1. Americans Buy Radiation Control Equipment To Install At Russian CustomsCheckpoints
June 27, 2002
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The Americans are primarily concerned about their own country'ssecurity: they fear nuclear weapons might end up in terrorists' hands.They argue that it is easier to intercept nuclear weapons or materialsfor their manufacture on the borders of countries of origin, than to tryto track them down across the United States.
Russia certainly does not occupy a modest place among countriessupplying spare parts for nuclear bombs. Therefore, the U.S. governmentis providing generous funds for the purchase of radiation detectionsystems for countries manufacturing nuclear equipment.
Russia's Customs Committee signed a relevant agreement with the U.S.Energy Department in 1998. It provides for the establishment of 60 suchsystems in Russia's Far East. 30 of them are already in operation,mostly in Primorye. As the plans stand now, 10 systems will be installedin Khabarovsk alone by the end of 2003.
First in line are the cargo river port and the international airport.Interestingly, all the radiation control equipment that the Americansbuy for Russia has been manufactured in Russia itself. return to menu
B. Multilateral Threat Reduction
1. It Takes More Than Money
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
June 28, 2002
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President Bush and the other G-7 countries have agreed to spend up to$20 billion over the next 10 years to fund a new "global partnership forthe destruction of weapons of mass destruction." The funds will helpRussia better control and eliminate its vast stocks of nuclearmaterials, as well as chemical weapons and biological weapon agents. Thepledge is a major step forward, especially for Europe, Japan and Canada,whose support for threat reduction efforts in Russia have not come anywhere near to matching the $5 billion contribution made by the U.S.since the collapse of the Soviet Union.
While this pledge represents progress, it still falls short of the sizecontribution many experts believe is necessary to deal with theimmediate threat of proliferation from Russia. The Baker Cutler reportof 2001 recommended that support for U.S. Department of Energy programsalone be tripled to $3 billion per year, to say nothing of thecontributions made by Defense and State Department programs. Thecombined G-8 pledge is double current spending overall, but falls farshort of the panel's recommendation for the amount of money needed torespond to the size and consequences of the threat in Russia.
Moreover, the money to fund these programs is only part of thechallenge. Coordination between US government programs is lacking,international coordination is all but non-existent. The announcementmade no mention of efforts to ensure this assistance is well coordinatedand focused. Coordinating the efforts of 7 countries will make past U.S.bureaucratic turf battles on this issue seem like sandbox scuffles. Inaddition, the United States has spent 10 years trying to build trustwith its Russian counterparts in order to gain the access to sensitivefacilities required to implement these programs. While Presidents Bushand Putin agreed that the other G-8 states would enjoy the same hard wonprivileges for access, tax exemption and accountability now held by theUnited States, it remains to be seen if pledges from the top of theRussian government will permeate the Russian bureaucracy.
The Bush administration has raised this critical issue at the highestlevels with Russia, and secured a political pledge for big money fromEurope, Canada and Japan. Both are welcome steps and positivedevelopments. Moreover, the administration has now politically anddiplomatically embraced the threat reduction agenda, a major move fromthe original inclination of the administration when it assumed office.The next step is to ensure that G-8 countries actually produce the fundspledged and that this money is delivered and well focused on realthreats. return to menu
2. Russia's Breakthrough At Kananaskis
June 28, 2002
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The first day of the G-8 summit in Kananaskis, Canada, has broughtRussia what one may consider as surprisingly favorable and promisingresults. Both allocation by the leading world countries of $20 billionfor the elimination of Soviet mass destruction weapons and the decisionto hold the G-8 2006 summit in Russia were quite unexpected
The first day of the G-8 summit in Kananaskis, Canada, has broughtRussia what one may consider as surprisingly favorable and promisingresults. Both allocation by the leading world countries of $20 billionfor the elimination of Soviet mass destruction weapons and the decisionto hold the G-8 2006 summit in Russia were quite unexpected, becausethey actually made the meeting assume a "Russian" agenda instead of theplanned "African" one.
An event, which without an exaggeration may be regarded as historic, wasthe participation by the Russian president in the general economicdiscussion. It will be recalled that earlier many observers wereskeptical about the term G-8, preferring to call the organization G-7 +1, because Russian head of state had never participated in the first daydevoted to discussions of the most pressing world economic developmentproblems. Russian president would join in on the second day for ageneral political discussion.
Last Wednesday saw President Vladimir Putin of the Russian Federationparticipate for the first time ever in the general economic discussion.That means that the G-8 at long last comes into its own.
Of course, given the present state of Russia, it can hardly be said thatit will play, within the next few years, a serious role in economicdecision-making at G-8 summits. Mr. Putin's participation in thediscussion Wednesday is more likely a credit account and a promise ofsupport for both the Russian president and the course he conducts. Thesame can be said about the G-8 decision to hold the 2006 summit in oneof the Russian cities.
In this respect, one should commend the friendly attitude on the part ofGermany, which had been scheduled to host the 2006 summit, but steppedaside to make way for Russia. Observers are inclined to believe thatmore likely than not the summit would be in Vladimir Putin's city ofbirth, St. Petersburg, because the normal practice is not to hold themeetings in capitals.
The other decision is beneficial for Russia in the practical rather thanmoral sense. It is no secret that the signing of the Russian-U.S.Strategic Potentials Reduction Treaty was motivated on the Russian side,among other things, by the impossibility of constantly keeping on theready about six thousand nuclear munitions and their vehicles. Now thatG-8 creates a fund for the elimination of Soviet mass destructionweapons, allocating to it $20 billion, there is no more question ofwhere to get the money for the dismantling and destruction of more than3,000 outmoded nuclear warheads.
The decision takes much of the burden off both the federal budget andthat of the Defense Ministry. The monies thus saved may be used for morepressing needs like the creation of enlistment-based units and subunitsin the Army and the Navy. Besides, one should not forget about Russia'sinternational commitments regarding destruction of Soviet chemicalweapons, a program which was always short of money. Now the problem isas good as solved.
It will be noted that the idea for the industrially advanced nations toallocate $20 billion to help the elimination of mass destruction weaponsRussia inherited from the Soviet Union comes from the Italian PrimeMinister, Silvio Berlusconi, who suggested it at the Russia-NATO Romesummit in late May. It is truly unprecedented that it has taken G-8 justunder one month to implement the idea.
Thus, the Canadian summit becomes a veritable Russian breakthrough tothe informal club of the most influential world states. The decisionsapproved by the summit indicate that the leading powers both recognizeRussia's role and place in the existing world system and support itsreforms. return to menu
3. G8 Frets On Ex-Soviet Nuclear Arms, Works On Deal
June 28, 2002
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Major powers were working through Wednesday night to finalize a $20billion project to decommission weapons of mass destruction in theformer Soviet Union, a key part of global efforts to deny militantgroups access to nuclear arms.
Officials attending the summit of the Group of Eight industrializedcountries said delegates were working on final details of the plan,which could offer $10 billion of U.S. funds and $10 billion from G8partners over a decade.
"There seems to be an agreement that something close to $20 billion willbe needed over the next 10 years," said an aide to Canadian PrimeMinister Jean Chretien, who is chairing the summit of leaders fromBritain, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia and the UnitedStates.
But Chretien failed to win G8 approval at a dinner on Wednesday nightfor a deal he had hammered out with Russian President Vladimir Putin,and the G8 leaders' deputies were asked to pursue their talks overnight.
Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi had earlier said that the dealwas done.
"The question of arsenals that could fall into the hands of evil-mindedstates interests all mankind and the decision (on the fund) was agreedby everyone almost without debate," he told a news conference on thefirst day of the summit.
Washington, which has already committed around $1 billion next yearunder existing programs to help Russia destroy the vast former Sovietnuclear stockpiles, has promoted the new program in the wake of theSept. 11 attacks.
Diplomats say Western military chiefs are worried that leaky security atRussian atomic sites makes then vulnerable to al Qaeda and othermilitant organizations.
Berlusconi said Putin was delighted with the deal.
But Putin's chief foreign policy adviser Sergei Prikhodko said only thatwork was continuing.
"Some sort of results will be be achieved. Based on these results, wewill consult further with our partners," he told a late-night newsconference.
Berlusconi said Germany had promised to sink 1.5 billion euros into thefund, while the European Union would provide a further one billioneuros. He said Italy would also contribute but did not specify how muchcash it would hand over.
Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi pledged his country wouldspend $200 million for now, a Japanese official said. Koizumi noted thatRussia was mainly responsible for a delay in the program, and said Japanwould make its contribution on the condition that Russia proceeded.
Chretien had earlier thrown out the possibility of Canada contributing$1 billion -- if all the others outside the United States did the samethey would be close to $10 billion.
The Chretien aide said the disagreement appeared not to be on money buton nailing down obligations for Russia and the donors.
The plan should help Moscow deal with the 30,000 nuclear weapons and thehighly enriched uranium and plutonium stocks it inherited when theSoviet Union broke apart in 1991.
Last year, a bipartisan U.S. task force said the need to secure Russiannuclear weapons, materials and scientific knowledge was "the most urgentunmet national security threat to the United States."
Experts say the G8 plan might focus on decommissioning some olderSoviet-era nuclear power stations as well as constructing a mixed-oxideplant which would turn weapons-grade plutonium into fuel suitable foruse in civilian reactors. return to menu
4. Canadian Pm Satisfied With Agreement On Financing Elimination Of SovietWeapons Of Mass Destruction
June 28, 2002
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Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chretien favourably spoke of the agreementon financing the projects for the elimination of the weapons of massdestruction of the former Soviet Union to the value of 20 billiondollars, which was adopted at the G-8 summit in Kananaskis.
Addressing the news conference after the completion of the summit, theCanadian Prime Minister said that in the next ten years the UnitedStates will allocate ten billion dollars for these purposes. Accordingto him, Canada, France, Germany, Great Britain and Italy will also maketheir contributions. However, the participation of Japan in the projectsis not yet clear, said Jean Chretien. He explained this situation byeconomic difficulties which that country is experiencing now.
As was pointed out by the Canadian Prime Minister, who presided at theG-8 summit, these projects will concern the elimination in the firstplace of the weapons of mass destruction and the phasing out of nuclearsubmarines. Jean Chretien said that Canada, within the framework ofcarrying out the project, can, for example, render assistance to Russiain eliminating two or ten such submarines. He also pointed out that forthe work over these projects bilateral agreements with Russia will beneeded.
The head of the Canadian government said that in his opinion it is veryimportant to implement this plan, because we must prevent a possibilityof capturing these weapons of mass destruction by terrorists.
I am very much satisfied with the achieved agreement, stated JeanChretien. The Canadian Prime Minister said that the course of theimplementation of the agreement would be considered at the next summitof the eight countries next year in France. return to menu
5. Some Russians Skeptical Of G-8 Plan
Mara D. Bellaby
June 28, 2002
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The decision by the world's wealthiest industrial nations to help Russiadispose of its nuclear, biological and chemical weapons won support fromsome quarters here Friday, but angered others as a sign of Russiacapitulating to the West.
Retired Gen. Leonid Ivashov warned that President Vladimir Putin wasleading the country into a potentially dangerous relationship with theWest, first by agreeing to closer cooperation with NATO and then withthe full entry of Russia into the Group of Eight.
The G-8 summit in Canada wrapped up Thursday with a pledge of up to $20billion to help keep Russia's arsenal from falling into the hands ofterrorists.
"Russia is invited to join, but we are treated like a beneficiary not asan equal," said Ivashov, who added that he had some questions about "theWest's motive in offering the funds.
Communist Party leader Gennady Zyuganov also criticized the G-8 pledge.
"Despite all the buzz and propaganda, it is clear that the billions ofdollars to be allocated to Russia by Western countries are designed tocompletely annihilate Russia's nuclear missile shield," he said,according to Interfax news agency.
But Sergei Kiriyenko, who heads a state committee for the disarmament ofchemical weapons, called the G-8 pledge "a personal victory for theRussian president."
He said Russia last year removed the detonators from its 40,000 tons ofchemical weapons and therefore the weapons don't "pose a combat threatto anybody except ourselves."
The G-8 nations said the funding will support a 10-year program tosecure Russia's aging nuclear weapons, dismantle decommissioned nuclearsubmarines and ensure that Russian scientists have adequate employment.
Putin has denied the weapons could fall into the hands of terrorists,but said Russia was grateful for the assistance.
Putin's increasing cooperation with the West following the Sept. 11terrorist attacks in the United States has not been embraced by allRussians. Some fear the Kremlin has moved too quickly to bind Russia tothe international community without receiving any tangible results.
Ivashov warned the United States was moving toward a "unipolar world"and Putin was giving up Russia's natural position as a counterbalance.Alexei Arbatov, a deputy chief of the Russian parliament's defenseaffairs committee, said he feared Russia was focusing too intently onthe United States and not enough on Europe.
"It is important to remember that the West is not only America," Arbatovsaid. return to menu
6. Japan Backs Weapons Disposal With $200 Million
June 28, 2002
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Japan threw $200 million into the hat Wednesday to help fund a projectbacked by the Group of Eight major nations to dispose of decommissionedweapons of mass destruction in the former Soviet Union, a Japaneseofficial said.
The weapons are being gathered up and destroyed in a bid to preventterrorists from using them as a source for bomb-making materials.
Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi told a luncheon with his G-8counterparts at the Canadian Rockies resort of Kananaskis, Alberta, thatthe amount is all Japan will offer "for the time being."
The United States has proposed that the G-8 nations contribute a totalof $10 billion over 10 years, meaning Tokyo will probably come underpressure to be more generous.
The initiative will involve decommissioning the region's stocks ofnuclear, biological and chemical weapons.
Koizumi said that curbing the proliferation of weapons of massdestruction in Russia and other countries "will lead to benefits in thethree areas of disarmament and security, antiterrorism measures andother nonproliferation efforts, and environmental preservation."
He added that 50 percent of Japan's $200 million contribution should beput aside to help set up an international organization that will handlethe disposal of surplus plutonium.
Koizumi also voiced dissatisfaction at the uncooperative stance taken byMoscow toward a separate project initiated by Japan in 1993 to helpRussia decommission its nuclear weapons.
Moscow has received 25 billion yen for the plan, but 16.5 billion yenworth of projects have not yet been implemented due to Russia's refusalto disclose certain military data, among other reasons, according toTokyo.
"Russia has a big responsibility," Koizumi said.
