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Nuclear News - 11/15/01
RANSAC Nuclear News, November 15, 2001
Compiled by Michael Roston


A. Cooperative Threat Reduction
    1. Debt Forgiveness for Moscow, Washington Post (11/15/01)
    2. Russia, USA to expand nuclear materials safety cooperation, BBC Monitoring Service (11/14/01)
    3. Russia Official Blasts Missile Cuts, Jim Heintz, Associated Press (11/14/01)
    4. Bush and Putin Try to Decide How Many Bombs Make a Superpower, Michael Hewitt, Russian Observer (11/14/01)
    5. Chernobyl Engineers Here For Study Tour, Cincinnati Post (11/13/01)
B. Nuclear Terrorism
    1. Bin Laden Does Not Have Nuclear Weapons, Russian General Says, RFE/RL Newsline (11/14/01)
    2. Russian Official Refuses to Rule Out Chance that Nuclear Materials Were Stolen, BBC Monitoring Service (11/13/01)
    3. Urgent Priority for Nuclear Terrorism, Steven Chapman, Washington Times (11/13/01)
    4. Al Qaeda Said to Claim Ability to Buy Nuclear Arms, Reuters (11/12/01)
C. US-Russia Relations
    1. New Rules for Weapons Cuts, New York Times (11/14/01)
    2. Nuclear Arms Cut Figures Hazy: Some Warheads Bush Offers to Remove Were Slated for Retirement, Marego Athans, Baltimore Sun (11/14/01)
D. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty
    1. Russia Warns Against 'Slightest Possibility of Nuclear Blackmail', Pravda.RU (11/11/01)
    2. Russia, USA to Join Hands for More Safety in Nuclear Testing Grounds: Ex-Defence Minister, Pravda.RU (11/11/01)
    3. Russia Says Test Ban Impasse Could Bring Crisis, Reuters (11/11/01)
E. Russia-Iran Cooperation
    1. Russian Equipment to be Delivered to Iranian Nuclear Plant on 16 November, BBC Monitoring Service (11/13/01)
F. Nuclear Waste
    1. Ukrainian Plant Tests Carriage for Transporting Nuclear Waste, BBC Monitoring Service (11/13/01)
    2. Russia Will Earn Money on Spent-Fuel Processing, Dmitry Litvinovich, Pravda.RU (11/09/01)
    3. Greens Are Set to Bring Atomic Ministry to Trial, Sergei Ivashko, Gazeta.Ru (11/09/01)
    4. Spent Nuclear Fuel from Bulgaria Delivered to Russian Facility, BBC Monitoring Service (11/09/01)
    5. Spent Nuclear Fuel Arrived at Zheleznogorsk, Rashid Alimov, Bellona Foundation (11/09/01)
G. Russian Nuclear Forces
    1. Russia's Nuclear Arsenal Large, Aging, RFE/RL Newsline (11/09/01)
H. Submarine Dismantlement
    1. Russia Needs Several Hundred Million Dollars to Salvage Nuclear Submarines, RFE/RL Newsline (11/09/01)
I. Addresses
    1. Transcript: Bush Announces Deep Cuts in Nuclear Arsenal (excerpted), The White House, Office of the Press Secretary (11/13/01)
    2. Statement by Russian President Vladimir Putin in Relation to Destruction of Last Nuclear Missile Withdrawn from Territory of Ukraine, Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (11/13/01)
    3. Speech by Russian President Vladimir Putin at a Meeting with the Commanding Personnel of the Russian Armed Forces, the Ministry of Defense, Moscow, Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (11/12/01)
J. Announcements
    1. Fact Sheet: U.S. Government Nonproliferation and Threat Reduction Assistance to the Russian Federation, The White House, Office of the Press Secretary (11/13/01)

A. Cooperative Threat Reduction

1.
Debt Forgiveness for Moscow
Washington Post
November 15, 2001


A Senate panel approved yesterday a proposal that would forgive portionsof Russia's debt to the United States in return for concrete steps byMoscow toward the nonproliferation of weapons.

The Senate Foreign Relations Committee, meeting the day after PresidentBush and Russian President Vladimir Putin agreed to cut their nuclearweapons stockpiles by two-thirds, voted unanimously for a plan toreimburse Moscow for the costs of selected nonproliferation programs byforgiving an equal amount of debt to the United States.

"This is something that is very fertile ground and of considerableinterest to the Russians," said committee Chairman Joseph R. Biden Jr.(D-Del.), who developed the proposal along with Sen. Richard G. Lugar(R-Ind.).

