.

�We must look for a way of resolving the problem in accordance with the resolutions by the IAEA Board of Governors, which in the first instance call on Tehran to impose a moratorium on uranium enrichment programmes,� the source said.

Earlier, Iran said it would resume nuclear fuel activities after the European Union failed to respond in time to its offer of new talks.

The source said Iran has made a �declaration of its intentions� and is expecting proposals from the �European trio� on the settlement of the problem. �From our point of view the best way of resolving all the problems concerning Iran�s nuclear programme is through the process of negotiation. We advocate that Iran continue talks, both with the European trio and within the framework of the IAEA. We are on this basis and will continue to work in this way with all the parties concerned.�

The trio has been trying to mediate between the United States, which insists Iran is trying to produce nuclear weapons, and Iran which says it has a right to develop peaceful atomic technology. The European Union said a resumption of work at a uranium conversion plant near the Iranian city of Isfahan would be �unnecessary and damaging.�


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E.  Russia-North Korea

1.
Russia Wants Proof North Korea Will Comply With Denuclearization
Alexei Yefimov
RIA Novosti
8/2/2005
(for personal use only)


Russia is seeking to include a special clause in the concluding agreement of the fourth-round of the six-nation talks on the North Korean nuclear program to allow for the international community to verify North Korea's denuclearization, a Russian diplomat said Tuesday. Valery Yermolov, deputy head of the Russian delegation, said the delegates have not discussed the clause in detail, instead seeking to work out general principles for denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula.

A source close to the talks said North Korea and the United States have not reached a significant compromise on possibilities for denuclearization. Pyongyang's plan for a nuclear-free Korean peninsula envisions guarantees for North Korea's security, economic cooperation and normalizing relations with the United States and Japan along with a "legal and systemic" mechanism of mutual trust and peaceful coexistence with the United States before North Korea gives up its nuclear program.

Bilateral discussions and meetings of delegation heads are scheduled for the eighth day of the talks.

The fourth round of six-party talks on North Korea's nuclear program opened in Beijing on July 26 and involve Russia, North Korea, South Korea, the United States, China and Japan.


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2.
Denuclerization Implies Giving Up Nukes, Not Peaceful Atom - Moscow
ITAR-TASS
8/1/2005
(for personal use only)


Russia understands the denuclearization of the Korean peninsula as giving up nuclear weapons, not peaceful nuclear power generation programs, deputy head of the Russian delegation at the six-party talks over North Korea's nuclear problem Valery Yermolov told Itar-Tass on Monday.

North Korea's keeping its nuclear power generation development will help it resolve acute energy problems. At the same time, the diplomat underlined that Russian-North Korean cooperation in the field of peaceful atom is only possible after Pyongyang's joining the nuclear non-proliferation treaty.

"International law and Russian legislation do not allow the cooperation even in the peaceful nuclear field with a state which is not a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency and has not signed an agreement on guarantees with the IAEA," he added.

As of now, Russia has many projects to provide assistance to North Korea. These are supplies of energy from the far east, the participation in joint projects and gas supplies. "The Soviet Union built several thermal plants in North Korea which need upgrades. In principle, we are ready to consider the issue, if relevant accords are reached," Yermolov said.

In his view, however, these things are a matter of distant future and government efforts requiring a special decision.

The implementation of these projects depends not only on Russia; the participation of other partners is also envisioned. So talks with these partners are needed, Yermolov said.


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3.
Russia Backs Chinese Stance at North Korea Nuclear Talks
MosNews
8/1/2005
(for personal use only)


The Russian delegation to the six-nation talks on the North Korean nuclear problem agrees in principle with the China-proposed draft final statement to crown the fourth round, a Russian diplomatic source close to the talks told Interfax news agency.

�The draft reflects Russia�s position on ways to settle the problem of the Korean Peninsula and indicates similarity in Russia and China�s positions on the issue. We support the draft and are prepared to sign it,� the source said.

The new draft, submitted late Sunday, �reflected all sides� modifications� to the first Chinese-written draft, the U.S. Assistant Secretary of State Christopher Hill told Associated Press. He did not, however gave further details. A Japanese news report said the draft calls on North Korea to abandon its nuclear weapons programs and other programs that could potentially produce such arms.