The G-8 consists of the G-7 states -- Britain, Canada, France, Germany,Italy, Japan and the U.S. -- and Russia. return to menu
7. G-8 To Help Russia Dismantle Weapons
June 27, 2002
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The United States and its wealthy Group of Eight allies agreed Thursdayto spend $20 billion helping Russia dismantle stockpiled dangerousweapons and neared consensus on a separate aid program for Africa.
President Bush and Russian President Vladimir Putin sealed the 10-yearpact on Russia, the newest G-8 member, in their one-on-one talks as aneconomic summit of the world's industrial powers drew to a close.
The final day's agenda also turned attention to Africa and afar-reaching program to provide billions of dollars of assistance to theworld's poorest countries there.
"This continent is too important to allow it to fall into obscurityagain," German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder told German television.
World leaders meeting at a remote Canadian Rockies resort had fearedthat Russia's old nuclear, biological and chemical weapons stockpilescould fall into terrorist hands.
According to a senior U.S. official, Putin told Bush that Russia wouldabide by a series of conditions under which the United States andleaders from Europe, Japan and Canada would put up the money.
Under the proposal, which was being announced later Thursday, the UnitedStates would spend $1 billion a year for 10 years on the program.
U.S. partners from Europe, Japan and Canada would contribute a similaramount over the same time period, the official said, speaking oncondition of anonymity shortly after the Putin-Bush meeting broke up.
The leaders had reached tentative agreement Wednesday on the moneyissue, but their aides negotiated late into the night and Thursdaymorning over Russia's obligations.
Russia agreed to provide its new G-8 partners access to disposal sites,such as facilities where nuclear submarines are dismantled, the officialsaid. Moscow also has ensured adequate auditing and oversight authorityto its partners.
The agreement, long sought by the United States, is part of a broadercampaign to increase cooperation between the United States and Russia oninternational issues such as nuclear proliferation. Bush and Putinrecently agreed to reduce their nuclear stockpiles.
In Thursday's talks, the pair committed their countries to a unitedfight against terror.
"Unfortunately, terrorism is of a global nature," said Putin. "... Jointefforts are essential if we want to be successful in this fight."
Bush called Putin "an ally - a strong ally in the war against terror andhis actions speak louder than his words."
But talk here was also preoccupied with Bush's three-day-old Middle Eastpeace plan and his allies' hesitance to embrace the United Statesposition that an independent Palestine is only possible if Palestiniansreplace Yasser Arafat as their leader.
Bush, as he opened meetings with Putin in a small windowless room, said:"I'm very pleased with the response to my proposal on the Middle East.The response has been very positive."
Meanwhile, Putin's foreign policy adviser, Sergei Prikhodko, reiteratedthe Russian view: "We must work with the leadership in place, includingArafat."
Putin heads home to Moscow having finally won Russia full-fledgedmembership in the elite G 8, made up of the United States, Britain,Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan and now Russia.
Russia was placed in the rotation to serve as host for a summit for thefirst time in 2006.
The G-8 leaders also pondered how to offer assurances to globalfinancial markets, which were sent tumbling Wednesday with WorldComInc.'s announcement that it had disguised $3.8 billion of expenses.
Putin said Bush, in the summit's private meetings, paid a lot ofattention to corporate accounting scandals, reassuring counterparts thathis administration would investigate and prosecute wrongdoers.
"For me and my other colleagues it was very important to listen to thepresident's opinion because under the circumstances of the globalizedcommunity and world, a lot depends on the state of the U.S. economythese days," Putin said.
The remote mountain location 65 miles west of Calgary sharply reducedthe number of anti globalization protesters, a marked and mostlypeaceful contrast from last year when thousands of demonstratorsviolently clashed with police in Italy.
The agenda for the final summit session was discussion of a new aidcompact with impoverished African countries. The world's wealthy nationswould provide billions of dollars in new aid and corporate investment toAfrican nations who promise to root out government corruption and pursuefree-market reforms.
The leaders were being joined for the discussions by U.N.Secretary-General Kofi Annan and the presidents of four Africancountries - South Africa, Algeria, Nigeria and Senegal.
The nations scored an initial victory on Wednesday when the G-8 agreedto increased support by $1 billion for an initiative launched at theCologne summit in 1999 to provide debt relief for the world's poorestnations.
The African countries were hoping for a commitment that 50 percent offuture aid increases would be devoted to their region, but the UnitedStates and Japan were raising objections to setting such a specifictarget. return to menu
1. Treaty On Strategic Offensive Reductions Submitted To Duma ForRatification - Putin
June 27, 2002
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Russian President Vladimir Putin said the Russian-U.S. Treaty onStrategic Offensive Reductions has been submitted to the State Duma forratification.
"There is a special issue for which the U.S. and Russia carryresponsibility: the international security issue," Putin said aftermeeting with U.S. President George W. Bush in Kananaskis, Canada.
Putin said that in the course of time that has passed since the signingof the treaty, Russia and the U.S. have had time to evaluate thesedocuments and "submit them to our parliaments for ratification." return to menu
D. Russian Nuclear Waste
1. Exercises On Eliminating Consequences Of Accident While TransportingNuclear Waste Finished In Siberia
June 28, 2002
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Three-day exercises on eliminating the consequences of a railwayaccident while transporting nuclear waste finished on Friday nearKrasnoyarsk, West Siberia.
About 350 experts from the Russian nuclear energy ministry and theemergency ministry's special departments, as well as railway workers,doctors, firemen and representatives of other services took part in theexercises.
Commander of the exercises Yury Revenko, chief engineer of theZheleznogorsk mining chemical plant, and the nuclear energy ministry'srepresentatives gave a "high assessment" of the efficient work of allthe departments and services, the plant's press service said to RIANovosti.
A new batch of nuclear waste was delivered to the plant's storage onJune 27th. Several more loads will be sent here via the railway beforethe end of the year, according to the press service. return to menu
2. Russian Nuclear Energy Minister: Nuclear Waste Storages May Be Set Up OnNovaya Zemlya
June 28, 2002
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Russian Nuclear Energy Minister Alexander Rumyantsev says nuclear wastestorages may be created on Novaya Zemlya, a group of islands in theArctic, he said after flying over the central testing ground on thearchipelago.
When answering journalists' questions about the possibilities ofcreating such storages on the islands, Rumyantsev said that "such aproject exists but there are also three alternative projects." So hisvisit to Novaya Zemlya is not connected with this issue, he pointed out.
Rumyantsev is a member of the governmental committee headed by defenseminister Sergei Ivanov that visited the testing ground on Novaya Zemlyaon Thursday on President Putin's order. The committee includesrepresentatives from the finance ministry and the economic ministry,Rumyantsev said.
"We are considering quite a number of alternatives," he explained. "Inparticular, we have analyzed the experience of our neighbours - Swedenand Finland - concerning the creation of nuclear waste storages ingranite mountain-masses on the continent." The final decision on theNovaya Zemlya storage has not been taken, the minister stressed.
