1. Excerpts From Larry King's Interview With Sam Nunn, Sen. Richard Lugar,And Sen. Pete Domenici
CNN's Larry King Live
January 7, 2002
(for personal use only)
KING: We welcome now in Washington Sam Nunn, Co-Chairman and CEO of theNuclear Threat Initiative. Former U.S. Senator, served as Chairman ofArmed Services, Democrat, of course, of Georgia.
In Washington as well is Senator Richard Lugar, senior member of theForeign Relations and Select Intelligence Committees, member of theBoard of Directors of the Nuclear Threat Initiative, a Republican ofIndiana.
And Senator Pete Domenici, ranking member of the Budget Committee,member of the Governmental Affairs Subcommittee on InternationalSecurity, Proliferation and Federal Services also a member of the Boardof Directors of the Nuclear Threat Initiative, Republican of New Mexico.
That initiative was founded one year ago by Ted Turner and Sam Nunn.What does it do, Sam? What is its purpose?
SAM NUNN, CEO, NUCLEAR THREAT INITIATIVE: Larry, Ted Turner had thevision of trying to tackle an unfinished problem. And that unfinishedproblem is the way we have handled -- we and the Russians -- havehandled the nuclear materials, the nuclear know how, the biologicalmaterials, the chemical materials -- all of those things that are theresidue of the Cold War. But many of them are not being properlysafeguarded -- particularly in the former Soviet Union.
So this initiative in an overall broad sense has identified thesematerials and this know how that could be available to terrorist groups.It could proliferate as a clear and present danger not only to theUnited States but also to the world.
And we have looked at the response of governments and we have looked atthe threat. And then we have identified the huge gap between theresponse and the overall threat. And we're trying to help thegovernments fill that gap.
We would play only a small role compared to what governments have toplay but we hope to stimulate both our government, the Russiangovernment and the governments all over the world to better securenuclear weapons, material and know how -- and the same thing forbiological and chemical.
KING: Senator Lugar, is there any legislation attached to thisinitiative at all?
SEN. RICHARD LUGAR (R), INDIANA: No legislation but the originalNunn-Lugar Act 1991 and Nunn-Lugar-Domenici Act of 1996, of course, isbasic in propositions that got us started working with the Russians todestroy their weapons of mass destruction and to try to contain them, totry to secure them, identify them. We're still opening that part of itup.
The important thing about Nuclear Threat Initiative, however, and PeteDomenici and Sam Nunn and I have been busy with members of theadministration because the president has said essentially we want toroot out all terrorists. But the second proposition is we want toidentify every country that has materials and weapons of massdestruction. We want to know where they are, we want to know thatthey're secure, we want to have programs to destroy them if possible.That is a big order. That is the architecture of the war.
And this is an important war to win. We think that the Congress and theadministration thinking through this together can make a big headway.And the Nuclear Threat Initiative Group offers the research facilities,leadership, staff, Sam Nunn, to get the job done.
KING: Senator Domenici, this may sound Polly Ann-ish, would we all bebetter off if there were no nuclear weapons anywhere period or is MADstill an alternative?
SEN. PETE DOMENICI (R), NEW MEXICO: No -- I think Mutual AssuredDestruction -- MAD -- is on the way out, if it isn't already gone.
But I believe the challenge to human kind is one that we can really --we can meet and match.
And, first of all, we miss Sam as far as our teamwork on the Hill. ButI've been chairman of a subcommittee for five and a half years thatfunds all of the Department of Energy's nuclear activities includingnon-proliferation.
We have been very fortunate for the last six years that we have moveddramatically to fill some of these gaps with Russian in terms of thescientists -- seeing if we can keep them from leaving, in terms ofplutonium and highly enriched uranium -- seeing if we can contain it inthat country, and obviously materials accountability and the like havebeen part of our great mission through our national laboratories.
Now I think what we're saying is, "What's next?" And I think there'ssome big things next. Leading it all is what Dick Lugar just mentionedand that is can we find a way under American and Russian leadership tomake international arrangements so that terrorists will not have weaponsof mass destruction.
KING: Do we not get nervous, Sam Nunn, when we hear about conflictsbetween India and Pakistan -- two nations that have the weaponry?