Biden said Moscow has about $3.5 billion in debt to Washington and about$30 billion to European nations and is interested in eliminating thosedebts to raise its standing with international lending institutions.

"I am very hopeful this is an idea whose time has come," he toldreporters, describing it as a "slam dunk" even though he said the WhiteHouse has been noncommittal.
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2.
Russia, USA to expand nuclear materials safety cooperation
BBC Monitoring Service
November 14, 2001
(for personal use only)


Text of report in English by Russian news agency ITAR-TASS

Moscow, 14 November: Russian Atomic Energy Ministry plans to enhancecooperation with the United States in fostering the security andsafekeeping of nuclear materials, the ministry's official VladislavPetrov told TASS today.

The ministry has drawn up draft programmes for long-term cooperationbetween Russian nuclear centers and US laboratories, the official said,adding that the drafts would be authorized in the near future.

The Atomic Energy Ministry currently controls 40 nuclear-risk facilitiesin Russia.

Russian and US specialists have for more than five years conducted jointresearch into ways of improving the systems of accounting, control andphysical protection of nuclear materials stored at these centres.

New equipment has been installed at the nuclear centre in Sarov (formerArzamas-16) in the Nizhniy Novgorod Region.

There are plans for expanding cooperation further to encompass measuresto prevent nuclear terrorism and eliminate its likely effects, enhancethe safety of nuclear materials and spent fuel transportation and otherproblems crucial to the atomic power industry.

Source: ITAR-TASS news agency, Moscow, in English 1400 gmt 14 Nov 01
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3.
Russia Official Blasts Missile Cuts
Jim Heintz
Associated Press
November 14, 2001
(for personal use only)


A top Russian military official objected Wednesday to President Bush'sproposal for unilateral missile cuts, questioning whether suchreductions could be verified.

Vice Admiral Valentin Kuznetsov of the Russian Defense Ministry said``we are heading in the right direction in the elimination of hugemissile arsenals.'' However, he said, ``what will guarantee the meetingof the reduction and verification'' of the promised cuts? Kuznetsovasked in a speech at the General Staff Military Academy.

His statement came after Bush, meeting Tuesday with President VladimirPutin in Washington, proposed a ceiling of 1,700-2,200 nuclear warheadsfor the United States. Bush wants to make the cuts under an informalagreement. Putin said Russia's position on the 1972 Anti-BallisticMissile Treaty ``remains unchanged.''

Kuznetsov said the United States and Russia have ``worked out a thoroughmechanism in the sphere of control and verification relating to thedestruction of strategic defensive weapons. Discarding it now would bewrong.''

Putin last year proposed cutting each country's strategic nuclear armsto 1,500 warheads. But he said he wants cuts made under a formalagreement.

The Russian position reflects Moscow's uneasiness over the Bushadministration's insistence on acting unilaterally in the arms sphere,even as the two countries have begun to cooperate more closely in thewake of the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks in the United States.

Russia remains concerned about long-term U.S. intentions, particularlyBush's push to build a national missile defense system that wouldcontravene the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty. Moscow argues thatabandoning the pact would knock out the keystone of arms control andother security agreements.

Also Wednesday, Russia's Atomic Ministry said it drafted a program forcooperation with U.S. nuclear laboratories in order to enhance securityof its nuclear facilities.

If and when approved, the program would help upgrade management of fileson nuclear materials and better protect radioactive substances fromtheft, the ministry said in a statement.

The United States has said that security of Russian nuclear facilitiesis not tight and has raised concerns that terrorists could try toacquire radioactive substances from Russian sources.
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4.
Bush and Putin Try to Decide How Many Bombs Make a Superpower
Michael Hewitt
Russian Observer
November 14, 2001
(for personal use only)


Much attention has been paid to the slew of economic reforms that havebreezed through the State Duma since President Putin assumed office. Thelegislative progress, however, has not been limited to fiscal andmonetary policy. In April 2000, a significant logjam in the realm ofstrategic reform was broken when the Duma approved the START-II Treaty.

The legislature's approval of the Treaty opened the door for furtherarms reduction negotiations. It is anticipated that Presidents Bush andPutin will agree upon the next round of warhead reductions duringmeetings scheduled at Bush's ranch in Crawford, Texas.

According to Dr. Thomas Keaney, Executive Director of the Foreign PolicyInstitute at Johns Hopkins University, "the United States for years hasbeen anticipating and hoping for a reduction in the number of Russianand U.S. warheads. So long as the Duma refused to pass START-II,however, any negotiations that called for going beyond [the Treaty] wasconsidered a non-starter."

