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Nuclear News - 5/21/2004
RANSAC Nuclear News, May 21, 2004
Compiled By: RANSAC Staff


A.  Russian Government Reorganization
    1. Federal service for ecological monitoring created in Russia, ITAR-TASS (5/20/2004)
    2. Russian WMD Facilities Prepare to Consolidate Under New Ministry, Report Finds, Mike Nartker, Global Security Newswire (5/20/2004)
B.  Second Line of Defense
    1. Kazakhstan Ratifies Treaty on Cooperation in Protecting Eurasec Countries' Borders, RIA Novosti (5/20/2004)
C.  Export Controls
    1. Kazakhstan abides by nonproliferation commitments , Interfax (5/20/2004)
    2. Kazakhstan not to share nuclear technologies , RosBusinessConsulting (5/20/2004)
D.  Bioweapons
    1. Buying Biosafety � Is the Price Right?, Louise Richardson, New England Journal of Medicine (5/20/2004)
E.  Nuclear Terrorism
    1. Putin Speaks for Creation of Antiterrorist Front , RIA Novosti (5/20/2004)
F.  US-Russia
    1. Bolton Flies In to Discuss Security, Moscow Times (5/20/2004)
    2. John Bolton Denies Strategic Differences Between Russia and US, RIA Novosti (5/20/2004)
    3. Kislyak, Bolton discuss situation in Iraq, ITAR-TASS (5/20/2004)
    4. U.S. Does Not Pressure Russia Re Nuclear Cooperation with Iran - Rumyantsev, RIA Novosti (5/20/2004)
    5. US probes Russia over nuclear cooperation with Iran, AFP (5/20/2004)
    6. Visiting US official fails to win firm Russian support on Iran, WMD , AFP (5/20/2004)
G.  Nonproliferation Diplomacy
    1. CIS defense ministers to coordinate WMD non-proliferation efforts, ITAR-TASS (5/21/2004)
H.  Russian Nuclear Forces
    1. Former Soviet Officer Celebrated for Not Pushing Nuclear Button, MosNews (5/21/2004)
    2. Russian Pacific Fleet Celebrates Anniversary, RIA Novosti (5/21/2004)
I.  Nuclear Industry
    1. Russia's nuclear electricity output tops 52.5 billion kWh in 4 mths, Interfax (5/20/2004)
J.  Nuclear Safety
    1. EBRD Insists on Closure of Armenia's Nuclear Power Plant, RIA Novosti (5/19/2004)
    2. Zheleznogorsk Chemical Combine received spent nuclear fuel from Balakovo NPP , Bellona Foundation (5/19/2004)
K.  Official Statements
    1. New Nunn-Lugar numbers released, Office of Sen. Richard Lugar (5/20/2004)
    2. Senate Passes Domenici Amendment to Make Nonproliferation a Global Cause , Office of Sen. Pete Domenici (5/19/2004)
L.  Links of Interest
    1. Presented to the Heritage Foundation Conference: U.S. Strategic Command: Beyond the War on Terrorism, Linton Brooks, National Nuclear Security Administration (5/12/2004)



A.  Russian Government Reorganization

1.
Federal service for ecological monitoring created in Russia
ITAR-TASS
5/20/2004
(for personal use only)


President Vladimir Putin has issued a decree, which transformed a number of federal agencies into the Federal Service for Ecological, Technological and Atomic Monitoring and put it under the control of the government.

According to the information of the press service of the Kremlin, the decree signed by the President is entitled �Problems of the structure of federal executive bodies.�


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2.
Russian WMD Facilities Prepare to Consolidate Under New Ministry, Report Finds
Mike Nartker
Global Security Newswire
5/20/2004
(for personal use only)


WASHINGTON � The new Russian Industry and Energy Ministry appears set to consolidate most of Russia�s efforts to manage its WMD facilities as part of an ongoing government restructuring, according to a report released this week by the Russian-American Nuclear Security Advisory Council (see GSN, April 23).

Russian President Vladimir Putin in March initiated the effort, which saw the dissolution of about half of Russia�s Cabinet-level ministries in an act described then by Russian officials as a badly need �administrative reform.�

The restructuring also included creation of the new Industry and Energy Ministry, which includes several governmental agencies with nonproliferation-related functions. The ministry is headed by Victor Khristenko, who briefly served as prime minister in late February, and includes Deputy Ministers Ivan Materov and Andrei Rus, the report says.

Among the agencies included in the new ministry is the Federal Agency for Atomic Energy (Rosatom), which was formally the Russian Atomic Energy Ministry (Minatom). Both the agency�s director, former Atomic Energy Minister Alexander Rumyantsev, and its deputy director for nuclear weapons issues, Igor Borovkov, are holdovers from the former Minatom, according to the report. While the new structure of the agency would probably not be finalized until the end of this month, it is set to assume full control over Russia�s nuclear activities, including the nation�s �nuclear defense complex,� the report says, citing an April 6 government decree.

There has been speculation among some experts as to the level of control the new Atomic Energy Agency would be given over Russia�s nuclear weapons program. Such concerns, according to the RANSAC report, arose out of a footnote in the March governmental decree announcing the restructuring effort that read: �On the issue of the nuclear defense complex, [Rosatom] is subordinate to the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation.� Possible interpretations of the clause had included that various functions might be divided between the agency and the ministry, that the two might share dual jurisdiction or that the Defense Ministry might have assumed increased bureaucratic influence in the Atomic Energy Ministry.

Citing Russian officials including Khristenko, the report says that it �appears unlikely� that Russia�s nuclear complex would be divided into military and nonmilitary sections.

In addition to the former Minatom, the new Industry and Energy Ministry has absorbed the former GosAtomNadzor (GAN) agency as the new Federal Service for Atomic Inspection, which will monitor security at Russian nuclear facilities and research reactors, as well as oversee the accounting, control and physical protection of nuclear materials, the report says. It also says that while the service has retained the basic structure as its former incarnation, there are concerns about its possible level of independence now that it is part of the Energy and Industry Ministry, which also oversees the Atomic Energy Agency.

The new Industry and Energy Ministry also includes the new Federal Industry Agency, which has been given responsibility for eliminating Russia�s stockpiles of biological and chemical weapons. The new department replaces the former Russian Munitions Agency, which had been responsible for biological and chemical weapons disposal, according to the report.