NUNN:We do. And that's certainly one of the most dangerous places in theworld. The diplomacy in the last few days has been encouraging. But theshelling, the confrontation that is present there makes us all realizethat India and Pakistan don't have the safeguards and don't have theexperience and don't have the warning systems that we and the SovietUnion had but they've got nuclear weapons. So it's a very dangerousspot.
And I want to echo what Senator Domenici and Senator Lugar said -- Ithink keeping weapons of mass destruction out of the hands of terroristsis the number one security problem facing the globe. I would like to see-- and I believe I can speak for all three of us here -- a partnershipbetween the United States and Russian asking other nations to join. Itwould be a partnership against catastrophic terrorism.
I think this counter partnership is absolutely essential not only in thenuclear area but also in the biological arena where the Russians, ifanything, know more than we do because they unfortunately over theperiod of the Soviet Union's existence -- for a long period of time --they cheated on the biological treaty.
But we need their help in detection, we need their help in intelligence,we need their help in vaccines, we need their help in all of thesethings -- and we also need to get the world involved in that.
KING: Do you expect that help, Senator Nunn?
NUNN: I think this is -- with the relationship between President Bushand President Putin I think we have a tremendous opportunity now to moveforward with a different kind of sustained effort with Russia askingChina, asking our allies to join. It would not be simply U.S.- Russia.
But we would not only deal with the health problem and the nuclearproblem but we would deal with the infectious disease problem -- notjust terrorism but also infectious disease. We can help Russia a lotwith their public health system. This is a real opportunity for apartnership that transcends the friendship between two presidents andgoes from people to people.
DOMENICI: . . . with reference to what we are trying to do in terms ofnon-proliferation -- that is, mass destruction items. Actually we havethree great national laboratories and the Department of Energy that arematched up with the Nunn-Lugar Bill, which is the Department of Defense.
And when you add it all together there's a great effort that we'rebeginning to convince our president that he ought to support more wholeheartedly to both destroy this material like plutonium, highly enricheduranium. These are very exciting programs. And if we can get ourpresident to reach out and even do more we can all say that perhapsterrorism had some good positive results.
KING: Senator Nunn, when we have a thing like September 11th is one ofthe obstacles to your goal the fact that there may be many elements inthe United States less inclined to want to reduce on nuclear weaponry?
NUNN: That may be true but I think when people realize the hugeinventory that we have and the huge inventory that Russia has -- whenthey realize that President Bush had I don't know how many minutes todecide whether to give an order on September 11th to shoot down apassenger plane with Americans on it. But whatever number of minutes hehad there he probably has even less if one of his generals walked in andsaid, "We have a warning, Mr. President. We may be under attack."
One of the fundamental things that the United States and Russia shoulddo and I think must do -- not only reduce the numbers of weapons, whichwe now are agreeing to do, but also to increase the decision time beforeeither Russia or the United States would have to decide to launch awhole huge attack on each other.
That means that we must be absolutely certain about warning, it meansthat we need to help the Russians with their warning systems as strangeas it may seem. Because if their warning systems go wrong, Larry, itmeans that we could be devastated with a nuclear attack.
So we have a huge stake here. The Cold War is over. We wish them wellwith their free enterprise system and their movement toward freedom. Andwe've got to increase decision time on both sides and reduce thesenuclear dangers. And that means also reducing the numbers of weapons.
DOMENICI: And that doesn't mean that the national laboratories thatsupport our nuclear effort will be downsized. Their technology andscience will have to be even better and better equipped to handleworldwide problems. But reducing the levels is an absolute must.
KING: Senator Lugar, what about biological and chemical and toxicweaponry?
LUGAR: Well, that's always been a part of our quest -- these are weaponsof mass destruction. This country -- the United States -- decided a longtime ago to get out of the biological and chemical business. We pledgedto do that and we're active in doing it. It's apparent that in Russia --we've had a dispute even in this country as to whether to help theRussians destroy their chemical weapons, which they've pledged to do.
Now we've finally decided to help them and, even more importantly, toreach to our NATO allies -- the Germans, the Norwegians, the Canadians-- who are going to put money to (UNINTELLIGIBLE) the destruction.One-seventh of all the chemical weapons there.
On the biological situation the Russians have not opened up many oftheir military situations even now. I've visited a good number of thecivilians ones and we've made good headway in working with thosescientists in isolating the dangers of that.
