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Nuclear News - 03/08/02
RANSAC Nuclear News, March 8, 2002
Compiled by David Smigielski

A. Cooperative Threat Reduction
    1. Russia Satisfied With US Assessment Of Nuclear Safety Cooperation, Interfax (03/07/02)
    2. Lugar Warns Of Nuclear Threats, Carolyn Skorneck, Associated Press (03/04/02)
    3. Shutting Down The Russian Candy Store, Sen. Joseph R. Biden, Jr, Chicago Tribune (02/28/02)
B. Nuclear Terrorism
    1. 'Dirty Bomb' Poses Radiation, Psychological Fallout, John J. Lumpkin, Associated Press (03/07/02)
    2. Data Show World Awash In Stolen Nuclear Material, Andrew Quinn, Reuters (03/06/02)
    3. Belarusian Police Seize Radioactive Substance From Crime Ring, Belapan (03/06/02)
C. Russia-Iran
    1. Russia To Build Second Atomic Power Plant In Iran -IRNA, IRNA, (02/08/02)
    2. Russian Nuclear Energy Cooperation With Iran To Continue - Official, RIA (03/07/02)
    3. Bushehr Nuclear Plant Construction Uninterrupted - Iranian Diplomat, ITAR-TASS (03/05/02)
D. Russia-Hungary
    1. Russia Refuses Rods, Tamás S Kiss, The Budapest Sun (03/07/02)
E. Russian Nuclear Industry
    1. Fault Shuts Down Russian Nuclear Power Unit, ITAR-TASS (03/08/02)
    2. Russian Parliament Passes Law On Spent Nuclear Fuel Imports, RIA (03/06/02)
F. Announcements
    1. Russian-Chinese Consultations On Strategic Stability Issues, Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (03/07/02)
G. Links of Interest
    1. The Threat Of Nuclear Terrorism: From Analysis To Precautionary Measures, Mycle Schneider, WISE-Paris
    2. Greater Attention Pledged To Russian Triad's Naval Leg, Center for Nonproliferation Studies, Monterey Institute of International Studies (03/04/02)
    3. Russia Watch, March 2002
    4. End Of A Brief Affair: The United States And Iran, Daniel Brumberg, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (03/14/02)
    5. NATO After 9/11: Crisis Or Opportunity?, Delivered by U.S. Senator Richard G. Lugar at the Council on Foreign Relations (03/04/02)

A. Cooperative Threat Reduction

Russia Satisfied With US Assessment Of Nuclear Safety Cooperation
March 7, 2002
(for personal use only)

Russia is satisfied with the positive assessment in the USA ofinteraction between the two countries in bolstering the safety ofmilitary and civilian nuclear facilities and keeping nuclear materialsintact. A Russian Foreign Ministry report obtained by Interfax onThursday [7 March] says this assessment is contained in a reportpublished by the US National Intelligence Council.

Cooperation between Moscow and Washington in this direction has helped"to carry out a large amount of work in recent years", said theministry.

Russia "attaches great significance to further cooperation with the USAin the field, which meets the interests of both countries, especially inlight of the 11 September 2001 events", stresses the report.

At the same time, Moscow believes that "reserves are available to makesuch cooperation more effective. If set in motion, they wouldsignificantly speed up the solution of tasks facing the two countries."
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Lugar Warns Of Nuclear Threats
Carolyn Skorneck
Associated Press
March 4, 2002
(for personal use only)

The United States must expand its fight against nuclear proliferationfar beyond the former Soviet Union, Sen. Dick Lugar says, contending theWest faces a real threat that terrorists will obtain, and use, weaponsof mass destruction.

"As horrible as the tragedy of Sept. 11 was, the death, destruction anddisruption to American society was minimal compared to what could havebeen inflicted by a weapon of mass destruction," the Indiana Republicantold the Council on Foreign Relations.

During Lugar's unsuccessful 1996 bid for the presidency, three of his TVads "depicted a mushroom cloud and warned of the horrible threat posedby the growing danger of weapons of mass destruction inthe hands of terrorist groups," he recalled.