It also reportedly addresses normalization of U.S. and Japanese relations with the North, Kyodo News agency reported, citing an anonymous source at the talks.

The Russian source noted, however, that disagreements may arise between the parties over the wording for their positions. Therefore, coming to terms may take a long time, the source said.

At this stage, the draft might be described as a denuclearization roadmap leading to steps to make the Korean Peninsula a nuclear free zone, he said.

The press center of the six-nation talks has reported that the draft is currently being discussed by the delegation deputy leaders and experts.

At the same time Russian negotiators said Monday that Moscow cannot cooperate in the peaceful nuclear energy industry with countries that are not members of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

�International law and Russian legislation do not permit cooperation, even in the peaceful nuclear energy sphere, with countries that are not IAEA members and have not entered into an agreement on guarantees with the IAEA,� Valery Yermolov, deputy head of the Russian delegation was quoted by RIA Novosti as saying.

North Korea announced its withdrawal from the treaty and refused to receive IAEA inspectors in 1993.


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4.
Russia Can't Cooperate With IAEA Non-Members
RIA Novosti
8/1/2005
(for personal use only)


Russia cannot cooperate in the peaceful nuclear energy industry with countries that are not members of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a Russian official said Monday.

"International law and Russian legislation do not permit cooperation, even in the peaceful nuclear energy sphere, with countries that are not IAEA members and have not entered into an agreement on guarantees with the IAEA," said Valery Yermolov, deputy head of the Russian delegation at the six-sided talks in Beijing on the North Korean nuclear problem.

Paek Nam-sun, the North Korean Foreign Minister, said in Laos at an ASEAN session that if the talks concluded satisfactorily, North Korea would be ready to rejoin the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and receive IAEA inspections.

In 1993 North Korea announced its withdrawal from the treaty and refused to receive IAEA inspectors.

Beijing is hosting the fourth round of talks on the North Korean nuclear issue. The participants are currently working on the content of the draft document introduced by China Saturday. North Korea is insisting that it has the right to deal with peaceful nuclear energy, while the United States opposes nuclear energy in North Korea across the board.

Christopher Hill, the head of the American delegation to the talks, said Saturday that the United States does not dispute North Korea's theoretical right to deal in the peaceful nuclear energy sphere, but it disputes the implementation of this right.

If the sides reach an agreement, North Korea will refuse its nuclear programs and the rest of the participants in the talks will provide North Korea with security guarantees, economic aid and will stabilize relations. The main contradiction between the United States and North Korea concerns the timetable for the agreement's implementation. Washington said it will provide security guarantees and economic aid only after North Korea scraps its nuclear program.

Yermolov said Monday that Russia is ready to participate in compensation programs for North Korea by supplying the country with electricity and gas from Russia's Far East. Russia is also interested in being involved with the reconstruction of two steam power plants, built in North Korea with the participation of Soviet experts.


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5.
Russia Could Build Nuclear Power Plant in North Korea in 6-7 Years - Source
BBC Monitoring and Itar-Tass
8/1/2005
(for personal use only)


Russian nuclear specialists could "build a nuclear power station in North Korea in six to seven years and partially resolve the country's energy problem", ITAR-TASS was told by Rosatom [Federal Agency for Atomic Energy] today. The agency was also told that "this is quite possible if the construction of such a nuclear power plant is commercially beneficial to our country and if North Korea returns to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty".

The Rosatom source said that "during the 1970-80s Soviet specialists carried out preparatory work on selecting a site for the construction of a nuclear power plant in North Korea with a VVER- 1000 reactor. But, he added, "this work was subsequently discontinued and was not resumed, Rosatom is not holding any talks with North Korean nuclear specialists".

The head of Rosatom, Aleksandr Rumyantsev, said earlier that "there have been no contacts between Russian and North Korean nuclear specialists for over 15 years". Rosatom "does not possess" any information on the state of North Korea's nuclear energy programme. He added, however, that "in our opinion the level of North Korean nuclear specialists' training is quite sufficient for them to take part in the construction of a nuclear power station and to operate it safely".