But this is still fraught with disaster if we do not have morecooperativerelations with the Russians.
And then having gotten that -- the two of us -- a full court press oneverybody else to find where it is and to suppress it.
KING: Senator Nunn, frankly, are you optimistic about reduction of andeventual elimination of nuclear weaponry in the world?
NUNN: I'm optimistic about the reduction. I'm not sure I can foresee farenough in terms of total elimination because the verification procedureswould be extremely difficult there. But I do believe that we can reduce.And I believe that the United States and Russia -- if we do expand ourcooperation and assume world leadership and ask Russia to join us andget China and the allies to join we can do something about keepingweapons of mass destruction out of the hands of terrorists.
Larry, there are 43 countries in the world that have research reactors.Those research reactors produce small but lethal amounts of weapon gradematerials. Those are not all secured. We are asking for a catastropheunless we enter into a race -- a race to keep weapons of massdestruction --nuclear, chemical and biological -- out of the hands ofpeople who would use them. return to menu
2. Kazakhstan's Antinuclear Role
The Boston Globe
January 6, 2002
(for personal use only)
When Kazakhstan is mentioned, most people think of one thing: oil. Asthe principal source of Caspian energy, Kazakhstan supplies worldmarkets directly through the Caspian Pipeline Consortium.
Opened in September, this pipeline has a capacity of 1 million barrels aday. Furthermore, Kashagan field has been acclaimed as the mostsignificant new discovery of reserves in the past quarter-century.
When President Bush met with Kazakhstan's President Nursultan Nazarbayevat the White House in December, they discussed Kazakhstan's new role inworld energy and the campaign against terrorism. The meeting resulted ina joint statement that affirmed their strategic partnership and a USintention to help Kazakhstan integrate more fully into the globaleconomy.
While this meeting addressed important goals, it should also haveunderlined the significant role Kazakhstan has played in preventing thespread of nuclear weapons. Nazarbayev now has an opportunity to extendthat legacy by leading the negotiations for the Central Asian NuclearWeapon Free Zone Treaty.
In his recent book, ''Epicenter of Peace,'' Nazarbayev affirmsKazakhstan's pride in preventing the proliferation of nuclear weapons.The Semipalatinsk Soviet nuclear testing facility in northeasternKazakhstan saw more above-ground and underground nuclear tests than anyother site on earth. As a result, more than 300,000 people in the regionsuffer serious health effects from exposure to radiation.
Acutely aware of these consequences, Nazarbayev was the first presidentamong newly independent former Soviet states to call for the eliminationof nuclear weapons and the creation of a nuclear-free zone in theCentral Asian region.
In theory, Kazakhstan could have emerged as one of the world's nuclearsuperpowers. Had it taken control of the more than 1,400 nuclearwarheads left on its territory when the Soviet Uniondisappeared, it would commanded an arsenal larger than those of theUnited Kingdom, France, and China combined. Most of these warheads stoodatop missiles aimed at targets in the United States.
Instead, Kazakhstan volunteered to return all nuclear weapons to Russia,signed the NuclearNonproliferation Treaty, and entered the world as a nonnuclear state.There are no nuclear weapons in Kazakhstan.
Kazakhstan is now in an ideal position to exercise leadership in thecampaign to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons. Nazarbayev has longbeen a vigorous supporter of the creation of a nuclear weapons-free zonein Central Asia. On Feb. 27, 1997, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan,Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan signed the Almaty Declaration, whichproclaimed their intention to make Central Asia a territory free ofnuclear arms.
Unfortunately, this campaign has encountered difficulties over the lastseveral years, especially because of the 1992 Tashkent Treaty, acollective security agreement originally designed for the states of theformer Soviet Union. Russia is the only signatory that believes thatthis treaty would allow it to redeploy tactical nuclear weapons toCentral Asia in order to deal with threats emanating from the region.
Over the last few years, Central Asian members of the Tashkent Treatyexpressed their desire to restrict the provisions of the agreement inorder to allow for the complete denuclearization of the region. Russia,however, has voiced objections.
As the Central Asian leader with the most accomplished record onnonproliferation issues, Nazarbayev must take the lead to overcomeRussia's objections to the Central Asian Nuclear Weapons-Free Zone. Bushcould give him a hand. The advantages of creating a stable region freeof nuclear threat far outweigh whatever tactical advantages might begained from a redeployment of nuclear weapons in Central Asia. As therecent campaign in Afghanistan has demonstrated, nuclear weapons have nouseful role in the region.