"At the time, those ads were widely criticized for being far-fetched andalarmist," he said, but now they are viewed differently. The Sept. 11terrorist attacks "graphically demonstrated how vulnerable we are."

Lugar, a senior member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee andco-sponsor of the Nunn-Lugar program to dismantle and secure the formerSoviet Union's weapons of mass destruction, said he has little doubtOsama bin Laden or al-Qaida would have used such weapons if they hadthem.

The counter-proliferation program should be expanded to all countries inthe coalition against terrorism that are willing to work with the UnitedStates on safe storage, accountability and planned destruction of thedangerous weapons and materials, he said.

Lugar said he has been working with the Bush administration to give itthe authority to launch emergency operations to prevent a proliferationor weapon of mass destruction threat from "going critical."

Pakistan and India, nuclear neighbors that have fought two wars in thelast half-century over Kashmir and appeared this year to be on the brinkof conflict again, might be future partners in that effort, he said.

The United States has spent about $5 billion on counter-proliferation inthe former Soviet Union, an effort launched 11 years ago as the U.S.S.R.was breaking up.

The Nunn-Lugar program - named in part for former Sen. Sam Nunn, D-Ga. -has deactivated nearly 6,000 nuclear warheads, found legitimate jobs forSoviet weapons scientists to preclude them from selling their expertiseto rogue countries or terrorists, and started to control Sovietstockpiles of chemical and biological weapons.

The United States is spending $400.2 million this year on the effort,known officially as the Cooperative Threat Reduction Program. The Bushadministration is seeking $416.7 million for next year, a 4 percentincrease, said Pentagon spokeswoman Susan Hansen.

President Bush's reference to an "axis of evil" - North Korea, Iraq andIran - did not go far enough in expressing today's dangers formed by"the intersection of weapons of mass destruction," Lugar said.

America must lead the fight, but it also needs allies and alliances,creating a chance for NATO to reinvigorate itself if it uses itsupcoming Prague summit to focus on that threat, he said.

"If NATO does not now help tackle the most pressing security threat toour countries today ... it will become increasingly marginal," he said.

Wading into the argument over how to determine when the war on terrorismis won, Lugar suggested making two lists of nations: those that,willingly or not, contain terrorist cells, and those that possessmaterials, programs or weapons of mass destruction.

The anti-terrorism coalition would go nation-by-nation through the firstlist, sharing intelligence and cutting off illicit financing to rootout each cell. All countries on the second list would have to accountfor all materials and weapons of mass destruction and make them secure.

"The war against terrorism will not be over until all nations on thelists have complied with these standards," he said.
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Shutting Down The Russian Candy Store
Sen. Joseph R. Biden, Jr
Chicago Tribune
February 28, 2002
(for personal use only)

There are many sources for weapons of mass destruction, and it can takeyears to obtain or build them. But there's a shortcut, a place that hasit all. It's a candy store of deadly arms. That place is Russia. Not ayear goes by without a Russian being arrested for stealing nuclearmaterial or attempting to sell it on the black market. And we know thatAl Qaeda long ago contacted elements of the Russian mafia in search ofnuclear material.

Preventing proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and shuttingdown the candy store must be our foremost long-term objective inprosecuting the war on international terrorism. This would constitute achange from our efforts in recent years when the question of whether ornot to develop and deploy a national missile defense consumed ournational security debate.

Many Americans forget that without a nuclear, biological or chemicalwarhead, an ICBM is worthless. Last month, the National IntelligenceEstimate declared that "U.S. territory is more likely to be attackedwith weapons of mass destruction using non-missile means." After Sept.11, no one should doubt that future attacks are far more likely to comeon a ship bearing a smuggled nuclear weapon, a vial of biological toxinsin a backpack or a chemical agent dispersed in a crowded subway system.And our budget priorities must reflect the urgency of such threats.