Few details are known as to the structure of the new agency, which could delay both current and future disposal efforts, the report says. It also says, though, that former Deputy Prime Minister Boris Alyoshin has been appointed director, increasing the possible significance of the agency and of biological and chemical weapons disposal within the Industry and Energy Ministry.

�Alyoshin is one of the players in Moscow,� RANSAC researcher Matthew Bouldin, who prepared the report, told Global Security Newswire this week.

Bouldin praised the progress of the Russian governmental reorganization to date, but also said that is was still uncertain as to when the new Russian governmental structure would be finalized and in place.

�They�re on their way,� he said.


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B.  Second Line of Defense

1.
Kazakhstan Ratifies Treaty on Cooperation in Protecting Eurasec Countries' Borders
RIA Novosti
5/20/2004
(for personal use only)


Kazakhstan's parliament ratified, on Wednesday, the treaty on cooperation in protecting the borders of the countries within the Eurasian Economic Community (EurAsEc), which involves Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan.

"The parties to the treaty shall maintain cooperation to prevent acts of terrorism, illegal movements of arms and ammunition, explosives, poisonous substances, illicit drugs and psychotropic medications, radioactive material and other contraband items on their borders. They also pledge to fight illegal migration and religious extremism whatever form it may take," Bolat Zakiyev, Kazakhstan's frontier service director and deputy chief of the national security committee, said at a plenary meeting of the Kazakh senate on Thursday.

Under the treaty the signatory countries must provide airspace, airports and airfields, landing grounds, navigation and weather information for each other's frontier services and aircraft.

The EurAsEc countries signed the treaty in Moscow on February 21, 2003.

The law on the ratification of the treaty has been handed over to Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev for signing.


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C.  Export Controls

1.
Kazakhstan abides by nonproliferation commitments
Interfax
5/20/2004
(for personal use only)


A report posted on the Kazakh National Security Committee's website on Thursday quotes its Chairman Lieutenant General Nartai Dutbayev as saying that Kazakhstan faithfully abides by its nonproliferation commitments.

"Kazakh organizations and enterprises are not engaged in any talks on, and do not plan to sell to any country, nuclear technology data," he said at a meeting of the heads of intelligence, security and law enforcement agencies of the CIS, G-8, European Union, Shanghai Cooperation Organization and numerous other countries that opened in Sochi on Thursday.

Kazakhstan's Nuclear Energy Use Law and Export Control Law introduce mechanisms intended to prevent the export, import and transactions involving nuclear, radioactive and dual purpose materials, Dutbayev said.

The country has introduced the first stage of a management information system covering the export control of defense hardware and raw materials, equipment and technologies used in its manufacture, he said.


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2.
Kazakhstan not to share nuclear technologies
RosBusinessConsulting
5/20/2004
(for personal use only)


Kazakhstani enterprises and organizations are not negotiating and have no intentions to export information related to nuclear technologies to third countries, Kazakhstani National Security Committee head Nartay Dutbayev declared at a meeting of the heads of secret services and security and law enforcement agencies of the member states of the G8, the EU, NATO, CIS and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization.

He mentioned that the laws on using nuclear energy and on export control had come into force in the republic and they regulated a mechanism of control and prevention of export and import operations with nuclear materials.


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D.  Bioweapons

1.
Buying Biosafety � Is the Price Right?
Louise Richardson
New England Journal of Medicine
5/20/2004
(for personal use only)


On September 30, 2003, Boston University and the University of Texas at Galveston were each awarded $120 million by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases to build a biosafety level 4 laboratory. Nine regional biocontainment laboratories were funded along with these two national biocontainment laboratories. In announcing the awards, Secretary of Health and Human Services Tommy Thompson described them as "a major step towards being able to provide Americans with effective therapies, vaccines and diagnostics for diseases caused by agents of bioterror as well as for naturally occurring emerging infections."1

The funding was provided by the Department of Homeland Security. Of the department's $37.7 billion budget for 2003, $5.9 billion, or 16 percent, was devoted to defending the United States against bioterrorism. Of this amount, $2.4 billion was allocated to support scientific research and development to "provide America with the medical tools necessary to effectively respond to a biological attack."2

The University of Texas and Boston University, which won a competitive bidding process to receive the awards, have promised $50 million in matching funds. In Boston, estimates are that the laboratory will generate up to $1.7 billion in research grants during the next 20 years. The university anticipates the creation of 1960 new jobs, of which about 600 will be permanent research positions and the rest will be in construction work.

Economic benefits notwithstanding, there has been considerable popular opposition to such projects. Citing U.S. environmental law, community groups in California and New Mexico are suing to stop the expansion of biodefense facilities. The University of California at Davis competed for funding but was unsuccessful, at least in part because of community opposition: activists sent more than 1200 pages to the National Institutes of Health documenting their opposition, and the Davis City Council voted unanimously against the project. The University of Texas, which has been actively engaged in discussions with the community since 1997, has nevertheless faced public concern about building the facility in an area that is prone to hurricanes; the university has also been fighting freedom-of-information requests for details of its biodefense research.

In Boston, in spite of the support of the mayor, the governor of Massachusetts, and most state and local politicians, the project has met with vocal opposition from some community groups. The opponents argue that the facility would pose a health threat because of the possible release of deadly pathogens and the risks associated with transporting dangerous materials through busy city streets. They argue, moreover, that the presence of the facility would make Boston a target for terrorists. They also maintain that those who live in the community would not be qualified for the highly skilled jobs that would become available. Others oppose the facility on the grounds that much of the proposed research would be prohibited under Boston's 1994 public health regulations. Still others fear that the research in biocontainment laboratories undermines the international nonproliferation regime and particularly the 1975 Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC), which prohibits research on offensive biologic weapons.

These critics miss the point. There are real questions to be asked about the wisdom of establishing these costly facilities, but the critics are not asking them. The research could probably be squared with the BWC, which does permit limited defensive research on biologic weapons. Public health regulations are always subject to revision. With a concerted campaign to guarantee specific benefits to the community and present the readily available empirical evidence on the safety of high-security laboratories, Boston University could alleviate most of the community's worries, as the University of Texas has done. Moreover, the notion that terrorists would target a city because it hosts a biodefense facility flies in the face of everything we know about the practices of terrorists. Terrorists operate under conditions of enormous uncertainty and historically have been very conservative in their tactics. They prefer soft targets � a nightclub in Bali or commuter trains in Madrid � to protected sites such as a secure laboratory or military facility. Moreover, they like their victims to be as random as possible, because if no one is targeted then no one is safe, and the terror is more widespread.