Following their first day of meetings, the presidents held a joint pressconference, during which they commented on efforts to support theformation of a post-Taliban government in Afghanistan. In addition,President Bush stated that the two sides were considering reducingcurrent nuclear weapons arsenals by as much as two-thirds.

In the days leading up to the summit, the U.S. president expressed hisintent to propose a specific number of warheads with President Putin -in the hope that the two leaders could quickly come to an agreement,thereby circumventing slower diplomatic channels.

Although both sides are seeking to reduce their stockpile of warheads,negotiations are complicated by defense requirements and political aims.Some experts are speculating that the U.S. is interested in finding anumber of warheads low enough to moderate Russian concerns regarding theproposed missile defense system.

As Dr. Keaney notes however, determining the minimum number of warheadsrequired is a difficult task. "The real issue facing [each side] is thequestion of what number of bombs are needed in order to maintain yourstatus as a superpower and not fall down to the level of the French."

When asked if NATO may take on a new form that would include theRussians, Dr. Keaney stated, "previous expansions of NATO through thePfP (the Partnership for Peace Program) didn't have a natural end. Itonly led to further complications. Such means of cooperation are wellbeyond the point of being productive. I do think that the currentatmosphere [of cooperation] will lead to some sort of new relationshipwith Russia that will involve NATO."

Russia does not currently meet membership requirements for NATO.Consequently, a new cooperative security framework involving NATO andRussia would have to be built on a different set of regulations, whoseformulation would no doubt raise disagreements among existing NATOmembers.

"[If a new security framework were to be formed] the French and Germans[would] have to decide what sort of European security framework they arelooking for. [The inclusion of Russia] may concern France and Germany inparticular because it may threaten their dominate position and lessenthe vote they now have," said Keaney.

As the U.S. and Russia seek to reduce the number of active warheads, thedebate continues on how much assistance the U.S. should provide forprograms that secure Russian warheads and weapons-grade material.

President Bush ordered a review of all U.S. nonproliferation programsafter taking office, however Congress and nonproliferation experts arecalling on the administration to increase funding to nonproliferationprograms. "I think the recent statements by Bush concerning Osama binLaden's potential sources of nuclear, chemical, and biological materialis a sign that the administration is prepared to put more money inassisting Russia to continue to secure its material," noted Keaney.
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5.
Chernobyl Engineers Here For Study Tour
Cincinnati Post
November 13, 2001
(for personal use only)


Sixteen engineers from Ukraine's Chernobyl nuclear power plant are inthe United States for a three-week study tour that will help them builda permanent, leak-proof cover for the closed reactor.

''This is a mammoth project, possibly the largest construction job inthe world at this time,'' said Lee Cole, president of Cincinnati'sCenter for Economic Initiatives, which organized the tour.

Western governments are giving about $750 million to this project. Itwill employ some 6,000 people who worked at Chernobyl when the plant wasoperating, Cole said.

CEI Vice President James Titus and CEI associate Thomas Dunn areorganizing and leading the tour. They are partners in Dunn & Titus PSC,a Cincinnati architectural and construction management firm.

''It's going very well,'' Dunn said Monday as the group toured variousconstruction sites around Cincinnati.

The group has gone to Chicago to study some of the architecture thereand has been to facilities including a window plant and a precastconcrete plant.

The United States, along with several other Western nations, askedUkraine to close Chernobyl and make it safe for the future, Lee said.The U.S. government has asked CEI to help.

On the tour, which began Oct. 29 and will end Sunday, the Ukrainiangroup is learning about testing techniques, management systems,refitting nuclear power plants to use fossil fuels, modern constructionequipment and building materials. Construction professionals from fourstates are volunteering their time and expertise.

Tour participants also will be working on building new residences inSlavutych, a city built hastily in 1986 to house evacuated Chernobylworkers.

The Center for Economic Initiatives has been using the study tour methodto give business people from the former Soviet Union a firsthand look atmodern technologies, management and productivity methods and free-marketcompetition for several years.

The tours grew from efforts in 1991 to form a trading partnership.