A year ago, Republican Howard Baker, a former senator and White Housechief of staff, and Democrat Lloyd Cutler, a former White House counsel,chaired a bipartisan panel on the security of Russia's nuclearmaterials. Their conclusions were not encouraging. Their report said,"The most urgent unmet national security threat to the United Statestoday is the danger that weapons of mass destruction or weapons usablematerial in Russia could be stolen and sold to terrorists or hostilenation states and used against American troops abroad or citizens athome."

With U.S. assistance over the past decade, Russia has made some progressin securing dangerous weapons and material, but more must be done.Following a year-long review, the Bush administration concluded thatmost of our non-proliferation assistance programs are cost-effective andbeneficial to national security. But these conclusions are not reflectedin the administration's budget proposal. Some programs receive smallincreases, others remain flat, still others are targeted for spendingcuts.

We cannot afford to pinch pennies when Baker-Cutler argues $3 billionper year would go a long way to address the problem. That's a lot ofmoney, but we're spending $7.8 billion on national missile defenseresearch and development in fiscal year 2002 and the administration hasrequested a similar amount for fiscal year 2003. It doesn't make senseto focus on the potential last line of defense when we need to do somuch to bolster the more achievable first line of defense.

What can we do with additional resources? For starters, we can doublethe size of the Department of Energy's $174 million MaterialsProtection, Control and Accounting program, which safeguards Russia'snuclear materials. Russia recently signed an agreement to open up manymore nuclear sites to U.S. assistance, providing an opportunity tosubstantially increase the security of nuclear stockpiles guarded bylittle more than a chain-link fence.

Additionally, we could reduce Russia's Soviet-era debt in return forRussian investment of the proceeds in non-proliferation programs. Wehold more than $3 billion in such debt, and our European allies holdseveral times that. Debt swaps are a win-win proposition: Russia canavoid an expected payment crunch next year while bolstering securitythrough protection of sensitive materials and technologies.

Finally, high-level Russian officials say their government no longersees strategic value in assisting Iran's long range missile and nuclearweapons programs. A comprehensive U.S. non-proliferation approach toRussia must insist Moscow live up to its word.

Denying access to bioterrorists and their supporters in rogue regimes toweapons of mass destruction is one of the most important battles weface. Shutting down Russia's candy store is the place to begin.
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B. Nuclear Terrorism

'Dirty Bomb' Poses Radiation, Psychological Fallout
John J. Lumpkin
Associated Press
March 7, 2002
(for personal use only)

"Dirty bombs" that could contaminate cities with radioactivity are idealfor terrorists to incite panic and disrupt the economy, even though theweapons might not kill many people, U.S. nuclear officials saidWednesday.

Such a weapon -- also called a radiological dispersal device -- wouldrely on spreading industrial or medical-grade radioactive material in apopulated area, causing widespread fear of exposure, the officials toldthe Senate Foreign Relations Committee.

"The health consequences are not very great," said Nuclear RegulatoryCommission Chairman Richard Meserve. "The concern is a psycho-socialone."

Citing concerns that radioactive materials could easily fall intoterrorists' hands, the officials recommended increased monitoring forradiation and more controls of such materials used in industry andmedicine.

A radiological device detonated by terrorists would require theevacuation and decontamination of the immediate area, disrupting thelocal economy, officials from U.S. nuclear laboratories said at thehearing.

Hospitals would be overrun by worried people in the affected area.

Depending on factors ranging from the bomb's construction to the winddirection that day, a potent dirty bomb could kill a few people quicklyif they are exposed to enough radiation, officials said.

Severe contamination could require that buildings be razed, and theeconomic fallout could reach into the billions in a big city, officialssaid. But an orderly evacuation would limit people's exposure toradioactive materials, and the actual health effects would be minimal aslong as the victims avoided the contaminated area.

A smaller bomb probably would add to the incidence of fatal cancerslater in life for its victims -- perhaps four additional cancers in100,000 people, said Steven E. Koonin, provost of the CaliforniaInstitute of Technology.

Much of the U.S. thinking on the subject is theoretical because no onehas detonated a radiological weapon. But they do exist. In 1995, Chechenseparatists announced they had placed some Cesium-137 in a Moscow park;it was recovered by authorities. The Chechens threatened to covertlyrelease additional materials.