The construction of these facilities may actually increase the likelihood of a terrorist attack involving the use of biologic weapons, but not in a way that the critics have predicted. The key scarcity among terrorists is a dearth of adherents with the skills to understand and deploy biologic weapons. The operation of these facilities will require the training of scores, if not hundreds, of people to work with deadly pathogens. By training more experts in biologic weapons, we are increasing the probability that one or more of them will have sympathies with a terrorist organization. There is much we still do not know about the anthrax attacks of 2001, but the anthrax has apparently been traced to a biosafety level 4 laboratory in Fort Detrick, Maryland, although there is no evidence of any link to foreign terrorists.

There is a real possibility that terrorists will use biologic weapons, but the probability is lower than media speculation suggests. Biologic agents are not easy weapons for terrorists to use. The Aum Shinrikyo cult in Japan, the group that released sarin gas in the Tokyo subway in 1995, was unusual because of the number of skilled scientists among its members, its immunity from police surveillance because of its religious affiliation, and the extent of its resources. Yet Aum Shinrikyo tried for years to create a successful biologic weapon and eventually gave up in favor of easier chemical weapons. Even then, the group's deployment of sarin gas succeeded in killing only 12 people, despite 12 attempts in five years. Moreover, even with the use of highly refined anthrax in the United States, only 5 people died and 22 were sickened, as compared with the far greater casualties caused by far more mundane weapons. Terrorists prefer simple, easily accessible weapons, such as fertilizer, cellular telephones, box cutters, and jet fuel, to complex and hard-to-deploy weapons such as biologic and chemical agents. Ironically, then, the effort to reduce the threat of biologic weapons could actually increase it by rendering more people competent in their use.

Would our vulnerability to a bioterrorist attack be more likely to be reduced by other expenditures? With unlimited resources, one would fund all good ideas, but in a time of budgetary restraints, tradeoffs must be made. One relevant program that has been chronically underfunded and poorly managed is the Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) program of the Department of Defense. This program was established in 1991 to secure sites housing nuclear, chemical, and biologic weapons in the former Soviet Union. The Soviet Union had the most intensive biologic-weapons program in history, and stores of dangerous pathogens such as anthrax, smallpox, and Ebola virus remain in unsecured sites in areas where terrorist groups with a declared interest in using such weapons have been increasing their activities. Four years after the CTR began focusing on the security of such facilities, security projects are under way at only 4 of the 49 known biologic-weapons sites, and only 2 of these sites have been secured against external threats.3 The CTR has been funded at approximately $1 billion per year since the 1990s, in spite of the recommendation of a bipartisan panel in 2001 that the funding be tripled. Securing stocks of dangerous pathogens that are known to exist would enhance our security far more than developing new facilities in which to conduct research on new stocks.

The construction of the new laboratories will undoubtedly carry substantial economic benefits for the community and important spinoff benefits for medical research and public health. It has not been demonstrated that these laboratories will reduce the risk of terrorist attack, nor that they are the most cost-effective means of enhancing our security with regard to bioterrorism. Medical research will benefit from the infusion of government funding, but the best medical research is likely to be driven by the priorities identified by medical researchers, not by what politicians think may be in the minds of terrorists.

Source Information

From the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Cambridge, Mass.

References

1. NIAID funds construction of biosafety laboratories. Press release of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Bethesda, Md., September 30, 2003. (Accessed May 4, 2004, at http://www2.niaid.nih.gov/newsroom/releases/nblscorrect21.htm.)
2. NIAID biodefense research. (Accessed April 8, 2004, at http://www.niaid.nih.gov/biodefense/about/nbe.htm.)
3. Weapons of mass destruction: additional Russian cooperation needed to facilitate U.S. efforts to improve security at Russian sites. Washington, D.C.: Government Accounting Office, March 2003:50. (GAO-03-482.)


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E.  Nuclear Terrorism

1.
Putin Speaks for Creation of Antiterrorist Front
RIA Novosti
5/20/2004
(for personal use only)


The possibility that weapons of mass destruction may fall into the hands of criminals dictates the necessity to create a common antiterrorist front, says a message Vladimir Putin sent to the participants of the third conference of the heads of special services, security and law enforcement agencies of foreign states-partners of Russia's FSB that opened in Sochi on Thursday.

"Your close interaction is an indispensable condition to reliably ensure the national and international security," the presidential message reads in part.

"Today, terrorism has become a real threat to all countries without exception. Serious danger is posed by possible use by criminals of components of chemical, bacteriological and nuclear weapons as well as high technologies.

"All these factors dictate the necessity to create a common antiterrorist front capable of countering these challenges.

"I am sure that the conference participants will be able to solve the tasks facing them, and will work out new, more efficient, forms of cooperation," says the message.


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F.  US-Russia

1.
Bolton Flies In to Discuss Security
Moscow Times
5/20/2004
(for personal use only)


U.S. Undersecretary of State John Bolton was to arrive in Moscow on Wednesday evening to discuss a wide range of security and nonproliferation issues ahead of a meeting between Presidents George W. Bush and Vladimir Putin next month.

Bolton will meet with officials of the Foreign Ministry, Energy and Industry Ministry, Federal Space Agency and Federal Nuclear Power Agency to discuss nonproliferation issues, including Iran's nuclear program and Bush's Proliferation Security Initiative, a U.S. Embassy official said Wednesday.

The official said the bulk of the meetings were set for Thursday, but did not elaborate.

A Foreign Ministry spokesman declined to comment on Bolton's visit, and calls to the Federal Space Agency and Federal Nuclear Power Agency went unanswered Wednesday.

Bolton's visit comes three days after U.S. National Security Adviser Condoleezza Rice completed a trip to Moscow during which she also discussed nonproliferation issues. She met with Putin and other senior Russian officials.

A senior U.S. diplomat told reporters Sunday that Russian officials reaffirmed to Rice the country's "greater" interest in the PSI but said they have not decided whether to sign on to the initiative, which provides for the interdiction of weapons of mass destruction on the ground, in the air and at sea.