A CEI-run study tour in October brought 15 information technologyspecialists from Chernobyl to the United States.
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B. Nuclear Terrorism

1.
Bin Laden Does Not Have Nuclear Weapons, Russian General Says
RFE/RL Newsline
November 14, 2001
(for personal use only)


Colonel General Igor Valynkin, the chief of the Defense Ministry's 12thchief directorate that supervises Russia's nuclear arsenal, said on 13November that "[Osama] bin Laden now does not have and cannot havenuclear arms of either Soviet, Russian, or foreign manufacture," APreported. But he added that bin Laden could at some point acquire suchweapons due to his ties with the secret services of Pakistan, which doeshave nuclear weapons. The same day, "Vremya novostei" reported that theRussian government is increasingly concerned about the problems ofnuclear security and is issuing new orders to tighten control over allnuclear materials in Russia. Meanwhile, in an article in "Rossiiskayagazeta" on 13 November, presidential security advisor Igor Sergeev saidthat the terrorist acts in the U.S. may have lowered the threshold forthe use of nuclear weapons. He called for international steps to reversethat trend. PG
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2.
Russian Official Refuses to Rule Out Chance that Nuclear Materials Were Stolen
BBC Monitoring Service
November 13, 2001
(for personal use only)


Text of report by Russian TV6 on 13 November

Presenter Marianna Maksimovskaya Usamah Bin-Ladin has once again beensaying that he is quite capable of using nuclear weapons. There arefresh claims that Russian scientists may be involved in trading nuclearmaterials. A senior official from Gosatomnadzor State Nuclear andRadiation Safety Inspectorate spoke to one of our correspondents todayabout whether thefts from Russian nuclear installations were possible.With more on this, Viktor Detlyakovich.

Correspondent Usamah Bin-Ladin is sure that, if he so wished, he couldbuy Russian nuclear weapons as soon as tomorrow. He said this to thejournalist, Hamid Mir editor of Ausaf, a Pakistani daily . The editor ofone of Pakistan's newspapers met Bin-Ladin very recently, in amountainous area of Afghanistan.

Journalist Bin-Ladin told me that, in actual fact, if you have 10m or20m dollars, it's not difficult to buy a atomic bomb. You can buy it inAsia, or in Russia. I don't know if you know, but over the last fewyears 17 atomic bombs have been illegally transported out of Russia.

Correspondent This statement from the Pakistani journalist concurredwith an article in The Washington Post. Journalists claim that a seriousattempt to steal nuclear materials took place recently in Russia. Thenewspaper quoted a senior official at Gosatomnadzor, Yuriy Volodin.

In Russia, there are almost 70 nuclear installations where nuclearmaterials are stored and used. Gosatomnadzor is confident that stealingthem isn't so easy.

But in an interview with us, Yuriy Volodin, who was quoted by the USnewspaper, confirmed that there was a recent case where a nuclearinstallation took delivery of a consignment of fuel which was smallerthan stated in the accompanying documents.

Volodin, captioned as head of the security directorate at GosatomnadzorThere is a dispatcher, and there is a recipient. If the dispatcherreceives as heard one amount, and the recipient receives less or morethan that, then we call that a discrepancy. And so there must be areason somewhere. In theory it is possible that a theft did take place.

Correspondent The investigation into this case is yet to be completed.But Gosatomnadzor says that it has a lot of reservations about the wayin which nuclear installations are guarded.

Volodin I wouldn't so much emphasize the storage of nuclear materials astheir transportation. There are certain requirements in this area aswell, in terms of their physical protection. But it is transportation, Iwould say, which is the most vulnerable area, as far as theft isconcerned.

Correspondent And yet, according to experts, there are few fewerattempts to steal nuclear materials now than at the start of the 1990s.At that time, employees of the enterprises were stealing them, keen totake advantage of the high prices. For example, one kilogram of uraniumcosts 1,000 dollars on the world markets. The criminals were taking thenuclear materials out of the enterprises, but had no idea of whom tosell them to, and so ended up in prison. Now this practically neverhappens, because everyone has realized that you can't make a bomb out ofuranium alone.

Volodin Even if Bin-Ladin was able to buy large quantities of nuclearmaterials, that doesn't mean that he would be able to make some sort ofexplosive device out of them. You see, after all, a nuclear explosivedevice has a pretty complicated design. So, if we were talking abouthaving rapid access to a nuclear explosive device, we would need to talkabout stealing specific parts, and not nuclear materials.

Correspondent Strictly speaking, Usamah Bin-Ladin said in his interviewthat he was prepared to buy a ready-made bomb, but representatives fromthe Russian Defence Ministry and the Russian Foreign Ministry today saidthat Russian nuclear weapons are under reliable guard, and cannot findtheir way into the hands of international terrorists.

To prove his own words, all Bin-Ladin has to do is buy just one of the17 Russian atomic bombs, which according to him, have been transportedout of Russia and are being offered for sale.