A dirty bomb would use conventional explosives to spread radioactivematerials, or spread covertly in the air, water or food. Officials havesaid the isotopes of Cesium-137, Cobalt-60 and Strontium-90 are likelycandidates for such devices because some remain radioactive for years.

Such radioactive isotopes are used in imaging of industrial equipment,medicine and food sterilization. While still under the authority of theNuclear Regulatory Commission, they are subject to far less controls theuranium and plutonium used in actual nuclear weapons.

The isotopes are easily found by detectors of radioactivity -- moreeasily, in fact, than uranium and plutonium.

U.S. Customs agents and big-city emergency response teams have handheldradiation sensors, said Donald D. Cobb, associate director for threatreduction at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In addition, the EnergyDepartment is developing a new generation of devices to detect nuclearradiation.

Officials also described fears of terrorists obtaining an actual nuclearweapon -- either through the purchase of an existing military weapon orby constructing one on their own.

The material for such a weapon is considered much more difficult toobtain, but the potential for death and destruction is far greater.Weapons-grade uranium and plutonium are kept under tight controls,although officials believe Russia is not able to fully protect itsstockpiles from theft.

Osama bin Laden has made no secret of his terrorist network's intentionto build weapons of mass destruction, a category that includes chemical,biological, radiological and nuclear weapons. But it does not appear hisgroup has obtained any radiological or nuclear weapons, officials said.
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Data Show World Awash In Stolen Nuclear Material
Andrew Quinn
March 6, 2002
(for personal use only)

International researchers have compiled what they say is the world'smost complete database of lost, stolen and misplaced nuclear material --depicting a world awash in weapons-grade uranium and plutonium thatnobody can account for.

"It truly is frightening," Lyudmila Zaitseva, a visiting fellow atStanford University's Institute for International Studies, said onWednesday. "I think this is the tip of the iceberg."

Stanford announced its database as U.S. senators held a hearing inWashington to assess the threat of "dirty bombs," or radioactivematerial dispersed by conventional explosives.

The Stanford program, dubbed the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theftand Orphan Radiation Sources, is intended to help governments andinternational agencies track wayward nuclear material worldwide,supplementing existing national programs that often fail to shareinformation.

The project took on added urgency following the Sept. 11 attacks on NewYork and Washington, which spurred fears that extremists might seek touse nuclear weapons in the future.

"It blows the mind, the lack of information," said George Bunn, aveteran arms control negotiator and a member of the database group."What we're trying to say is: 'What are the facts?"'


The facts, even on cursory examination, are chilling.

Zaitseva said that, over the past 10 years, at least 88 pounds (40 kg)of weapons-usable uranium and plutonium had been stolen from poorlyprotected nuclear facilities in the former Soviet Union. While most ofthis material subsequently was retrieved, at least 4.4 pounds (2 kg) ofhighly enriched uranium stolen from a reactor in Georgia remainsmissing.

Other thefts have included several fuel rods that disappeared from aresearch reactor in the Congo in the mid-1990s. While one of these fuelrods later resurfaced in Italy -- reportedly in the hands of the Mafia-the other has not been found.

The Stanford group, led by nuclear physicist and arms control researcherFriedrich Steinhausler, decided to form its database after becomingalarmed over the patchy nature of most of the available information.

Combining data from two existing unclassified databases and adding newinformation from sources ranging from government agencies to local mediareports, the team has evaluated each entry for accuracy and probability.

An expert at the Federation of American Scientists, the oldest U.S. armscontrol group, welcomed the establishment of the database, saying itcould play a crucial role in helping governments ascertain the reallevel of nuclear threat.

"This is a smart step," said Michael Levi, director of the group'sStrategic Security Project. "Knowing what's out there is the first stepto bringing it back in."


The database includes illicitly obtained weapons-grade nuclear materialas well as "orphaned" radiation sources -- scientific or medicalmaterial that may have been lost, misplaced or simply thrown away butwhich still poses a health and security threat.