Bush and Putin will discuss the PSI on the sidelines of the next G-8 summit, from June 8 to 10 on Sea Island, Georgia, Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov told reporters during a visit to the United States last week. The two presidents will also meet during celebrations commemorating the 60th anniversary of D-Day in France on June 6.

"We expect that the meeting on Sea Island will [generate] an additional agreement in the sphere of struggle against terrorism and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction," Lavrov said at a meeting of G-8 foreign ministers on May 15.

Russian officials initially expressed reservations about the PSI, which Bush announced in May 2003, but have gradually become more supportive in recent months.


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2.
John Bolton Denies Strategic Differences Between Russia and US
RIA Novosti
5/20/2004
(for personal use only)


Russia and the United States have no strategic differences on Iraq, US Under Secretary for Arms Control and International Security John Bolton said at a press conference in Moscow.

Although the press continues to mull Russia-US differences on Iran, these disagreements can only be tactical, but we agree on the strategic side of the issue, said Mr. Bolton.

None of us wants Iran to obtain nuclear weapons, he added.

Mr. Bolton continued that the situation around Iran's nuclear programme had been discussed during his consultations in Moscow. We specifically talked about the US concerns over Iran's ambition to obtain nuclear weapons which will pose a threat to peace and stability, said Mr. Bolton. In his words, the United States deems it expedient for the IAEA Board of Governors to report on the issue in the UN Security Council.

According to Mr. Bolton, Iran had made a strategic decision to obtain nuclear weapons. In his opinion, the fact that, before the recent session of the IAEA Board of Governors, Iran refused to let in international weapons inspectors, is sufficient evidence. This testifies that our concerns over Iran's aspiration for such weapons are substantiated, said Mr. Bolton.

The United States would like the G-8 summit due in June in the United States to highlight the fight against the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD).

G-8 leaders discuss traditionally a lot of issues, but mostly focus on two-three of them. As the hosting country, we would like the fight against WMD proliferation to be one of them, said the US Under Secretary.

He added he had arrived in the Russian capital to attend consultations on arrangements for the G-8 meeting, for the most part.

The meeting between the Russian and US leaders in Sea Island might touch upon limitations on sales of sensitive nuclear power technologies, said Mr. Bolton.

Under discussion will be George Bush's proposals to restrict sales of sensitive nuclear power technologies, in particular uranium enrichment equipment, to countries, which might seek to develop nuclear weapons, said Mr. Bolton.

He recalled that George Bush had promoted new procedures to prevent sales of such materials.

We will discuss specific non-proliferation issues to proceed even further, said the US official.

He recalled that last December Lybia had given up WMD. We understand that we can make more progress in this sphere, said Mr. Bolton.

Lybia and Iraq can be included on the list of countries to receive G-8 aid in eliminating WMD.

Many scientists and technicians involved in WMD developments have worked over this problem in these countries. We should provide them with jobs so that their knowledge and experience could not land in the hands of such countries as Iran and North Korea, said Mr. Bolton. In his words, the experience of this programme in the CIS countries was highly successful and now the G-8 will try to apply it in other countries.

He noted that the G-8 summit in Sea Island would consider the problem of Iran and North Korea, and their aspiration to obtain nuclear technologies and means of their delivery.

Mr. Bolton believes that the G-8 summit might adopt a decision to extend the list of the countries to receive G-8 aid in eliminating WMD arsenals. He recalled that the G-8 meeting in Kananaskis in 2002 had yielded an agreement to allocate $20 billion for scrapping stocks of chemical weapons within ten years.

We expect the upcoming summit to extend this list of countries. It might include not only CIS nations but also such countries as Lybia and others, said Mr. Bolton.

In his words, this issue will also be discussed at the Putin-Bush meeting in Sea Island.

According to Mr. Bolton, the United States expects Russia to announce its joining the Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI) at the May 31 meeting in Krakow and afterwards.

He recalled that on May 31-June 1, a meeting would be held in Krakow timed for the first anniversary of the day when Mr. Bush announced his PSI in Krakow.

According to Mr. Bolton, this meeting will be attended by representatives of over 80 countries, which supported the initiative.

We expect the Russian government to announce its accession to the initiative and join the so-called core countries behind the PSI.

The PSI in particular allows intercepting ships and aircraft in international waters and airspace if they are suspected of transporting WMD or their components.

The agenda of the upcoming meeting between Vladimir Putin and George Bush will include the issues of non-proliferation, said the US official.

No matter when they [Bush and Putin] meet, their agenda will always include non-proliferation, said Mr. Bolton.

John Bolton also told reporters that the adoption of the new Iraq resolution initiated by the US and Great Britain had been postponed.

Following his consultations in Moscow, Mr. Bolton told reporters that Moscow's support for the future draft resolution on Iraq had been discussed at his meetings in Moscow and also within the G-8 ministerial session in Washington a week before.

All this is largely linked to the WMD in Iraq, and the IAEA's and UNMOVIC's further efforts. We have decided to postpone the relevant resolution, said Mr. Bolton.


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3.
Kislyak, Bolton discuss situation in Iraq
ITAR-TASS
5/20/2004
(for personal use only)


Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Sergei Kislyak and U.S. Undersecretary of State John Bolton are discussing the situation in Iraq and some problems connected with non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction at their meeting here on Thursday.

According to Bolton, the United States is going to pay main attention to the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and to discuss all aspects connected with it. The situation in Iraq will hold a special place at the talks, he continued. Aside from it, he and Kislyak are going to discuss the nuclear problem of Pyongyang and some other key international problems.

A representative of the U.S. embassy in Moscow told Itar-Tass that the talks were expected to include some problems connected with the nuclear programme of Iran. On other problems, including those dealing with bilateral relations, Bolton is going to exchange views at the ministry of industry and energy and at the Federal Space Agency.

The Russian Foreign Ministry describes the present level of Russian-American relations as �partnership on the stage of development.� �We expect the deepening of our cooperation in fighting terrorism and in strengthening the regime of non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction in various forms,� stressed Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov, who discussed preparations for the Russian-American summit in the United States last week. Vladimir Putin and George W. Bush are to meet at the G8 summit, due to take place in Sea Island on June 8-10.

Despite the stress connected with the complicated international situation and domestic problems in the United States, Russian-American relations �continue to be stable,� said Russian Foreign Ministry spokesman Alexander Yakovenko. According to his information, �the process of consultations is developing actively, and the tasks formulated by the two presidents during their meeting in Camp David are being put into effect.�

A Russian-American command and staff exercise begins at the training ground in Solnechnogorsk, Moscow Region, on Thursday. The purpose of the exercise is �to further develop working relations� between the servicemen of the two countries during joint work in the common staff, a representative of the press service of the Russian Ground Troops told Itar-Tass.