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F.  Nuclear Forces

1.
Russia Scraps Entire Division of Missile Launchers
Global Security Newswire
7/29/2005
(for personal use only)


Russia yesterday announced the destruction of the sixth and final SS-18 Satan missile launcher operated by a missile division based near Kartaly, ITAR-Tass reported (see GSN, July 1; ITAR-Tass/BBC Monitoring, July 28).

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G.  Nuclear Industry

1.
Armenia Plans To Build New Nuclear Power Units
Gamlet Matevosyan
RIA Novosti
7/29/2005
(for personal use only)


The government of Armenia believes the construction of new nuclear power units is a strategic goal to maintain and enhance the republic's energy security and independence, Armenian Prime Minister Andranik Markaryan said Friday.

Markaryan held a meeting with chief of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Muhammad El-Baradei who is currently visiting Yerevan.

El-Baradei said the IAEA could assist Armenia in conducting feasibility studies for the construction of a new nuclear power station.

The IAEA chief said that Armenia had made significant progress in enhancing the safety of the country's nuclear power station but much had yet to be done. He suggested the drafting of a systematized plan with an outline of the project's timeframe and financial breakdown to simplify creditors' efforts.

Markaryan said Armenia was committed to using nuclear energy for peaceful purposes only and pursuing a nuclear non-proliferation policy.

The Armenian nuclear power station was launched in 1980, but its operations were suspended in March 1989 for political reasons. It restarted operations in November 1995 due to a severe energy crisis in the republic.

The station's second unit is equipped with Russia's first-generation VVER-440 reactor and generates an average of 30-40% of all electric power in the republic. Experts say the nuclear power station can operate until 2016.

In September 2003, the nuclear power station was transferred to a subsidiary of Russia's electricity monopoly RAO UES and Rosenergoatom Corporation for five years of trust management.

The European Union insists that Armenia's nuclear power station be deactivated and is ready to allocate 100 million euros for this purpose. However, Armenian experts say the creation of alternative energy capacities in the mountainous republic will require almost 1 billion euros.


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H.  Nuclear Safety

1.
An Idea Sinkable Even As It Is Floated
Miranda Darling
Sydney Morning Herald
8/2/2005
(for personal use only)


The latest child of the global nuclear renaissance is a floating nuclear power plant. The Russians plan to power remote villages in far northern Russia with a number of these, the first of which will be ready by 2008.

The Ministry for Atomic Energy (Minatom) also plans to export these plants to countries with underdeveloped infrastructure. China, India, Indonesia and the Philippines have reportedly shown interest. While nuclear power may well be a solution to global energy problems, the proposed Russian floating reactors have dangers not shared by reactors on land.

First, the floating reactors are powered by highly enriched uranium. This means the nuclear material can be more easily converted for use in nuclear bombs. Eduardo Fesko, of the Monterey Institute of International Studies, says the scientists at the Afrikantov Experimental Building Design Bureau who developed the plant will not reveal the exact level of enrichment, but they have indicated it is well over 20 per cent. The reactors can run at 90 per cent (weapons-grade). This could seriously undermine efforts to halt the proliferation of nuclear weapon-building capabilities worldwide.

Consider, too, the physical structure of the floating plant: nuclear reactors are loaded onto barges that are towed to their destination, then anchored offshore. While tests carried out on nuclear power plants on land showed that they were extremely well-protected from assault, even by suicide jumbo, no such tests have yet been carried out on these floating barges.

Can they be torpedoed, for example? Their location on the water means reactors cannot be underground, nor do they have the metre-thick concrete walls of their land-based counterparts. They are vulnerable to threats from accidents caused by wave activity, and from terrorist or pirate attacks. Barges carrying highly enriched uranium, bobbing about the Malacca Straits or off the Philippines island Mindanao would be a terribly attractive prize.

The waters off Indonesia are recognised to be the most dangerous in the world because of the high incidence of increasingly sophisticated and brutal pirate attacks. These well-organised sea-faring criminals favour attacking flotillas of barges over large tankers because of their vulnerability. A floating nuclear power plant would be a powerful bargaining chip for any miscreant.

The highly enriched uranium inside would fetch a good price from any terrorist group keen to get into the WMD game. There is also the threat of contamination of coastal areas if the reactor sinks.