Rumyantsev recalled that nuclear tests on the archipelago had ceased in1990. return to menu
3. No New Facility For Novaya Zemlya After All?
June 26, 2002
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In an interview with "Rossiiskaya gazeta" on 25 June, Atomic EnergyMinister Aleksandr Rumyantsev said that he personally does not supportthe idea of building a nuclear-waste storage facility on Novaya Zemlya.Last month, Arkhangelsk Oblast Governor Anatolii Yefremov announced thatthe ministry has suggested building a new underground storage facilityfor radioactive waste on Novaya Zemlya. According to Rumyantsev, thepermafrost in the area "raises concerns" and adds significant extraexpense for the construction of a dock, roads, and infrastructure.Rumyantsev also said that his ministry presently has no plans to resumetesting of nuclear weapons, although he added that he and DefenseMinister Sergei Ivanov plan to visit the Novaya Zemlya test site in theimmediate future. return to menu
E. Russian Nuclear Forces
1. Russia Launches New Sub
JUNE 25, 2002
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Russian Defence Minister Sergei Ivanov attended Wednesday the ceremonyof launching the heavy nuclear-powered missile-guided undersea cruiserDmitry Donskoi in Severodvinsk--the first strategic sub set afloat afterthe collapse of the Soviet Union.
When the modernized submarine was put into water, the minister praisedthe Sevmash shipyards personnel for having remained loyal to theirvocation during the decade of hardships for the defence industry andworked overtime to let the cruiser underway.
Once the sub is fit out with an up-to-date missile complex and over withcoming tests, it will become one of the most formidable cruisers in theworld, said Ivanov. He added that the cruiser took a new lease on lifeafter having been subject to profound modernization.
The minister also conducted a conference with chiefs of local defenceplants. The delegation led by Sergei Ivanov is expected to visit Russiannuclear testing grounds on the Barents Sea island of Novaya Zemlya onJune 27.
Asked by reporters about the future defence orders for Russianship-builders, Sergei Ivanov said a defence order was to be increased."If Russia lacks a powerful army and a powerful fleet, it will not fitinto the modern world," said the minister. return to menu
F. Nuclear Terrorism/Smuggling
1. Putin: Threat Of Proliferation Of Mass Destruction Weapons From Russia'sTerritory Does Not Exist
June 28, 2002
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There is no threat of proliferation of weapons of mass destruction fromthe territory of Russia, President Vladimir Putin stated, answering thejournalists' questions after the meeting of the heads of the G-8countries at the Canadian resort town of Kananaskis.
The weapons which Russia inherited from the former USSR and which is notused breeds danger only from the point of view of ecology, VladimirPutin emphasized.
Touching upon the accords, attained at the summit, on dismantling andutilization of weapons of mass destruction, Vladimir Putin said thatdismantling of chemical weapons, as well as utilization of submarinessome of which have not been dismantled back from the Soviet time are,above all, of interest to Russia.
The president stressed that Russia intends to keep fulfilling itsobligations in the question of utilization of weapons of massdestruction. return to menu
2. New Dangers From Dirty Bombs
June 27, 2002
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Radioactive material on the loose in many countries could be used tobuild dirty bombs that could spread terror and disease, says a newreport by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).
"The dirty bomb using radioactive material is not a nuclear bomb," IAEAdirector Mark Gwozdecky said at the launch of the report in London onTuesday. Casualties would be caused by the conventional blast that wouldgo with such a device. But such an explosion can "spread terror andcontamination", he said.
There has been at least one attempt to use a dirty bomb, Gwozdecky said.Chechen rebels placed a container with cesium-137 in a park in Moscow in1996, but fortunately the material was not dispersed.
The IAEA note said that dirty bombs were usually constructed fromconventional explosives and radioactive material, the detonation ofwhich would result in the dispersion of the radioactive materialcontained in the bomb.
The IAEA, the Vienna-based wing of the United Nations that monitors theuse of nuclear and radioactive material, has launched new moves withgovernments to counter threats from this source. "It is a real concern,a real threat," he said. "It would be irresponsible not to takeimmediate action."
The radioactive materials needed to build a dirty bomb can be found inalmost any country in the world, and more than 100 countries may haveinadequate control and monitoring programs necessary to prevent, or evendetect, the theft of these materials, the IAEA report says. The IAEApoints out that while radioactive sources number in the millions, only asmall percentage have enough strength to cause serious radiologicalharm. "It is these powerful sources that need to be focused on as apriority," it says in its report.
The IAEA has identified radioactive sources used in industrialradiography, radiotherapy, industrial irradiators and thermo-electricgenerators as those that are the most significant from a safety andsecurity standpoint because they contain large amounts of radioactivematerial, such as cobalt-60, strontium-90, cesium-137 and iridium-192.
"What is needed is a cradle-to-grave control of powerful radioactivesources to protect them against terrorism or theft," says IAEA directorgeneral Mohamed ElBaradei. "One of our priorities is to assist states increating and strengthening national regulatory infrastructures to ensurethat these radioactive sources are appropriately regulated andadequately secured at all times."
The IAEA has launched a drive against "orphaned" radioactive sources - aterm used by nuclear regulators to denote radioactive sources that areoutside official regulatory control. Such sources are a widespreadphenomenon in the newly independent states of the former Soviet Union,the IAEA report said. The report points out that even the US NuclearRegulatory Commission reports that US companies have lost track ofnearly 1,500 radioactive sources within the country since 1996, and morethan half have never been recovered. A European Union study estimatedthat every year up to about 70 sources are lost from regulatory controlin the EU.
The IAEA, working in collaboration with the United States Department ofEnergy (DOE) and the Ministry for Atomic Energy in Russia, hasestablished a tripartite working group on "Securing and ManagingRadioactive Sources". Officials representing the three sides agreed at ameeting on June 12 to develop "a coordinated and proactive strategy tolocate, recover, secure and recycle orphan sources throughout the formerSoviet Union".
Worldwide, the IAEA has tabulated more than 20,000 operators ofsignificant radioactive sources: more than 10,000 radiotherapy units formedical care are in use; about 12,000 industrial sources for radiographyare supplied annually; and about 300 irradiator facilities containingradioactive sources for industrial applications are in operation. Inmany countries, as the regulatory control of radioactive sources wasweak, the inventories were not well known, the IAEA report says.
The report says that more than 100 countries may have no minimuminfrastructure in place to control radiation sources properly. The IAEAis also concerned about more than 50 countries that are not IAEA memberstates as these are likely to have no regulatory infrastructure, theIAEA report said.
The IAEA has been active in lending its expertise to search out andsecure orphaned sources in several countries. "In Kabul, Afghanistan, inlate March, the IAEA was called in to secure a powerful cobalt sourceabandoned in a former hospital," the report said. "In Uganda a weeklater, the IAEA helped the government to secure a source that appearedto have been stolen for illicit resale."
The IAEA database includes 263 confirmed incidents since January 1993that involved radioactive material other than nuclear material. "In mostof these cases, the radioactive material was in the form of sealedradioactive sources, but some incidents with unsealed radioactivesamples or radioactively contaminated materials such as contaminatedscrap metal also have been reported to the illicit trafficking databaseand are included in the statistics," the report said. "Some states aremore complete than others in reporting incidents, and open-sourceinformation suggests that the actual number of cases is significantlylarger than the number confirmed to the IAEA."
Such material could be lethal in the hands of a suicide bomber, the IAEAreport said. "The danger of handling powerful radioactive sources can nolonger be seen as an effective deterrent, which dramatically changesprevious assumptions," says ElBaradei.
The risk of accidents is the other major concern, besides terrorism,that could derive from sources that are "orphaned", the IAEA reportsays. Orphaned sources include sources that have never been subject toregulatory control, sources that have been subject to regulatory controlbut have since been abandoned, lost or misplaced, and sources that havebeen stolen or removed without proper authorization. Exactly how manyorphaned sources there are in the world is not known, but the numbersare thought to be in the thousands, the IAEA report said.