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4.
U.S. Does Not Pressure Russia Re Nuclear Cooperation with Iran - Rumyantsev
RIA Novosti
5/20/2004
(for personal use only)


The United States does not bring pressure to bear on Russia in its nuclear cooperation with Iran, said Alexander Rumyantsev, head of the Federal Nuclear Energy.

"There is no pressure at all", Rumyantsev said to journalists after the meeting with the United States Undersecretary of State John Bolton.

Rumyantsev recalled that the United States had always censured Russia on cooperation with Iran.

"We, as before, say that we violate nothing in cooperation with Iran", he said.

At the meeting with John Bolton they spoke of Russian-Iranian nuclear cooperation and Russian-U.S. cooperation in nuclear energy.

"A dialogue within the framework of Russian-American cooperation is under way", he said.

Alexander Rumyantsev told journalists of building nuclear power stations in Bulgaria and Vietnam.

Russia will take part in building the Belen nuclear power plant in Bulgaria not independently but in a consortium with a Western company, he said.

"We will not go to the tender independently. There will be a consortium and we will most probably participate in it", Rumyantsev said.

Russia's partner will be, sooner of all, the French company Framatome. What kind of a power unit will be built in Bulgaria is now in discussion, the FNA head said.

The Belen project in Bulgaria was suspended at its initial stage in 1991 at the demand of ecological organisations. Belen is found 250 kilometres away from Sofia. The Bulgarian government has recently decided to resume its construction.

A nuclear power plant may be built in Vietnam in seven years. Rumyantsev said that an international tender for its construction will surely be held.

"We have voiced mutual interest with Vietnam on this project", he said, recalling that Russia and Vietnam has concluded a nuclear cooperation agreement.

The joint Russian-Vietnamese group held its first sitting last December, developing a nuclear cooperation programme for 2004-2005. It also includes consideration of a nuclear power project for Vietnam.

Rumyantsev recalled that, earlier, Russia had built a research reactor in Vietnam and it is still fit for work.

"It can thus be said that we are not cooperating with Vietnam from scratch but continue our earlier joint work", the FNA head said.

Vietnam took the decision to build the plant several years ago. No official tender has yet been announced.

In preliminary estimate, the project may cost 4 billion dollars and be completed in 2015.

As reported earlier, Japan, France, China and South Korea are showing interest in its construction.

Alexander Rumyantsev commented on the presidential decree The Questions of Structure of the Federal Organs of Executive Power. It says, among other things, that the FNA is now immediately led by the government, instead of the Industrial and Energy Ministry, as was the case before. In Rumyantsev's opinion, the re-subordination will make it easier to resolve matters of state defence orders.

"The decree will facilitate matters of the state defence order and give our sector the most-favoured treatment. I think it's very positive", Rumyantsev said.

He voiced the hope that, as a result of legislative changes, work on the state defence order will now be sped up.

"Some things will be settled sooner. This is what the government wants", Rumyantsev said.

He recalled that the Nuclear Power Industry Ministry was previously the executive agency on more than 100 agreements on Russia's behalf.

"Our sector is very sensitive and specific as far as legislation goes. Now a greater responsibility has been placed on us", he noted.

Rumyantsev also said that the process of turning the Ministry of the Nuclear Power Industry into the Federal Nuclear Agency will be over by May 31.

"A great lot of work is to be done. The liquidation commission sits every day", the head of the FNA said.

Rumyantsev told journalists that on Thursday he had a meeting with Bernard Bigot, French Supreme Commissioner for Nuclear Energy. They discussed Russian-French cooperation, the international thermonuclear reactor (ITER) project, as well as the development of a fast-neutron reactor.

"We have taken the decision to speed up cooperation in developing fast-neutron reactors", Alexander Rumyantsev said. And added that Russia and France will, first of all, exchange fast-neutron-reactor information.


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5.
US probes Russia over nuclear cooperation with Iran
AFP
5/20/2004
(for personal use only)


The United States made another attempt Thursday to understand the true state of Russia's nuclear cooperation with Iran as the top US secretary for arms control flew in to Moscow for high-level discussions.

US Under Secretary of State for Arms Control John Bolton met Russia's Deputy Foreign Minister Sergei Kislyak for talks focusing on the spread of weapons of mass destruction and the potential threats posed by North Korea and Iraq.

He was due to brief reporters on his visit later Thursday.

Bolton regularly visits Russia and has become one of Washington's top pointmen -- a hawk who is not always well received here -- on issues dealing with Moscow's potential military trade and the spread of weapons of mass destruction.

Bolton was one of the key figures who helped negotiate a May 2002 arms reduction treaty signed by Presidents George W. Bush and Vladimir Putin in Moscow that was meant to reduce the two sides' nuclear arsenals by two-thirds over 10 years.

But that treaty -- to Russia's immense displeasure -- now appears to have been dropped as Washington used a legal loophole to ignore the deal.

The United States has since aired plans to develop miniature nuclear weapons, a military potential that Russia does not yet have and which Washington argues are needed for regional conflicts in the post Cold War era.

With these uneasy military relations, Bolton met Russia's Deputy Foreign Minister Sergei Kislyak to discuss non-proliferation issues and potential cooperation in Iraq and North Korea.

"The United States plans to focus on issues of the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and all issues linked to this," the ITAR-TASS news agency quoted Bolton as saying before the meeting.

Iran has remained a sore point in Russia-US relations despite a new wave of cooperation following the September 11 attacks.

Russia's Bushehr nuclear reactor project is frowned on by Washington amid fears that the Islamic state is using it as a guise to develop a weapons program.

Moscow has since appeared to have put the breaks on the project and delivered strong pressure on Iran to submit to open United Nations inspections of its potential military sites.

Iran's first nuclear reactor is now not due to become operational until 2005 -- years after schedule -- in a deal worth nearly one billion dollars (1.2 billion euros) to Moscow that Russian authorities appear to have used several strategies to push back in a bid to appease US concerns.

Under US and Israeli pressure, Moscow is demanding that all of the fuel provided for the reactor is sent back to Russia, and has called for a guarantee that the fuel is delivered safely across Iran.