Steinhausler said the database would be open only to approvedresearchers, and that the Stanford group was beginning to contactgovernment agencies in the United States and Europe about sharinginformation to build more effective international supervision of nuclearmaterial.

"We cannot supply the means to improve the situation," Steinhausler saidin a statement. "We're pinpointing weaknesses and loopholes and saying,'Do something about it."'

Zaitseva, visiting Stanford from the Kazakhstan National Nuclear Center,said the database was helping to build a dim picture of the market forstolen uranium, plutonium, and other dangerous materials.

But she added that while in many cases those behind nuclear thefts canbe identified, the ultimate destination of the nuclear material hasremained a mystery.

"We haven't found a single occasion in which the actual end users havebeen caught," Zaitseva told Reuters.

"We can only guess by the routes where the material is going. We can'tsay for sure if it is Iraq, Iran, North Korea (news - web sites), alQaeda or Hezbollah. We can only make assumptions."

She added that the dangers of an unsupervised, underground market innuclear material were likely to grow, noting that a U.S.-sponsoredprogram to secure nuclear components in the former Soviet Union thus farhad only locked up about a third of an estimated 600 tons ofweapons-usable material.

"It's just not protected," she said. "This is hot stuff. If you steal 20kilograms of that material, you can build a nuclear weapon."
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Belarusian Police Seize Radioactive Substance From Crime Ring
March 6, 2002
(for personal use only)

The Belarusian Prosecutor's Office is investigating a criminal caseinvolving crimes committed by an armed ring which acted in Homel andBrest Regions [southern Belarus] in 1998-2000, Belapan has learnt fromthe Prosecutor's Office's press centre.

The investigation has revealed over 20 members of the gang, led by aresident of the village of Kalinkavichy, Homel Region, Yakusevich.During the investigation 17 individuals, including 12 former convicts,were arrested. The gang has been charged with committing more than 100crimes, including three premeditated murders, cases of robbery,intentional destruction of property by setting houses and flats alightand stealing cars and other property.

The press centre also reported that the accused had been working outcriminal operations against staff of law-enforcement agencies. For thispurpose they had acquired explosives and tested them at the formermilitary training ground near Kalinkavichy. Members of the ring hadradioactive materials which they planned to plant on the premises of theInterior Ministry's departments in Kalinkavichy and Mazyr [HomelRegion].

The police have seized from the accused firearms, a grenade, explosives,four containers with a radioactive substance, six stolen cars and otherobjects.
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C. Russia-Iran

Russia To Build Second Atomic Power Plant In Iran - IRNA
March 8, 2002
(for personal use only)

Managing director of the Russian institute for nuclear equipment export,Viktor Kozlov, said on Friday [8 March] that Russia is consideringmeasures to start works to build the second atomic power plant in Iran'sBushehr region.

Talking to RIA-Novosti reporter, he said Russia has already presentedpapers and documents on the site of the second power plant in Iran.

He said the latest discoveries would be considered in the constructionof Iran's second power plant.

Kouzlov expressed the hope that works would begin soon on the powerplant's construction.

Russia said it is committed to its previous pledges on the building ofthe power plants in Iran and the latter has always made its commitmentstowards Russia.

Iran stresses that Iran-Russia nuclear cooperation would not threatenany country saying there had been basically no reason to stop suchcooperation.
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Russian Nuclear Energy Cooperation With Iran To Continue - Official
March 7, 2002
(for personal use only)

RIA correspondent Nikolay Terekhov: Russia has no plans to curtail itscooperation with Iran in the field of nuclear power engineering, ViktorKozlov, the director-general of Atomstroyeksport [Russia's nuclear powerconstruction exporter], has told RIA. Kozlov is on a working visit inIran.

"The construction of the Bushehr nuclear power plant is in an activestage and will continue to gain momentum," Kozlov said. The casing ofthe first reactor unit [as received] has already been delivered to Iran.The equipment needed to continue the work is planned to be supplied inApril-June, he said.