The IAEA has set up voluntary standards to cut down risks from suchsources, Gwozdecky said. "But we need individual states to implementthem." return to menu
3. GAO Cites Rising Nuke Smuggling Risk
June 26, 2002
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The nation's vulnerability to attacks using nuclear weapons or "dirtybombs" is worsened by its own poorly funded, ill-coordinated efforts tostop the smuggling of radioactive materials, the General AccountingOffice said Wednesday.
Citing 181 incidents in which nuclear materials were smuggled over thepast decade, GAO said the six federal agencies involved do not worktogether and use different methods of detecting radiation at bordercrossings. Investigators said the United States has spent nearly $90million on efforts that include outfitting more than 30 other countrieswith radiation detection equipment but has not installed the same gearat U.S. border crossings.
"Basically, we're doing more to protect the borders of Russia than we'redoing to protect our own," said Sen. Pat Roberts, R-Kan., who asked forthe report from GAO, the investigative branch of Congress.
The GAO said U.S. assistance generally is helping countries includingformer Soviet Union nations stop the smuggling of radioactive materials.Assistance includes radiation detection equipment, mobile X-ray vans,inspection tools, patrol boats and training.
Even so, investigators found widespread problems with equipment.Examples:
-GAO found a portal monitor on a road in Bulgaria not open to traffic.
-Portal monitors sat unused for two years in the basement of the U.S.Embassy in Lithuania.
-Protective suits and detectors were stored for seven months in anembassy garage in Estonia.
-Half of portal monitors provided to Belarus were never installed or notoperational.
-Mobile X-ray vans idled by cold weather and fuel costs in Russia andKyrgyzstan.
In addition, GAO said that widespread corruption exists among bordercrossing guards and customs officials; one Eastern European law officersaid inspectors switch off detectors in exchange for bottles of alcohol.
GAO said the U.S. government has no strategic plan to coordinate all itsprograms. The departments of Defense, Energy and State and the CustomsService, FBI and Coast Guard all provide assistance, but some agenciesinstall more sophisticated equipment than others, leaving bordercrossings in some countries more vulnerable than others.
However, Roberts, top Republican on the Senate Armed Servicessubcommittee on emerging threats and capabilities, said the White Houseknew the report was coming and will tackle nuclear smuggling problems asit puts together the proposed Homeland Security Department.
The White House Office of Homeland Security and the National SecurityCouncil have assembled a working group on nuclear smuggling, Robertssaid.
"This comes right in the midst of the reorganization of the Office ofHomeland Security, and it points out one of the primary concerns inregard to intelligence threats and what could happen," Roberts said. "Ifthere's a wave of reorganization and reform, you want to catch it." return to menu
4. Agency Seeks Dirty-Bomb Material From Soviet Farms
Nick Paton Walsh
June 25, 2002
(for personal use only)
A large number of mobile irradiation units, each containing a deadlyamount of radioactive dust, are feared missing in the former SovietUnion, according to atomic security experts.
The units, built by the Soviet government in the 1970s to stop maizegerminating, hold eight to 10 thin tubes of the highly radioactivecaesium-137.
US officials fear terrorists could create a dirty bomb using aradioactive material such as caesium-137 in combination withconventional explosives. The resulting explosion could cover a largearea with radioactive dust and contaminate thousands of people.
The caesium-137 tubes were stored inside protective casing to protectfarm workers and the units, weighing nearly a tonne, were then mountedon lorries. But since the break-up of the Soviet Union, officials havelost track of the units and the International Atomic Energy Authority istrying to locate, recover, and secure them.
"We have seen nine in total so far," Melissa Fleming, an IAEAspokeswoman, said. "Four of them were recovered in Georgia and five inMoldova. They contain caesium chloride and were wheeled around theSoviet Union for years to stem growth or germination in corn. But wedon't know how many of them there are, or where they are."
Caesium-137 is particularly worrying, the IAEA says, because of thedamage a small amount can do.
In 1987, a Brazilian scrapyard worker inadvertently took caesium-137home with him. The powder, which children ingested via their hands,killed four residents and contaminated eight city blocks.
The incident in Brazil involved caesium-137 with a radiation measurementof up to 200 curies, while each irradiation unit contains 3,500 curies.
Ms Fleming added that the units were transportable, and "could easily beused by terrorists. They would have to dismantle the shielding to get atthe source, which they could easily do if they had a disregard for theirown health." return to menu
G. Russian Nuclear Scientists
1. Scientists March to White House
June 28, 2002
(for personal use only)
Hundreds of chemists, biologists and nuclear scientists, desperate tosupport their families and feeling forgotten by Russia's post-Sovietleadership, crowded at the government's headquarters Thursday to pleadfor better wages and research funding.
Anis Gariyev once enjoyed a generous salary and the respect of hisneighbors as a chemical engineer at the Pushchino Research Center inPushchino outside Moscow. Now his 1,500 ruble ($48) monthly salaryleaves him among the community's most destitute. Going to work sometimesdepresses Gariyev because several of the offices in his corridor standempty, abandoned by colleagues who left for more lucrative employment,such as working as a grocery store cashier.
Gariyev, 55, and about 40 other scientists and graduate students marchedto the White House for three days to reach Thursday's rally fromPushchino, 130 kilometers away. "My feet are tired but the trip wasworth it," he said. "It's for the future of Russia."
The scientists, some wearing white lab coats, were joined in theirprotest by hundreds of Communist supporters carrying red banners. Theyjoined in the criticism of the government for the reduction in spendingon science and research since the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union.
Most of the scientists were middle-aged or older, reflecting the lownumber of young people joining the profession in recent years because ofits miserly pay. The Soviet Union boasted having the largest number ofscientists in the world, researchers responsible for the Soviet spaceprogram, advances in superconductor research and vaccines -- and itsvast nuclear, biological and chemical weapons programs. But the generousstate support for science withered after 1991, prompting manyresearchers to seek jobs in the private sector or abroad. More than halfa million scientists have left Russia since the Soviet Union collapsed,the chairman of the Russian Academy of Sciences' trade unions said lastweek. President Vladimir Putin has made rejuvenating Russia's scientificestablishment a priority. In March, he gave a speech urging governmentscientists to streamline their research, focusing on promising newtechnologies.
The speakers at Thursday's rally said the government has only partiallyfollowed through on Putin's promises, earmarking just 35 billion rubles($1.1 billion) instead of the 49.5 billion rubles ($1.5 billion) pledgedearlier. They said they're ready to modernize, but need money for thattoo -- not to mention money for basics such as pencils and beakers. return to menu
2. In Russia, A Lab-Coat Rebellion
Christian Science Monitor
June 27, 2002
(for personal use only)
Russian scientists plan to rally here Thursday in what organizers call a"scream of despair" over funding cuts and state indifference that haveleft much of the once formidable ex-Soviet intellectual establishment inruins.
"The worst thing is that we cannot work at the professions we weretrained for, no one wants us, and the government has abandoned us," saysSergei Nikitin, an unemployed specialist in experimental mechanics whois among the protesters.
But the demonstration is bringing out critics who say that academics andresearchers ought to start hustling like everyone else must in the newmarket economy.
"Real scientists don't march in the streets, they solve problems," saysOsip Rogov, rector of the Moscow University of Applied Biology."Scientific research is inextricably linked to production, that is, itearns money. Researchers need to find ways to be productive, and securetheir share."