It is now negotiating a new treaty on the fuel's safe return.

Meanwhile, Tehran has agreed to the UN weapons inspections, but progress has been slow. UN sources said they will be unable to complete the inspection by June as had been planned because Iranian officials were not cooperating.

Officials said Bolton would also discuss North Korea and Iraq during his stay, although there were no details about those negotiations.

Russia has attempted to help mediate the nuclear dispute between Pyongyang and Washington, even though its influence over North Korea has waned since the Soviet era.

Moscow, a staunch opponent of the US-led war, is also determined not to send any troops into Iraq, and is now negotiating with Washington over a new UN Security Council resolution over the transition of power over to Baghdad.


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6.
Visiting US official fails to win firm Russian support on Iran, WMD
AFP
5/20/2004
(for personal use only)


A top US official failed to win a firm commitment from Russia to halt its controversial nuclear cooperation with Iran or to sign up to a Washington-sponsored non-proliferation agreement.

US Under Secretary of State for Arms Control John Bolton met top Russian security and atomic energy officials and left the talks voicing optimism but revealing few results.

Washington again appeared unable to win Moscow's approval of a US-sponsored accord that would allow for the seizure of missiles and other potential components of weapons of mass destruction while they are being transferred at sea or in the air.

"You should ask the Russian government about that," Bolton told a reporter Thursday when asked what stands in the way of Russia joining the Proliferation Security Initiative -- also known as PSI -- proposed by US President George W. Bush last year.

Moscow has argued that PSI would open the way for unilateral military action from Washington.

It wants such deals to be negotiated through the UN Security Council in which it has veto power. Russia remains the only member of the Group of Eight leading industrialized nations that it recently joined not to have signed up to the PSI.

Bolton said that he was hoping that Moscow may change its mind during or shortly after a May 31-June 1 meeting of the PSI's 80 signatories scheduled to be held in Warsaw.

The hawkish Bolton regularly visits Russia -- though he is not always well-received here -- and has become one of Washington's top pointmen on issues dealing with Moscow's potential military trade and the spread of weapons of mass destruction.

Bolton was one of the key figures who helped negotiate a May 2002 arms reduction treaty signed by Presidents George W. Bush and Vladimir Putin in Moscow that was meant to reduce the two sides' nuclear arsenals by two thirds over 10 years.

But that treaty -- to Russia's immense displeasure -- now appears to have been dropped as Washington used a legal loophole to ignore the deal.

Little apparent progress was also made Thursday on Iran.

Bolton refused to directly answer a question during a press briefing on whether Russia intended to halt the construction of the first nuclear reactor in Iran.

He said that the United States remains "worried" that Russia may be helping Iran develop a ballistic missile program and that the Bushehr nuclear project might be used by Tehran "for its potential nuclear program."

"We certainly did discuss the subject of Iran in a number of different aspects.

"There may be tactical difference on the Iranian issues ... but there is no fundamental difference over the fact that Iran should not have a nuclear program.

"Iran is still pursuing a strategic decision to acquire nuclear weapons," he said, adding that Tehran has "never been fully cooperative" with UN weapons inspectors

But the head of Russia's atomic energy agency quickly countered Thursday that Moscow was sticking to all international rules while cooperating with Iran.

"We have said, and continue to say, that we are not breaking any rules by cooperating with Iran," Alexander Rumyantsev said.

Iran has remained a sore point in Russia-US relations despite a new wave of cooperation following the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States.

Moscow has since appeared to have put the breaks on the project and delivered strong pressure on Iran to submit to open United Nations inspections of its potential military sites.

Iran's first nuclear reactor is now not due to become operational until 2005 -- years after schedule -- in a deal worth nearly one billion dollars (840 million euros) to Moscow. Russian authorities appear to have used several strategies to push it back to allay US concerns.


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G.  Nonproliferation Diplomacy

1.
CIS defense ministers to coordinate WMD non-proliferation efforts
ITAR-TASS
5/21/2004
(for personal use only)


CIS defense ministers have welcomed the Russian Foreign Ministry�s proposal for coordinating the Commonwealth member countries� positions on the issue of non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, Russian Defense Minister Sergei Ivanov has said.

�In the context of preparations for an international WMD non-proliferation conference due in 2005 the participants in the session unanimously supported proposals for coordinating the positions of our countries on this crucial world issue,� Ivanov said after a meeting of the CIS defense ministers.

Much attention at the meeting was paid to the operation of a common CIS anti-aircraft defense system.

�A draft of the special purpose program for the comprehensive protection of the CIS armed forces against the likely enemy�s air attack will be submitted to the CIS heads of state council later on Friday. The program�s adoption will be an important and very effective measure to advance diversified cooperation in that field.�

The CIS defense ministers adopted a number of important decisions concerning the training of CIS armies in 2005, operation of the collective peacekeeping force in the CIS, measures to enhance the security of flights by military aircraft, creation of a unified communication system and perfection of cooperation in the sphere of hydro-meteorological support.

�The adopted decisions can be regarded as another concrete step towards wider military cooperation and stronger relations of trust and mutual understanding among the CIS member-states,� Ivanov said.


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H.  Russian Nuclear Forces

1.
Former Soviet Officer Celebrated for Not Pushing Nuclear Button
MosNews
5/21/2004
(for personal use only)


Former Soviet Army Officer Stanislav Petrov has been handed the World Citizen Award by the international Association of World Citizens. Petrov was commended for his decision not to press the button that would have started nuclear war in 1983, when due to a computer glitch he was given warning that the United States had launched nuclear missiles at the Soviet Union.

The award includes a trophy and a $1,000 prize. It was presented to Petrov by Arseny Roginsky, the director of Memorial, a Russian human rights organization.

One that day in September Petrov was assigned to monitor the satellite system for signs of a U.S. attack, and, according to the instructions that he himself had written, his duty was to press the button alerting the head of state (in this case, the Soviet General Secretary Yuri Andropov) to launch a counter attack if his computer warned him of an attack.

After five minutes of deliberation, Petrov decided to trust his own intuition that the computer was giving a false signal.

At the awards ceremony, Roginsky commended Petrov on independently making a decision that so many people would have relegated to their superiors to avoid responsibility. �And the decision that would have been made by the superiors....well, it�s frightening to think of the possibilities.�

Sergey Kolesnikov of Russia�s branch of International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War also congratulated and thanked Petrov for his �courageous actions in the days when the Soviet Union was the Evil Empire� and such actions could have been severely punished.