During Nazarbayev's visit to Washington, the United States andKazakhstan made significantprogress by reaffirming their shared commitment to fighting terrorismand guaranteeing international energy supplies. Building upon thatfoundation, the two presidents should now instruct their governments toovercome remaining obstacles to assure that the nexus between Russia,China, Iran, and Afghanistan remains free of nuclear weapons.
Graham Allison is director of the Belfer Center for Science andInternational Affairs at HarvardUniversity's Kennedy School. return to menu
B. Nuclear Safety
1. Cleaner Russia Wins New Priority in Brussels
January 8, 2002
(for personal use only)
Environmental experts from the Russian government and the EuropeanCommission are drawing up the agenda for common action to tackle energywaste, water and air pollution, and damage to nature.
They meet in coming weeks at the start of a process to develop "a closerand more coordinated bilateral dialogue" which recognizes the keyimportance Russia has in the drive for sustainable development and thepreservation of global natural resources.
The program is being assembled within the Partnership and Co-operationAgreement between the European Union (EU) and Russia, and reflectscommitments to environmental initiatives undertaken at summits betweenRussian and EU leaders. It will drive forward environmental and nuclearsafety assistance, which has directed 350 million Euros ($312 million)to Russia since 1991.
Pushing the idea further is also the consequence of European Unionenlargement eastward and the gathering pace of economic transformationof Russia and Central and Eastern Europe. Pollution of the Baltic,Barents, Caspian and Black seas will be an important focus, the plannersforesee.
A Brussels information paper said the move noted "Russia's tremendousimportance to Europe's environment and the sustainable development ofthe planet," stressing "the key importance of the interdependence ofenvironmental, economic and social objectives."
Russia was custodian of more than 20 per cent of global water resourcesand forests, the document said, with vast areas of pristine naturevirtually undisturbed by man. But it also had "severe environmental andrelated health problems in urban and industrial centers," the notecontinued.
"Diseases and poisoning from heavy metals and other toxic materials area significant factor in the decline of life expectancy, which for malesis now only 58 years. A close partnership between the EU and Russia is avital interest for both sides and for global environmental security,"the authors said.
The program targets more efficient use of energy, and action to combatclimate change. More efficient generation, distribution and use ofenergy resources are seen as central to reducing greenhouse gasemissions and promised major economic benefits. The potential for energysavings in Russia each year is almost as great as its annual productionof natural gas, Brussels officials calculate.
Measures to improve public health will receive priority by addressingthe condition of the water supply system, critical in many parts ofRussia, experts say, and requiring urgent repairs to one third of allwater pipes, according to Russian government estimates.
Steps to improve resource efficiency will take in the management ofspent fuel from nuclear power stations and nuclear-powered submarines,and radioactive waste, the planners say. return to menu
2. Defense Ministry Denies Armenia Has Weapons Of Mass Destruction
January 8, 2002
(for personal use only)
Turkish Army chief of General Staff General Huseyin Kivrikoglu'sstatement that Armenia has weapons of mass destruction is an "absurd"attempt to compromise Armenia in the eyes of the internationalcommunity, Armenian Defense Ministry press spokesman Seyran Shahsuvariantold Arminfo on 7 January, as quoted by Groong. Kivrikoglu made thatclaim last month in an address to the U.S. administration, in which heincluded Armenia in a list of countries with nuclear weapons and arguedthat the same sanctions that have been imposed on Iraq should beextended to Armenia. return to menu
3. Russian Greenpeace Branch To Step Up Its Fight Against Nuclear WasteImports.
January 7, 2001
(for personal use only)
Yevgenii Usov, the spokesman for Greenpeace Rossii, the Russianaffiliate of the international ecological organization Greenpeace, toldthe RosBalt news agency on 4 January that "it is impossible to build upa democratic society in Russia while ignoring ecological problems." Usovalso noted that in the past year the greatest achievement made by hisorganization was the incorporation of Lake Baikal onto the WorldWildlife Fund's ecological heritage protection list, while the greatestdefeat was the adoption by the Russian parliament of legislationallowing for the import of nuclear waste into the country. In 2002,Greenpeace Rossii plans to launch campaigns for a total ban of nuclearwaste imports, the protection of forests, and the ratification by Russiaof a convention to reduce the output of organically indestructiblesubstances, Usov said. return to menu
4. Radioactive Material Hospitalizes 3
Las Vegas Sun
January 5, 2002
(for personal use only)
Tbilisi, Georgia- Three lumberjacks who found containers with highlyradioactive materials in a forest were hospitalized in seriouscondition, and hundreds of villagers living nearby have been thrown intopanic, officials said Saturday.