Minatom has not specified who will be in charge of security in an exported plant. They assure us the floating plants will comply with the security regulations that apply to Russian reactors on land. This is not necessarily comforting in light of the recent security lapses at these reactors. The floating plants will presumably be slow and vulnerable in the lengthy trip south.

Will the Russian military be responsible for their security as they move through dangerous waters like the South China Sea? Will the reactors be classified as ships and fall under the jurisdiction of maritime law?

Piracy laws do not apply to territorial waters and therefore would exclude barges moored offshore. These questions are specific to a maritime nuclear station - it is important that they are addressed in advance.

The Non-Proliferation Treaty allows Russia to export these floating nuclear power plants to any country that is a signatory to the treaty and is in full compliance with the safeguards of the International Atomic Energy Association guidelines.

While this may exclude countries like Cuba, Israel, Pakistan and India, it includes many others. There are possible loopholes due to the moveable nature of the reactor. India, for example, has expressed interest in the reactors. It is possible that the treaty may not be able to prevent India from hosting these floating reactors as long as they are merely leased. India's intentions may be purely peaceful, but an unfortunate precedent could be set.

Floating nuclear power plants are a pioneering step that might make sense in the frozen wastes of northern Russia.

Whether they would be as viable in pirate-infested waters, surrounded by unstable countries fighting insurgents and terrorists, is another matter.


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2.
Military Officials Say Destroying Ballistic Missile Silos Does Not Harm Environment, Health
RIA Novosti
8/2/2005
(for personal use only)


Russian Strategic Missile Forces officials denied the rumors disseminated by the media about harmful effects on environment and health caused by the destruction of ballistic missile silos in three districts of the Chelyabinsk region in the southern Urals.

The Kartali missile unit is being decommissioned according to a program for reforming the Russian Missile Forces because the RS-20 Voyevoda heavy missile complexes deployed by the unit have become obsolete, Missile Forces officials said.

The officials also said that the indicators of the ecological situation in the Kartali, Bredinsk and Varnensk districts of the Chelyabinsk region remain within normal limits.

"We monitor the ecological and health conditions before, during and after the destruction of silos, and after the re-cultivation of the soil at the destruction sites," one of the officials said.

The monitoring includes the assessment of potential environmental pollution by the components of rocket fuel, artificial radioactive nuclide cesium-137, natural nuclides kalium-40, torium-232 and radium-226, and heavy metals - copper, zinc, lead, cadmium, nickel, cobalt and chrome.


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I.  Official Statements

1.
Beginning To Transform the State Department To Meet the Challenges of the 21st Century
U.S. Department of State
7/29/2005
(for personal use only)


Today's Action:

-- Today, Secretary [of State Condoleezza] Rice announced her intention to reorganize the State Department's Arms Control and International Security bureaus to better address the modern threat from weapons of mass destruction.

-- The Secretary also announced intended changes to refocus the Department on the President's mission to promote democracy.

Arms Control, International Security and the Changing Threat

The existing structure of the Department's international security bureaus reflects another time, a time when our nation concentrated on negotiating strategic arms control agreements, often over the course of many years, and focused almost exclusively on the Soviet Union as the greatest threat to our security. At that time, the U.S. and our allies faced an enemy that possessed thousands of nuclear weapons and a large and powerful conventional threat that divided Europe between democratic and authoritarian countries. Today, as President Bush has said, the threat to our nation has changed. Instead of a single predictable adversary to deter, we face shadowy non-state networks, such as the A.Q. Khan network, that could seek to help terrorist organizations and rogue states acquire weapons of mass destruction.

The reorganization of the International Security and Arms Control bureaus will focus the Department's national security efforts on combating weapons of mass destruction through both effective counter and nonproliferation efforts. We must change the focus of our diplomacy by concentrating the efforts of the many professionals in these bureaus on preventing the spread of WMD and missile capabilities and on protecting against WMD threats from hostile states and terrorists. Some of the most important changes include:

-- Creation of the Bureau for International Security and Nonproliferation. The merger of the Arms Control (AC) and Nonproliferation (NP) bureaus into a new bureau to be called the Bureau for International Security and Nonproliferation (ISN). This bureau will take the lead in counter and nonproliferation initiatives and negotiations. It also will feature a new office to focus on the nexus between WMD and terrorism, the preeminent threat we face as a nation. It will be the principal focal point in the Department for promoting the President's agenda, including the Proliferation Security Initiative, the Global Partnership Against Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction, UN Security Council Resolution 1540, and efforts to strengthen the nuclear nonproliferation regime including: IAEA, Additional Protocol, enrichment of uranium, reprocessing of plutonium, and nonproliferation assistance as envisioned in the Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction Initiative Program.