When Petrov rose to accept the award, he said that over these twenty years, he never thought he �did anything special. I was only doing my job. I did it well.� The audience applauded � �Thanks for keeping us alive,� someone said.


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2.
Russian Pacific Fleet Celebrates Anniversary
RIA Novosti
5/21/2004
(for personal use only)


On Friday, the Russian Pacific Fleet celebrates the anniversary of its founding. The day began with the St. Andrew Ensign (a white right-angled flag with an oblique cross) being raised, a spokesman for the press center of the Russian Pacific Fleet reported.

Commanders, veterans and sailors then participated in a wreath and flower laying ceremony at the Combat Glory of the Pacific Fleet eternal flame memorial in Vladivostok, the administrative center of the Far East on the western shore of the Sea of Japan. The main base of the Russian Pacific Fleet is in Vladivostok. (The time difference with Moscow is + 7 hours.)

On May 21, 1731, the Senate of the Russian Empire created the Okhotsk military port "to defend the lands, commercial sea ways and fishing areas." That was the first Russian naval port in the Sea of Okhotsk (part of the Pacific Ocean), the press center spokesman said.

Naval ships from the Okhotsk port guarded the water borders and the natural resources of Russia in the Far East 273 years ago.

Presently, the Pacific Fleet defends the security of Russia in the Asia-Pacific Region. To carry out this task, it has modern nuclear strategic and multipurpose submarines, surface vessels for conducting military operations on the open ocean and on coastal zones, and missile-carrying, anti-submarine and aircraft carrying, naval infantry and patrol forces.


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I.  Nuclear Industry

1.
Russia's nuclear electricity output tops 52.5 billion kWh in 4 mths
Interfax
5/20/2004
(for personal use only)


Rosenergoatom, the state-owned nuclear power concern, generated more than 52.52 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity in the first four months of 2004, or almost equal to the same period of last year.

Rosenergoatom generated 52.534 billion kWh of electricity in the first four months of 2003.

The installed capacity utilization coefficient from the beginning of 2004 was 81.3%.


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J.  Nuclear Safety

1.
EBRD Insists on Closure of Armenia's Nuclear Power Plant
RIA Novosti
5/19/2004
(for personal use only)


The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development is going to set up a fund for financing the development of alternative sources of electricity, EBRD president Jean Lemier has said on Wednesday.

He has discussed the idea with officials in Armenia and they liked it, he said.

The fund will finance small programmes costing from 0.5 to 1.5 million euros in regions of Armenia. They will be, for instance, wind-powered and small hydraulic stations, Lemier said.

The European Union demands mothballing of the Armenian nuclear power station and is ready to allocate 100 million euros towards this end, as well as creation of alternative sources of electricity.

The leadership of Armenia believes that the Armenian nuclear facility should operate until the republic has enough supply of energy.

According to Vardan Khachatrian, Armenian Finance and Economic Minister, the republic is working to create alternative sources of energy for the event of the closure of the nuclear facility but completion of such work will require about a billion euros.

The Armenian nuclear power station was initially halted in March 1989, less than a year after the devastating earthquake in Spitak, Leninakan and other Armenian cities. The acute energy crisis in Armenia restarted it in November 1995 when, after the truce concluded with Azerbaijan on Nagorny Karabakh, Armenia actually found itself in an economic blockade. The nuclear power facility's second block, having the Russian VVER-440 reactor of the first generation, produces on an average from 30 to 40 percent of Armenia's electricity. In the estimate of experts, it can continue until 2016.

In September 2003 the government of Armenia passed the Armenian nuclear power station in five-year trust management by Russia's United Energy Systems.


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2.
Zheleznogorsk Chemical Combine received spent nuclear fuel from Balakovo NPP
Bellona Foundation
5/19/2004
(for personal use only)


The Zheleznogorsk Chemical Combine specialists began unloading spent nuclear fuel on from the special train, which had arrived on May 18.

�More than 130 such shipments took place since 1985, and no accidents happened during the shipments� head of Zheleznogorsk Combine press department Mr. Morozov said to minatom.ru. He also added that each train with spent nuclear fuel consisting of 7 cars is accompanied with Zheleznogorsk Combine specialists who monitor the state of the spent fuel day and night. Besides, the special police squad guards the train, minatom.ru reported.


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K.  Official Statements

1.
New Nunn-Lugar numbers released
Office of Sen. Richard Lugar
5/20/2004
(for personal use only)


The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) has released the newest Nunn-Lugar Scorecard, showing that 6,312 former Soviet Nuclear warheads have been deactivated.

The Scorecard is a running account of weapons dismantled and destroyed in the former Soviet Union under the Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction Program. View the most recent scorecard (http://lugar.senate.gov/nunn_lugar_scorecard.html).

Over the last two months the Nunn-Lugar program has reduced threats to the American people by:

� Removing 100 warheads from Russian missile systems;
� Destroying 15 SS-18 Satan missiles, each capable of delivering 10 independently-targeted warheads to cities in the United States;
� Destroying 8 missile silos housing SS-18 missiles;
� Destroying 6 Backfire bombers in Ukraine, each was capable of carrying 3 nuclear air-launched cruise missiles;
� Destroying 84 AS-4/Kh-22 long-range nuclear air-launched cruise missiles that were carried by Bear and Blackjack bombers;
� Destroying 51 SS-N-23, SS-N-20, and SS-N-18 submarine-launched ballistic missiles in Russia that were carried aboard Typhoon, Delta III, and Delta IV submarines; and,
� Destroying 4 SS-24 mobile intercontinental ballistic missile launchers, each capable of carrying 10 independently-targeted warheads to targets in the United States.

Since 1993, Nunn-Lugar has deactivated 6,312 former Soviet nuclear warheads taken from missiles, bombers, and submarines. In addition, the program has destroyed 535 intercontinental ballistic missiles; 459 intercontinental ballistic missile silos; 11 mobile intercontinental ballistic missile launchers; 128 strategic bombers; 708 nuclear air-launched cruise missiles; 496 submarine- launched ballistic missiles; 408 submarine Launched Ballistic Missile Launchers; 27 strategic missile submarines; and 194 nuclear test tunnels. Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan are nuclear weapons free as a result of cooperative efforts under the Nunn-Lugar program.