The two containers with strontium-90, believed to have been used insignal beacons during the construction of a nearby hydroelectric plant30 years ago, were found sometime last month near the village ofDzhvare, about 135 miles southwest of the capital Tbilisi.
Experts from the International Atomic Energy Agency arrived in Tbilision Saturday to visit the site, said Soso Kukushadze, head of theradiation and nuclear security department of the Environment Ministry.
The area, about 550-yards in diameter, has been fenced off, Kukushadzesaid. A special task force was being assembled, but he warned thatreceiving the equipment to remove the strontium is a question offinancing.
"We hope the government allocates the necessary money," Kukushadze said.
The containers are emitting radiation at a rate of 15 roentgens an hourfrom a distance of 5 feet - which is thousands of times higher thannormal background radiation.
About 3,000 villagers live in the area, and many have started to reportheadaches and other symptoms, but Kukushadze dismissed the cases as"radiation phobia."
"There is absolutely no threat to the health of the residents ofDzhvare," Kukushadze said. return to menu
5. Time To Take Stock Of Nuclear Insecurity
January 3, 2002
(for personal use only)
Evidence from captured al-Qaida sites in Afghanistan suggest that Osamabin Laden was doing everything he could to develop or acquire weapons ofmass destruction.
In light of such evidence, now would seem a good time to take stock ofnuclear materials and facilities around the world -- to make sure thatthey are adequately protected and that they won't fall into the hands ofterrorists who would use them against us.
Unfortunately, the news on this front is not entirely encouraging.
The main problem is the former Soviet Union, where thousands of nuclearweapons and hundreds of tons of fissile materials are stored infacilities with inadequate security. Workers at such facilities arepoorly paid, improperly fed and sorely tempted to sell nuclear materialsto the highest bidder.
And Russia isn't the only danger. Pakistan, the newest member of thenuclear club, is hardly a model of stability. Some members of itsmilitary forces have ties to Islamic radicals. China, meanwhile, hassome 400 nuclear weapons and about 30 tons of fissile materials storedin far-flung facilities, the security of which could be compromised in atime of domestic upheaval.
For that matter, a recent report suggests that security flaws at nuclearweapons facilities in the United States could leave Americanweapons-grade nuclear material vulnerable to theft or sabotage.
Even a cursory inventory suggests that the war on terrorism shouldinclude steps, by both the United States and the internationalcommunity, to improve nuclear security across the globe.
In particular, the United States needs to increase efforts to helpRussia improve its nuclear controls. The administration needs acontingency plan to provide emergency assistance in protecting Pakistaninuclear facilities. And the U.S. should explore the possibility ofrenewing nuclear-controls collaboration with China, which had beenbroken off after allegations of Chinese espionage in 1999.
Redoubling nuclear nonproliferation efforts both in South Asia andelsewhere also would serve the war against terrorism. The fewer nationsthat have nuclear weapons, the harder it will be for terrorists toobtain them. return to menu
C. Nuclear Power Industry
1. Nuclear Burma
The Washington Post
January 6, 2002
(for personal use only)
So now Burma is going nuclear. The Southeast Asian nation also known asMyanmar, one of the poorest in the world, has purchased a 10-megawatt"research reactor" from Russia. Groundbreaking is scheduled for thismonth at "a secret location near the town of Magwe," reports the FarEast Economic Review. The news coincides with reports that two Pakistaninuclear scientists, wanted for questioning in their own country forreported connections to Islamic extremists, found refuge in Burma. Noneof this means, necessarily, that the thuggish generals who run Burmahave aspirations for a nuclear arsenal. Maybe, like dictators throughoutthe atomic age, they see nuclear power as a glorification of theirotherwise unsung rule.