"After signing contracts with Iranian companies [subcontractors], inMarch, we shall start installing the equipment that has already beensupplied. In April, we are set to start erecting the reactor unit,"Kozlov said. The main goal of his visit to Iran, he said, "is tocoordinate with Iranian partners the most efficient ways to carry outinstallation and start-up works". "We are heading for starting up thereactor unit in December 2003," he added.
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Bushehr Nuclear Plant Construction Uninterrupted - Iranian Diplomat
March 5, 2002
(for personal use only)

Russian-Iranian cooperation on peaceful use of nuclear energy stillcontinues, a spokesman for the Iranian Foreign Ministry, Khamid RezaAsefi, said today. In a conversation with reporters, he deniedallegations that the construction of the nuclear plant at Bushehr hadbeen stopped.

The cooperation between Tehran and Moscow on nuclear energy is aimed atonly peaceful goals, so there is no grounds to stop the construction,the Iranian diplomat stressed.
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D. Russia-Hungary

Russia Refuses Rods
Tamás S Kiss
The Budapest Sun
March 7, 2002
(for personal use only)

The nation's sole 1,800 MW nuclear power station, Paksi Atomerômű Rt(Paks) is preparing to extend the life-span of each of its generators toas much as 50 years, according to György Mészáros, president of theboard at Paksi.

But the Russian Federal Supreme Court last week annulled a 1992bilateral agreement that allowed Hungary to send spent fuel rods to theUrals.

Balázs Kovats, spokesman for Paksi, said that although the agreement hasbeen in force since 1992, Hungary has not delivered any spent rods toRussia since 1996.

"These rods were only delivered to be recycled and returned and not forpermanent storage in Russia," he said.

However, he explained that there was a difference between spent nuclearfuel rods and nuclear waste.

"Contrary to the Russian court ruling that no nuclear waste may beimported to Russia, Hungary has never delivered any of its high andsemi-radioactive nuclear waste to any country," he said.

Kovats added that a second round of tests were being carried out byexperts near the village of Üveghuta, in south-western Hungary, which isslated as a final storage place for medium and low radiation waste.

The site would be filled with protective clothing, small machinerycomponents and other instruments that have been exposed to nuclear fuelrods, he said.

Kováts said that all spent fuel rods, made of uranium, and otherradioactive waste is currently being stored at a temporary depot on thegrounds of the Paks nuclear power station. He said that this would befull to capacity in 50 years.

Kovats explained that aside from Hungary, Russia had imported spent fuelrods from the Ukraine, Bulgaria and Slovakia.

"Based on the agreement, the spent rods must be returned to the countryof origin for permanent storage," he said.

Yevgeny Usov, a spokesman and activist for Greenpeace, said that hisorganization had filed suit against the Russian government last yearwhen it learned of a 1998 decision to allow nuclear waste from the Paksplant to be sent to the Chelyabinsk region in the Russian Ural Mountainsfor storage. This was reported by Hungarian news agency MTI.

Kovats denied any such action and added that Paks last shipped spentnuclear fuel to Russia under a private law contract, the details ofwhich were secret.

"Talks on return of spent fuel rods (for recycling) have continued withRussia," he said, but added that all attempts so far were withoutsuccess.

He said that, by Hungarian law, the permanent storage of Paks's spentnuclear fuel must be solved by 2040.

Paks currently has four 460 MW Soviet-type nuclear power generatingblocks, the capacities of which are expected to be boosted to above 500MW per unit in Paks' medium-term strategy.

Paks provides about 40% of Hungary's electrical energy and is nearlyfully owned by the State, via the national power distribution companyMVM.