Work continues today to dismantle the second Typhoon missile submarine near Arkhangel, in northwest Russia. Each Typhoon is capable of launching 200 nuclear warheads at cities in the United States. U.S. contractors and their Russian partners continue to dismantle SS-18 and SS-24 mobile missiles in several locations around Russia. In Ukraine, dismantlement operations are underway to eliminate the entire fleet of Backfire bombers that Ukraine inherited from the Soviet Union.

The U.S.-based Parsons Company is making steady progress building a nerve agent destruction facility at Shchuchye, Russia. Numerous support facilities have also been completed. The Russians are constructing a second nerve agent destruction building at the same site. Foreign countries are also making financial and material contributions at Shchuchye, including the United Kingdom, Canada, the Czech Republic, the European Union, Norway, Italy, and Switzerland.

Shchuchye is home to one of the worlds� largest stockpiles of deadly nerve agent. Nearly two million easily portable artillery shells and missile warheads filled with lethal sarin, soman, and VX are stored there. The stockpile stored at Shchuchye is enough to kill the world's population 20 times over.

This week the Senate and House will be considering the FY 2005 National Defense Authorization bill. Both House and Senate Armed Services Committees recommended full funding of President Bush�s request of $409.2 million. The Senate bill contains a permanent annual waiver for Congressional conditions on the funding for chemical weapons destruction and the House recommended a one-year waiver. The waiver is important so that construction at Shchuchye can continue without interruption.


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2.
Senate Passes Domenici Amendment to Make Nonproliferation a Global Cause
Office of Sen. Pete Domenici
5/19/2004
(for personal use only)


WASHINGTON � The Senate today approved an amendment authored by U.S. Senator Pete Domenici to greatly expand United States nonproliferation activities into a global cause that targets nuclear materials and equipment wherever they are in the world.

The Senate approved the Domenici amendment as part of the FY2005 Defense Authorization Bill. It passed by unanimous consent. The amendment authorizes an extensive array of programs�all with a global reach�to accelerate the removal or improve the security of fissile materials, radiological materials, and equipment.

�Our goal is to expedite a global cleanout of nuclear materials and equipment that could represent proliferation risks. It includes in one package a range of authorizations, all of which need acceleration toward the overall goal,� Domenici said. �Our focus on Russia was appropriate a decade ago. But it is very clear today that proliferation must be viewed as a global problem.�

�With this global cleanout amendment, we will take a giant step toward providing the Department of Energy, in coordination with other federal agencies, with the tools they need to minimize proliferation risks from nuclear materials wherever they are found around the world. In the process we can help make this world a safer place,� he said.

The provisions would accelerate efforts to secure, remove or eliminate proliferation attractive fissile or radiological materials anywhere in the world. The amendment, among other things, would authorize arrangements to provide secure shipment and storage of such materials either in the United States or abroad.

The Domenici amendment pays detailed attention toward improving security at sites, whether by upgrading protections at functional sites or improving security at vulnerable or decommissioned sites. Other aspects of the amendment authorize programs to assist displaced employees and convert sties to new activities.

The legislation authorizes support to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and moves to accelerate the development of alternative fuels and radiation targets to replace reactor systems that rely on highly enriched uranium (HEU). It authorizes programs to hasten the conversion of reactor systems, including many research reactors that are fueled by HEU, to alternative fuels.

The Domenici amendment is cosponsored by Senators Diane Feinstein (D-Calif.), Richard Lugar (R-Ind.), Joe Biden (D-Del.), Lamar Alexander (R-Tenn.), Jeff Bingaman (D-N.M.), Jack Reed (D-R.I.), Bill Nelson (D-Fla.), Daniel Akaka (D-Hawaii), Russ Feingold (D-Wis.), Carl Levin (D-Mich.) and John Warner (R-Va.). The Senate is expected to finish the FY2005 Defense Authorization Bill by Friday.

Domenici is chairman of the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee as well as the chairman of the Senate Energy and Water Development Appropriations Subcommittee that funds DOE nonproliferation activities. The DOE national labs in New Mexico�Sandia and Los Alamos�are involved in U.S. nonproliferation programs.

The Domenici amendment expands the scope of a nonproliferation initiative he authored in the FY2003 Defense Authorization Act that built on existing programs and created new cooperative initiatives for the United States and Russia to control, protect and neutralize materials and weapons of mass destruction. It also reauthorized the First Responder training program to improve domestic preparedness.

--30--

GLOBAL CLEANOUT OF NUCLEAR MATERIAL AMENDMENT SUMMARY

Sponsors: Domenici, Feinstein, Lugar, Biden, Alexander, Bingaman, Reed, Nelson (Fla.), Akaka, Feingold, Levin & Warner

Purpose: Accelerate removal or security of fissile materials, radiological materials, and equipment at vulnerable sites worldwide.

>> Provides a Sense of Congress that it is a top priority among national security issues to remove and secure nuclear materials and equipment. - Allows establishment of a Task Force on Nuclear Materials

Authorizes extensive programs, all with global reach, including:

>> Acceleration of efforts to secure, remove or eliminate proliferation attractive fissile or radiological materials anywhere in the world.

>> Arrangements to provide secure shipment and storage, either in the US or abroad.

>> Transportation of materials and equipment to secure facilities.

>> Processing and packing for nuclear materials and equipment.

>> Interim security measures pending removal from vulnerable sites.

>> Upgrade of security and accounting systems.

>> Management activities at secure facilities for materials and equipment.

>> Work to assure security upgrades remain functional.

>> Technical support to the IAEA and other countries.

>> Development of alternative fuels and radiation targets to replace ones that depend on highly enriched uranium. Authorizes conversion of reactors and targets to these alternatives. >> Accelerated blend-down of highly enriched uranium.

>> Assistance in closure and decommissioning of proliferation-vulnerable sites.

>> Programs to assist displaced employees and convert sites to new activities.

Requires classified report - January 2006 (interim - March 2005), plus unclassified summaries.


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L.  Links of Interest

1.
Presented to the Heritage Foundation Conference: U.S. Strategic Command: Beyond the War on Terrorism
Linton Brooks
National Nuclear Security Administration
5/12/2004
(for personal use only)
http://www.nnsa.doe.gov/docs/speech_Heritage_Nuclear_Policy_(5-04).pdf


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