More interesting perhaps is the seller's motivation. Put differently, isthere nothing the Russian Atomic Ministry won't stoop to? Mostcivilized governments shun the Burmese regime. Democratic leaders whohad to fight their own dictatorships, such as South Korea's Kim Dae Jungand the Czech Republic's Vaclav Havel, tend to be the most supportive ofBurma's beleaguered democrats. But even governments less inclined to acton the basis of morals or ethics find the odiousness of Burma'sdictators too pungent to ignore -- which leaves the "engagers" in a kindof isolation of their own.
Leader of those engagers and arms suppliers, not surprisingly, is China.The Burmese junta's corruption and its history of massacring peacefulpro-democracy students must be comforting to Chinese President JiangZemin, who recently toured Burma. He said the nation "must be allowed tochoose its own development path suited to its own conditions" -- theusual words of dictators who do not allow their own people to chooseanything. Then we have Japan, ever eager for commercial advantage, andsome U.S. and European clothing importers and energy companies, such asUnocal. These, at least, show occasional signs of embarrassment at theassistance they render the world's leading practitioner of forced labor.And then there is Russia, selling MiG-29 fighters as well as nucleartechnology and demonstrating, yet again, its less than full embrace ofthe democratic values it claims now to cherish.
By aligning themselves with the junta, the governments of Russia andChina may gain commercially in the short term, but they are unlikely toreap long-term strategic advantage. Burma's economy is imploding. Theregime is so fearful of its own people that it recently banned aNorwegian postal stamp honoring Aung San Suu Kyi, the rightful leader ofBurma who remains under house arrest a decade after winning the NobelPeace Prize. The junta puts people in jail for owning fax or copyingmachines. That is a leadership without much prospect, and when it falls,and the nuclear reactor is rusting, most Burmese people are likely toremember who stood with them and who sided with their oppressors. return to menu
2. Russian Minister Sets Out Plans For Nuclear Industry In 2002
Interfax/BBC Monitoring Service
January 4, 2002
(for personal use only)
Industrial production growth in the nuclear industry in 2002 will be 3.5per cent, Russian Atomic Energy Minister Aleksandr Rumyantsev has said.His forecast figures were released on the government's Internet site.
According to him, in 2002 the ministry will mainly concentrate onensuring defence capability, improving the safety of the country'senergy, economic, and ecological sector, and maintaining Russia'sindependence in science and technology. Special attention will be paidto antiterrorist measures, physical defence systems, and the control andaudit of fission materials, the minister stressed.
Rumyantsev said the industry has such large-scale plans in 2002 asboosting electricity output at nuclear plants by 6 per cent to 144bn kW,completing the modernization, reconstruction and extending the operationof power block three at the Novovoronezh plant and block one at theKursk plant, continuing the construction of nuclear power units with ahigh degree of operational readiness (the third block of the Kalininplant, the second block of the Volgodon plant, the fifth block of theKursk plant, and the fifth block of the Balakov plant).
The minister said in 2002 that the industry would continue building drytanks for the long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel, expand the exportof nuclear fuel, upgrade control over its proliferation, and enlargeservices on nuclear and used nuclear fuel markets.
According to Rumyantsev, Russia will continue building nuclear powerstations in China, Iran and India, complete construction in the Arcticand Pacific regions of on-shore terminals for used nuclear fuel unloadedfrom nuclear-powered submarines, and scrap decommissioned submarines,including the Kursk. return to menu
1. Notice of Advisory Committee Meeting, Joint Advisory Committee onNuclear Weapons Surety, Department of Defense, January 3, 2002
The Joint Advisory Committee on Nuclear Weapons Surety will conduct aclosed session on February 4 and 5, 2002 at Science ApplicationsInternational Corporation, San Diego, California. The Joint AdvisoryCommittee is charged with advising the Secretaries of Defense andEnergy, and the Joint Nuclear Weapons Council on nuclear weapons suretymatters. At this meeting the Joint Advisory Committee will receiveclassified briefings on nuclear weapons systems safety and security.
In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Public Law92-463, as amended, Title 5, U.S.C. App. II, (1988)), this meetingconcerns matters sensitive to the interests of national security,listed in 5 U.S.C. Section 552b(c)(1) and accordingly this meeting willbe closed to the public. return to menu
E. Links of Interest
1. Global Spent Fuel Management Summit Conference Papers Global Summit II
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