About 150 mainly elderly protesters set out on foot for the capitalearlier this week from the science town of Pushchino, about 62 milesaway, to dramatize their plight. Pushchino, built during Soviet times tohouse several biological institutes, has lost nearly two-thirds of itsscientists in the decade since the USSR collapsed.
The marchers say their angst is not so much over salaries - whichaverage less than $100 per month. Their biggest complaints are depletedworking conditions that make it almost impossible to keep up with theglobal scientific curve, a massive brain drain that has seen at leasthalf a million Russian specialists emigrate in the past decade, and thepost-Soviet rejection by young people of science as a profession.
"The average age of Russian scientists is now 56, and it's creeping upevery year," says Mr. Nikitin.
The marchers also say they've been betrayed by President Vladimir Putin,who came to power promising to restore Russian greatness, but whosegovernment just slashed scientific funding from a promised 50 billionrubles (approximately $1.6 billion) next year to 35 billion rubles.
But critics say that instead of begging the government for morehandouts, the scientists should be thinking like capitalists - lobbyingfor stronger intellectual property rights, for example
The state of Russian science is increasingly dire. Soviet Russia hadalmost 1 million scientists, but today there are just 400,000, and onlyone in seven is under 40 years of age. State funding for science hasslumped from almost 3 percent of the state budget in 1997 to 1.5 percentthis year.
Most new graduates of Russia's still- renowned higher educationalinstitutes leave the country to find work. "Between 500,000 and 800,000Russian scientists have left on a long-term mission abroad in the past10 years," Viktor Kalinushkin, chairman of the union of Russianscientific workers, said last week. Among those who have emigrated arethe cream of the country's physicists, biologists, chemists, andcomputer programmers. "Almost none of them have returned," Mr.Kalinushkin said.
Meanwhile, the increasing impoverishment of Russian scientists hasfueled Western fears that some nuclear specialists may secretly beselling missile know-how abroad.
There is little accord over how to manage the accelerating decline ofrecent years. Some of the protesters say they understand the Russiangovernment faces severe financial constraints, but telling scientists tofinance their own work is no solution.
"Making science pay its own way is just a foolish slogan," says ZhoresAlferov, a Nobel prizewinning astrophysicist, and Communist deputy ofthe state Duma, Russia's lower house of parliament.
"Fundamental science usually has no connection with the economy, and iseverywhere funded by the state," he says. "Even applied sciences need tobe helped in Russia, because our industry is still on its knees and inno condition to subsidize research as is done in the West."
Svetlana Seleznyova, a specialist at the Institute of Theoretical andExperimental Biophysics in Pushchino, says that attempts to createmarketable spinoffs from her work, such as nutritional products andexercise equipment, have fizzled badly. "If you try to attract outsidepartners to develop your product, any investments are taxed heavily,"she says. "Then, business culture being what it is in this country, yourpartners make off with all the profits. We've been there, and there isnothing but grief on that road."
A hard fall
The decline in Russian science is a humiliating comedown for a countrythat once claimed to be the West's chief rival and, at least in somebranches of science, indeed was.
The Soviet Union's nuclear and military technology fueled afour-decades-long arms race, its space achievements are legendary, andits strides in many other fields remain impressive.
Some of the protesters say they are joining the protest movement simplyto try to force the government to make some basic decisions. "We're notthe kind of people who normally demonstrate in the streets," saysSvetlana Prozhogina, a philologist and trade- union steward at theInstitute of Oriental Studies in Moscow, which is part of the Academy ofSciences, to which most Russian intellectual workers belong. "But we'vedevoted our lives to something which is now dying," Ms. Prozhogina says."You can't ask us to sell our knowledge of ancient languages and deadreligions on the open market. So, we need to know, does this countrywant us, or not?"
Though the Moscow rally is not likely to rock the Kremlin, it may be anunpleasant straw in the wind for Mr. Putin. "The scientists believed thethings Putin said about reviving Russian science, and their expectationshave been given a cold bath," says Andrei Ryabov, an expert with theCarnegie Endowment in Moscow. "It looks to them, and to many watching,like Putin does not have a plan after all." return to menu
H. Nuclear Testing
1. Defense Minister: No Plans To Resume Arctic Nuke Tests
June 28, 2002
(for personal use only)
Russia's defense minister said Russia has no plans to resume nucleartesting on the remote Arctic archipelago of Novaya Zemlya, Russian newsagencies reported Friday.
Ivanov, who visited Novaya Zemlya on Thursday along with Atomic EnergyMinister Alexander Rumyantsev, said Russia did not plan to resumenuclear tests on Novaya Zemlya, but would continue to use the site forother kinds of tests, the Interfax news agency reported.
Russia uses Novaya Zemlya to conduct subcritical test blasts of nuclearweapons, in which plutonium is blasted with explosives too weak to setoff an atomic explosion. Those tests are not prohibited under theComprehensive Test Ban Treaty, which Moscow signed in May 2000.
Russia has observed a moratorium on full-scale nuclear testing since itslast test explosion in October 1990, but Moscow says the subcriticaltests are necessary to ensure the safety of its nuclear arsenal.
Rumyantsev said after the visit that Russia had not yet made a finaldecision on whether to build a nuclear waste storage site on NovayaZemlya, Interfax reported. He said the government is considering severalalternatives, including a site on the Russian mainland.
Russian officials have said Russia is considering Novaya Zemlya for anuclear waste storage site, but they say it would only be used to storespent nuclear fuel from decommissioned Northern Fleet submarines, notfor nuclear waste from abroad.
Last summer, President Vladimir Putin signed a law allowing Russia toimport spent nuclear fuel from other countries for storage andreprocessing, a measure that environmental groups say could turn Russiainto the world's nuclear dumping ground. return to menu
1. Statement By G8 Leaders: The G8 Global Partnership Against The Spread OfWeapons And Materials Of Mass Destruction
June 27, 2002
The attacks of September 11 demonstrated that terrorists are prepared touse any means to cause terror and inflict appalling casualties oninnocent people. We commit ourselves to prevent terrorists, or thosethat harbour them, from acquiring or developing nuclear, chemical,radiological and biological weapons; missiles; and related materials,equipment and technology. We call on all countries to join us inadopting the set of non-proliferation principles we have announcedtoday.
In a major initiative to implement those principles, we have alsodecided today to launch a new G8 Global Partnership against the Spreadof Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction. Under this initiative, wewill support specific cooperation projects, initially in Russia, toaddress non-proliferation, disarmament, counter-terrorism and nuclearsafety issues. Among our priority concerns are the destruction ofchemical weapons, the dismantlement of decommissioned nuclearsubmarines, the disposition of fissile materials and the employment offormer weapons scientists. We will commit to raise up to $20 billion tosupport such projects over the next ten years. A range of financingoptions, including the option of bilateral debt for program exchanges,will be available to countries that contribute to this GlobalPartnership. We have adopted a set of guidelines that will form thebasis for the negotiation of specific agreements for new projects, thatwill apply with immediate effect, to ensure effective and efficientproject development, coordination and implementation. We will reviewover the next year the applicability of the guidelines to existingprojects.
Recognizing that this Global Partnership will enhance internationalsecurity and safety, we invite other countries that are prepared toadopt its common principles and guidelines to enter into discussionswith us on participating in and contributing to this initiative. We willreview progress on this Global Partnership at our next Summit in 2003.