-- Verification, Compliance, and Implementation Bureau. The mandate of the Department's Verification and Compliance Bureau will be expanded and it will be renamed the Verification, Compliance, and Implementation Bureau. This bureau will assume responsibility for the implementation and verification of important treaties that protect American security, such as the START, INF, Open Skies, and other arms control treaties.

-- Strengthening the Political-Military Affairs Bureau. We will add additional personnel freed up by the AC-NP merger to the Political-Military Affairs Bureau (PM) to employ against urgent security issues such as MANPADS and defense trade controls.

Institutionalizing Democracy Promotion

The United States supports the growth of democratic movements and institutions in every nation and culture, with the ultimate goal of ending tyranny in our world. Functioning representative governments with the rule of law, economic opportunity and other tenets of a free society do not make fertile recruiting grounds for terrorists, do not produce massive outflows of refugees, do not cause famine, and do not war with other democracies. Advancing freedom requires comprehensive and tailored strategies to ensure that we are analyzing each unique situation, learning from successful-and unsuccessful-transitions to democracy, and using all of the tools at our disposal to address the many facets of democratization.

The Department is taking a range of steps to institutionalize its democracy promotion efforts at a high level, through the launching of several initiatives, which will result in the strengthening of the Department's assets from within. Some changes include:

-- Rename the Under Secretary for Global Affairs, the Under Secretary for Democracy and Global Affairs. This name change underscores the importance the Secretary places in advancing the President's Freedom Agenda.

-- Launch a comprehensive review of the United States' democracy promotion strategies and the associated funding with the goal of enhancing and intensifying our activities in this area.

-- Create a new Deputy Assistant Secretary for Democracy. The Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor will get a new Deputy Assistant Secretary to streamline and centralize our democracy promotion efforts.

-- Create a new Advisory Committee for the Secretary to get the best expert advice on democracy promotion. Often, NGOs, Civil Society and experts outside the government from academia and other areas have invaluable, on the ground experience that we need to tap into.

-- Transfer reporting responsibilities of the Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement to the Under Secretary for Political Affairs. This transfer will forge a closer link between INL and regional bureaus, while allowing the Under Secretary for Democracy and Global Affairs to focus more intensively on her expanded democracy promotion responsibilities. The Under Secretary's responsibilities for programs related to democracy and human rights, including the Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons and the Human Smuggling and Trafficking Center, will remain unchanged.


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2.
Remarks - Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice With Senator Richard Lugar On the U.S. Department of State and the Challenges of the 21st Century
U.S. Department of State
7/29/2005
(for personal use only)


SECRETARY RICE: Good morning. Thank you. Distinguished guests, ladies and gentlemen, for half a century the United States was locked in a comprehensive struggle with the Soviet Union. That was America's foremost special interest and our entire global presence, our doctrines, our alliances and our institutions revolved around the central mission of defeating global communism. We were able to prevail in the Cold War because our government was structured to meet the challenges of the day.

With the collapse of the Soviet Union, of course, that threat is gone. But new events and trends have reshaped the international landscape. Just how dramatically our world was changed was brought home to America on September 11, 2001. On that tragic day we learned that the most serious threats to our security now emerge within states not between them. Rather than deterring a single state with a massive nuclear arsenal, we must defend ourselves against shadowy networks of stateless enemies, some looking to buy, others looking to sell the world's most dangerous weapons.

To tackle these unprecedented challenges, President Bush has set a new course for our nation, a bold course of action befitting the changed nature of our world. Today, protecting America from weapons of mass destruction requires more than deterrence and arms control treaties. We must also go on the offensive against outlaw scientists, black market arms dealers and rogue state proliferators. Securing America from terrorist attack is more than a matter of law enforcement. We must also confront the ideology of hatred in foreign societies by supporting the universal hope of liberty and the inherent appeal of democracy.