In 2001 Paks produced power at a cost of Ft6.39 ($0.02) per kWh, thelowest electricity price on the domestic market.
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E. Russian Nuclear Industry

Fault Shuts Down Russian Nuclear Power Unit
March 8, 2002
(for personal use only)

The No 1 nuclear reactor has been shut down at Rostov nuclear powerstation at 0717 on Friday [0417 gmt 8 March]. The emergency was causedby failure of electrical equipment. The radiation level in the area ofthe station does not exceed permissible norms, ITAR-TASS was told by theRussian Ministry for Emergency Situations [Ministry of Civil Defence,Emergencies and dealing with the consequences of Natural Disasters].
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Russian Parliament Passes Law On Spent Nuclear Fuel Imports
March 6, 2002
(for personal use only)

RIA-Novosti correspondent Pavel Shevtsov: The State Duma on Wednesday [6March] passed at the third and final reading a bill under which theimport of spent nuclear fuel from atomic reactors, produced in foreigncountries, will take place on the basis of a positive finding of aspecial commission under the Russian president, RIA-Novosti'scorrespondent reports.

The committee will consist of a chairman and 20 members, five eachrepresenting the president the Federation Council [upper house], theState Duma [lower house] and the government.

According to the proposed law, the special commission will submit to thepresident and both houses of parliament annual reports on the state ofaffairs regarding the import of foreign produced spent nuclear fuel intoRussia. The rules on the special commission will be confirmed by apresidential decree.

The bill has now been sent for consideration by the Federation Council.
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F. Announcements

Russian-Chinese Consultations On Strategic Stability Issues
Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs
March 7, 2002

A regular round of bilateral interagency consultations on strategicstability issues took place in Beijing March 5-6 on the instruction ofthe leaderships of Russia and the PRC. The Russian delegation was led byDeputy Minister of Foreign Affairs Georgy Mamedov, and the Chinese byDeputy Minister of Foreign Affairs Wang Guanya.

During the consultations, the sides noted the importance of enhancingand developing the coordination of foreign policy efforts by Russia andChina with a view to building a reliable system of strategic stabilitybased on international legal mechanisms and the system of disarmamentand arms control treaties and agreements.

Mamedov informed the Chinese side of the progress in Russian-Americantalks on the reduction of strategic offensive weapons and the relatedproblem of strategic defensive arms, stressing that the Russian sideadvocates the fullest possible reflection in the documents beingelaborated, of the new strategic realities that have evolved inrelations between Russia and the USA and in the world since the end ofthe Cold War and of clear-cut legal obligations for radical, real andverifiable SOW reductions to 1,700-2,200 deployed nuclear warheadswithin 10 years in accordance with the earlier reached agreements of thePresidents of the two countries.

During the meeting the sides also held an in-depth exchange on a broadrange of topical nonproliferation issues, the joint solution of whichhas been adversely affected by the US decision to leave the ABM Treatyunilaterally. They are especially worried in this regard by the courseof the preparation for the Review Conference of the Parties to theTreaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, the nonenactment ofthe Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty and the situation with thestrengthening of the mechanism of implementation of the conventions onchemical and biological weapons. The sides also agreed to step upRussian-Chinese diplomatic collaboration in the UN, at the Conference onDisarmament and other forums, aimed at preventing the placement ofstrike weapons in outer space.

They concurred that strengthening the international nonproliferationregimes is particularly important now, in conditions of the growth ofthe threat of international terrorism and the unsettledness of majorregional conflicts.

Mamedov also met with PRC Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs ChouWen-chung. The sides exchanged views on Russian-American andChinese-American relations and other questions.

The sides agreed to hold the next consultations on strategic stabilityin Moscow.
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G. Links of Interest

The Threat Of Nuclear Terrorism: From Analysis To Precautionary Measures
Mycle Schneider
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Greater Attention Pledged To Russian Triad's Naval Leg
Center for Nonproliferation Studies, Monterey Institute of International
March 4, 2002
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Russia Watch
March 2002$FILE/Russia%20Watch%20%237.pdf
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End Of A Brief Affair: The United States And Iran
Daniel Brumberg
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
March 14, 2002
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NATO After 9/11: Crisis Or Opportunity?
Delivered by U.S. Senator Richard G. Lugar at the Council on Foreign
March 4, 2002

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DISCLAIMER: Nuclear News is presented for informational purposes only.Views presented in any given article are those of the individual authoror source and not of RANSAC. RANSAC takes no responsibility for thetechnical accuracy of information contained in any article presented inNuclear News.

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