The G8 Global Partnership: Principles to prevent terrorists, or thosethat harbour them, from gaining access to weapons or materials of massdestruction
The G8 calls on all countries to join them in commitment to thefollowing six principles to prevent terrorists or those that harbourthem from acquiring or developing nuclear, chemical, radiological andbiological weapons; missiles; and related materials, equipment andtechnology.
1.Promote the adoption, universalization, full implementation and, wherenecessary, strengthening of multilateral treaties and otherinternational instruments whose aim is to prevent the proliferation orillicit acquisition of such items; strengthen the institutions designedto implement these instruments.
2.Develop and maintain appropriate effective measures to account for andsecure such items in production, use, storage and domestic andinternational transport; provide assistance to states lacking sufficientresources to account for and secure these items.
3.Develop and maintain appropriate effective physical protectionmeasures applied to facilities which house such items, including defencein depth; provide assistance to states lacking sufficient resources toprotect their facilities.
4.Develop and maintain effective border controls, law enforcementefforts and international cooperation to detect, deter and interdict incases of illicit trafficking in such items, for example throughinstallation of detection systems, training of customs and lawenforcement personnel and cooperation in tracking these items; provideassistance to states lacking sufficient expertise or resources tostrengthen their capacity to detect, deter and interdict in cases ofillicit trafficking in these items.
5.Develop, review and maintain effective national export andtransshipment controls over items on multilateral export control lists,as well as items that are not identified on such lists but which maynevertheless contribute to the development, production or use ofnuclear, chemical and biological weapons and missiles, with particularconsideration of end-user, catch-all and brokering aspects; provideassistance to states lacking the legal and regulatory infrastructure,implementation experience and/or resources to develop their export andtransshipment control systems in this regard.
6.Adopt and strengthen efforts to manage and dispose of stocks offissile materials designated as no longer required for defence purposes,eliminate all chemical weapons, and minimize holdings of dangerousbiological pathogens and toxins, based on the recognition that thethreat of terrorist acquisition is reduced as the overall quantity ofsuch items is reduced.
The G8 Global Partnership: Guidelines for New or Expanded CooperationProjects
The G8 will work in partnership, bilaterally and multilaterally, todevelop, coordinate, implement and finance, according to theirrespective means, new or expanded cooperation projects to address (i)non-proliferation, (ii) disarmament, (iii) counter-terrorism and (iv)nuclear safety (including environmental) issues, with a view toenhancing strategic stability, consonant with our international securityobjectives and in support of the multilateral non-proliferation regimes.Each country has primary responsibility for implementing itsnon-proliferation, disarmament, counter-terrorism and nuclear safetyobligations and requirements and commits its full cooperation within thePartnership.
Cooperation projects under this initiative will be decided andimplemented, taking into account international obligations and domesticlaws of participating partners, within appropriate bilateral andmultilateral legal frameworks that should, as necessary, include thefollowing elements:
i.Mutually agreed effective monitoring, auditing and transparencymeasures and procedures will be required in order to ensure thatcooperative activities meet agreed objectives (including irreversibilityas necessary), to confirm work performance, to account for the fundsexpended and to provide for adequate access for donor representatives towork sites;
ii.The projects will be implemented in an environmentally sound mannerand will maintain the highest appropriate level of safety;
iii.Clearly defined milestones will be developed for each project,including the option of suspending or terminating a project if themilestones are not met;
iv.The material, equipment, technology, services and expertise providedwill be solely for peaceful purposes and, unless otherwise agreed, willbe used only for the purposes of implementing the projects and will notbe transferred. Adequate measures of physical protection will also beapplied to prevent theft or sabotage;
v.All governments will take necessary steps to ensure that the supportprovided will be considered free technical assistance and will be exemptfrom taxes, duties, levies and other charges;
vi.Procurement of goods and services will be conducted in accordancewith open international practices to the extent possible, consistentwith national security requirements;
vii.All governments will take necessary steps to ensure that adequateliability protections from claims related to the cooperation will beprovided for donor countries and their personnel and contractors;
viii.Appropriate privileges and immunities will be provided forgovernment donor representatives working on cooperation projects; and
ix.Measures will be put in place to ensure effective protection ofsensitive information and intellectual property.
Given the breadth and scope of the activities to be undertaken, the G8will establish an appropriate mechanism for the annual review ofprogress under this initiative which may include consultations regardingpriorities, identification of project gaps and potential overlap, andassessment of consistency of the cooperation projects with internationalsecurity obligations and objectives. Specific bilateral and multilateralproject implementation will be coordinated subject to arrangementsappropriate to that project, including existing mechanisms.
For the purposes of these guidelines, the phrase "new or expandedcooperation projects" is defined as cooperation projects that will beinitiated or enhanced on the basis of this Global Partnership. All fundsdisbursed or released after its announcement would be included in thetotal of committed resources. A range of financing options, includingthe option of bilateral debt for program exchanges, will be available tocountries that contribute to this Global Partnership.
The Global Partnership's initial geographic focus will be on projects inRussia, which maintains primary responsibility for implementing itsobligations and requirements within the Partnership.
In addition, the G8 would be willing to enter into negotiations with anyother recipient countries, including those of the Former Soviet Union,prepared to adopt the guidelines, for inclusion in the Partnership.
Recognizing that the Global Partnership is designed to enhanceinternational security and safety, the G8 invites others to contributeto and join in this initiative.
With respect to nuclear safety and security, the partners agreed toestablish a new G8 Nuclear Safety and Security Group by the time of ournext Summit. return to menu
2. Senate Accepts Domenici Nuclear Nonproliferation Initiative As AmendmentTo Defense Policy Bill
Office of Senator Pete Domenici
June 26, 2002
U.S. Senator Pete Domenici's six-year effort to create morecomprehensive American nuclear non-proliferation policies took anotherstep forward today with Senate acceptance of his amendment to improvesecurity at nuclear facilities around the globe.
Domenici's amendment reauthorizes the First Responder program, which heauthored in 1996, and introduces new initiatives, such as a $15 millionprogram to improve efforts to control "dirty bomb" threats. Much of theexpansion of the international anti-proliferation is aimed, Domenicisaid, at preventing weapons of mass destruction from entering the handsof terrorist groups and rogue states. The measure was accepted as partof the FY2003 Defense Authorization Bill. It is largely based on theNuclear Nonproliferation Act of 2002 introduced in May by Domenici andSenators Joe Biden (D-Del.) and Richard Lugar (R-Ind.), who are primarycosponsors of the amendment.
Domenici, a principal author of the 1996 Nunn-Lugar-Domenicinonproliferation law, has worked to funded much of the 1996 law, and arelated 1991 Nunn-Lugar law, as a member of the Senate AppropriationsCommittee.
"Despite the successes of the Nunn-Lugar and Nunn-Lugar-Domenici laws,there remain many actions that should be taken to further reduce thesethreats. This new amendment expands and strengthens many of the programsestablished earlier, to further reduce threats to global peace,"Domenici said. "It addresses one of the most important realizations fromSeptember 11-that the forces of terrorism span the globe. It's now clearthat our nuclear nonproliferation programs should extend far beyond thestates of the former Soviet Union," he said.