To meet these challenges, today I am proposing four changes to begin bringing the State Department into this new era. I have notified the Congress and I look forward to working with the committees on the Hill to implement these crucial reforms.

First, we propose to merge two bureaus to create the new bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation. This bureau will contain a new office to focus exclusively on the threat posed by terrorists seeking weapons of mass destruction.

Second, with the personnel freed up by this merger, we plan to strengthen our Bureau of Political Military Affairs.

Third, we intend to expand the mandate of our Verification and Compliance Bureau and give it an appropriate name, the Bureau of Verification, Compliance and Implementation.

And finally, as we work to combat new threats, we must also strive to reach the unprecedented opportunities before us.

In leading these changes on the nonproliferation and security front, I look forward to the leadership of Bob Joseph, the Under Secretary.

Now, in today's world, supporting the growth of democratic ideals and institutions is not a luxury. It is a vital national interest and the calling of our time. And as President Bush has said, "The best hope for peace in our world is the expansion of freedom in all the world."

Therefore, we are also making a change to give our Under Secretary of State for Global Affairs the more focused duty of promoting democracy with a new title: the Under Secretary of State for Democracy and Global Affairs. And I look forward to the leadership of Under Secretary Paula Dobriansky in that regard.

To help this office meet its new mission, the Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement will now report to the Under Secretary for Political Affairs so that there can be a new focus within the new Global and Democracy Directorate.

The challenges of today's world demand much of us. Reforming old habits and institutions is always difficult. But the changes that I had proposed and will continue to work with Congress toward will enable the men and women of the State Department to succeed in their essential job of transformational diplomacy. Institutions are not always easy to change, but change they must. And we look forward to the implementation of these changes and to working with the personnel of these members of the State Department family to make certain that America is indeed ready for the 21st century threats and opportunities that we have.

Now, I'm really honored that joining us today to talk about these changes is Senator Richard Lugar. There is really no better ally and friend of American diplomacy and no better ally and friend of the Department of State than Senator Lugar.

Senator Lugar, thank you for your leadership. Thank you for your counsel. And I'd like to invite you to say a few words.

(Applause).

SENATOR LUGAR: Thank you very much.

(Applause).

SENATOR LUGAR: Secretary Rice, welcome back. We are so grateful for your leadership and for your remarkable diplomacy, and I thank you for your thoughtful introduction. I am especially pleased and honored to be here today to express my enthusiasm for transforming our government to better deal with the threats that our country faces in the war on terrorism and I support efforts to refocus Under Secretary Dobriansky's bureau to promote democracy worldwide with greater effectiveness. This has been a signal emphasis of President Bush and his administration, for which he deserves great credit.

Secretary Rice, I am especially pleased to celebrate with you the changes to the Arms Control and International Security Bureaus and the new focus you have proposed on counterproliferation, on counterterrorism and threat reduction. These are important reforms that will both streamline governmental action and provide greater safety for all Americans.

With the passage of the Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction Act in 1991, Congress committed our nation to safeguarding and destroying materials and weapons of mass destruction of the former Soviet Union. The Nunn-Lugar Program has led to the destruction of thousands of missiles, launchers, bombers, submarines, but a mountain of work is left to be done. The program has shown its ability to tackle threats beyond the former USSR as was evident when the Nunn-Lugar funds were approved personally last year by Secretary Powell and President Bush to destroy chemical weapons in Albania.

I am very pleased that the reorganization of Arms Control and International Security Bureaus will devote more resources to support Nunn-Lugar, the Proliferation Security Initiative and many other programs designed to protect America from the threats of the 9/11 world. We cannot allow weapons and materials of mass destruction or their means of delivery to fall into the hands of terrorists. Secretary Rice's plan will create a new office to address the nexus between weapons of mass destruction and terrorism. And I am also pleased that this plan additionally devotes resources toward other important security issues, such as Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty and the Biological and Chemical Weapons Conventions.

I commend this thoughtful effort to improve the State Department's ability to address the most dangerous threats our nation faces today. I welcome this plan. I look forward enthusiastically to working with Secretary Rice and the State Department to implement it. And I thank you very much for including me in this ceremony.

(Applause.)


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