Domenici noted in a statement to the Senate, that the legislativeinitiatives in his amendment closely mirror recommendations issued todayin a major National Research Council report titled, "The Role of Scienceand Technology in Countering Terrorism," that presents a number ofcritical recommendations to address threats of nuclear and radiologicalterrorism. The nuclear nonproliferation amendment authorizes theexpenditure of $100 million to renew and build on existing programs, andcreate new cooperative initiatives for the United States and Russia tocontrol, protect and neutralize materials and weapons of massdestruction. It would also renew authorization for the First Respondertraining program to improve domestic preparedness. (New Mexico Tech inSocorro is a partner in the First Responder program, and Sandia and LosAlamos national laboratories are key to U.S. nonproliferation programs.)The amendment would strengthen programs to improve the safety andsecurity of nuclear facilities and radioactive materials held bycountries are willing to enter into cooperative arrangements for threatreduction. It would accelerate and expand existing programs fordisposition of fissile materials, including the U.S.-Russian pact torender highly enriched uranium (HEU) into forms unusable for weapons.The bill would also work to foster greater global cooperation incontaining fissile materials that could be used as weapons of terror.
In his statement to the Senate, Domenici outlined progress underexisting laws and stressed the need to strengthen those programs,including the Nuclear Cities Initiative, the Initiatives forProliferation Prevention program, and the Nuclear Materials Protection,Control and Accounting program. "This amendment expands programs tocooperate with more countries in helping to secure their nuclearfacilities and radioactive materials. It recognizes that devices thatdisperse radioactive materials, so-called 'dirty bombs, can represent areal threat to modern societies. This is one of the key recommendationsof the National Research Council," Domenici said.
The amendment was cosponsored by Senators Mary Landrieu (D-La.), ChuckHagel (R-Neb.), Jeff Bingaman (D-N.M.), Frank Murkowski (R-Alaska), JeanCarnahan (D-Mo.), Blanche Lincoln (D-Ark.) and Barbara Mikulski (D-Md.).
The following is a summary of key provisions in the Domenici-Biden-Lugaramendment:
* Authorizes $15 million for a new research, development anddemonstration program to address nuclear or radiological ("dirty bombs")terrorism. Includes new responsibilities in First Responders program.Includes a partnership with Russia and extends assistance to any countryin dealing with either stray radioactive sources or with a dirty bombincident. Section 3156.
* Extends the expired authorization for training of First Responders.Section 3155.
* Authorizes $40 million to accelerate the "blend-down" of HighlyEnriched Uranium (HEU). Authorizes new approaches, in addition to theHEU Deal, to increase the rate at which HEU is modified to render itincapable of weapons use. Extends an option to all nations with HEU toreceive compensation in return for providing their stocks of HEU now.Section 3158.
* Authorizes $5 million to extend International Materials Protection,Control and Accounting (MPC&A) program to the international communityand develops options, working jointly with Russia, to accelerateconversion of reactors fueled with HEU. Section 3157.
* Encourages the Secretary to finalize an agreement with Russia forplutonium disposition that meets specific criteria. Section 3159A.
* Authorizes $20 million for the Energy Department to work with theinternational community to develop options for a global program forinternational safeguards, nuclear safety and proliferation-resistantnuclear technologies. Amount includes $5 million for DOE to increasenuclear safety work related to sabotage protection for nuclear powerplants and other nuclear facilities overseas and $10 million, led byDOE/NE, for advanced, proliferation resistant fuel cycles. Section3159B.
* Authorizes $15 million to expand programs supporting the supportingthe International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in strengtheninginternational nuclear safeguards. Section 3159B.
* Authorizes $5 million for assisting nations develop stronger exportcontrols. Section 3159C.
* Requires development of a comprehensive ten year plan to develop asustainable approach to MPC&A in the Russian Federation. Section 3159D.
* Requires an annual report on coordination and integration of all U.S.nonproliferation activities describing programs, synergies, coordination(including with private efforts), opportunities for new jointcooperative programs with foreign countries, and funding requestsintegrated across all federal agencies. Extends reporting requirement inFY2002 Defense Authorization Act to an annual report. Section 3159E.
* Streamlines contracting by other agencies with DOE labs foranti-terrorism work. Agencies may elect to follow the new procedures ormay use standard Work For Others model. Section 3159F. return to menu
3. U.S. Researchers Develop Tiny Nuclear Detector
Argonne National Laboratory
June 21, 2002
A small, portable detector for finding concealed nuclear weapons andmaterials has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's ArgonneNational Laboratory.
When fully developed, the device could assist international inspectorscharged with preventing smuggling and unauthorized use of nuclearweapons and materials.
The heart of the Argonne device is a small wafer of gallium arsenide(GaAs), a semiconducting material similar to silicon. When coated withboron or lithium, GaAs can detect neutrons, such as those emitted by thefissile materials that fuel nuclear weapons. Patents are pending onseveral detectors and their components.
The wafers are small, require less than 50 volts of power and operate atroom temperature. They also can withstand relatively high radiationfields and do not degrade over time.
"The working portion of the wafer is about the diameter of a collarbutton, but thinner," said Raymond Klann, who leads the group fromArgonne's Technology Development Division that developed the wafer anddetector. "It is fairly straightforward to make full-sized detectorsystems the size of a deck of cards, or even smaller. Something thatsmall can be used covertly, if necessary, by weapons inspectors tomonitor nuclear facilities."
The key to detection, he said, is to coat the gallium-arsenide withsomething like boron or lithium. When neutrons strike the coating, theyproduce a cascade of charged particles that is easy to detect.
The wafers are made by inexpensive, conventional microchip-processingtechniques, Klann said. They can be tailor-made for specificapplications by varying the type and thickness of the coating.
Compared to other neutron detectors, Klann's have a number ofadvantages.
One common type of neutron detector is based on a tube of gas, which isionized when neutrons pass through the tube. These detectors are largerin size and require more power than the GaAs detector.
Another common neutron detector uses silicon semiconductors. Compared tothe GaAs wafer, silicon-based detectors use more power, require coolingand degrade more quickly when exposed to radiation.
Klann's team also found that detection is improved by etching the waferwith cylindrical holes, like the dimples on a golf ball.
"We're testing various coating materials and thicknesses," he said, "aswell as various combinations of hole sizes and spacings to find the bestconfigurations for specific applications."
Klann's group has built and successfully demonstrated prototypedetectors. Argonne is now looking for commercial partners interested indeveloping the detectors for the commercial marketplace.
Other possible uses for GaAs-based detectors include high-vacuum spaceapplications or any other work requiring neutron detection.
Development of the wafer and detector was funded by the U.S. Departmentof Energy's Office of Science and the Spallation Neutron Source project.
The nation's first national laboratory, Argonne National Laboratoryconducts basic and applied scientific research across a wide spectrum ofdisciplines, ranging from high-energy physics to climatology andbiotechnology. Since 1990, Argonne has worked with more than 600companies and numerous federal agencies and other organizations to helpadvance America's scientific leadership and prepare the nation for thefuture. Argonne is operated by the University of Chicago as part of theU.S. Department of Energy's national laboratory system. return to menu
J. Links of Interest
1. Fact Sheet: U.S. Outlines G-8 Agreement On Non-Proliferation
DISCLAIMER: Nuclear News is presented for informational purposes only.Views presented in any given article are those of the individual authoror source and not of RANSAC. RANSAC takes no responsibility for thetechnical accuracy of information contained in any article presented inNuclear News.