SOURCE: TV6, Moscow, in Russian 1600 gmt 13 Nov 01
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3.
Urgent Priority for Nuclear Terrorism
Steven Chapman
Washington Times
November 13, 2001
(for personal use only)


He was the only person making his way into the city; he met hundreds andhundreds who were fleeing, and every one of them seemed to be hurt insome way. The eyebrows of some were burned off and skin hung from theirfaces and hands. Others, because of pain, held their arms up as ifcarrying something in both hands. Some were vomiting as they walked.Many were naked or in shreds of clothing. On some undressed bodies, theburns had made patterns ... Almost all had their heads bowed, lookedstraight ahead, were silent, and showed no expression.— John Hersey, "Hiroshima."

Does that passage horrify you? Me, too. But not everyone feels the sameway. Osama bin Laden might read it as a lovely vision of New York orWashington after he has acquired and detonated an atomic bomb.

This scenario is not just a theoretical possibility. It is somethingthat could actually happen in the next few years if we don't take everymeasure possible to prevent it.

Airline security is vital; combating bioterrorism is important; winningthe war in Afghanistan is critical. But success in those areas will becold comfort if the day comes when tens of thousands of Americans areconsumed in a mushroom cloud. Preventing nuclear terrorism thereforeought to be the single highest priority of our government. Even today,it's not clear that it is.

Last week, President Bush said that al Qaeda is trying to obtainchemical, biological and nuclear arms. That merely echoes bin Laden, whosays he has a "religious duty" to do so and has hinted he may havenuclear weapons already. If his goal is to slaughter and terrorizeAmericans, as he has said, he couldn't find a better way.

Americans have yet to fully grasp the depth and urgency of the peril weface. Maybe that's because, during the Cold War, we grew accustomed tothe fact that we could all die in a nuclear war. But that danger wasremote, because we had an answer: nuclear deterrence. Deterrence,unfortunately, looks useless against our new foes — who would not leavea return address on the bomb, and who might be willing to commit suicidefor their gruesome cause.

To even contemplate the risk of this sort of attack is to invite panicor despair. We can be sure there are hundreds of terrorists around theworld scheming to get a doomsday device, and we know there are far toomany ways they might get it.

One source is Russia, which has thousands of warheads, including somethat may not be as secure as we would like. Russia also has some 500tons of enriched uranium lying around that could be used to make bombs.A few years ago, one Russian official said dozens of small "suitcasebombs" could not be accounted for.

Russia also has thousands of pounds of fissile material, which may ormay not be under ironclad control. If they could smuggle out 50 or 100pounds of the stuff, terrorists might be able to build a bomb. Onceterrorists have such a weapon, it would be almost impossible to keepthem from sneaking it into the United States and setting it off.

Given all these realities, the situation may look hopeless. It isn't —quite. The good news is that if bin Laden had the bomb, he would haveused it already. Those suitcase nukes may never have escaped control.Even if terrorists were able to get one, it's very unlikely they wouldhave the codes and other expertise to detonate it.

Nor is it a simple task to convert fissile material into a weapon. MITnuclear physicist Theodore Postol says the project would require so muchin the way of machinery, materials, technical support and funding thatno terrorist group would be likely to manage it — at least not withoutthe active help of some government, such as Iraq. But any governmentthat collaborated in a plan to detonate an atomic bomb on American soilwould be sealing its own doom, and Saddam Hussein has shown no interestin martyrdom.

So the immediate risk is low. But a slight chance of an Earth-shatteringcatastrophe is too much to accept.

During World War II, we moved heaven and Earth in the Manhattan Projectto build an atomic bomb before Adolf Hitler could — because we knew oursurvival hung in the balance. Today, we have to embrace a similarcommitment to averting nuclear terrorism.

The questions we need to ask ourselves and our leaders, every day, arethese: Are we doing everything humanly possible to prevent a nuclearholocaust on our soil? And if we are not, and if we fail, how will weever live with ourselves?
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4.
Al Qaeda Said to Claim Ability to Buy Nuclear Arms
Reuters
November 12, 2001
(for personal use only)


A Pakistani journalist who interviewed Osama bin Laden last week said onMonday the Saudi-born dissident had told him nuclear arms could bebought on the central Asian black market for $10 million to $20 million.

Hamid Mir, editor of the Urdu-language Ausaf newspaper, told CNN's``Larry King Live'' that he had pressed bin Laden and his aide, AymanZawahri, on the issue after they said they would retaliate in kind forany U.S. use of nuclear warheads.

``He said that if the United States of America is going to use thesekinds of weapons against us, then we reserve the right to respond backthe same way,'' said Mir, who said he had conducted the interviewsomewhere in Afghanistan after being taken blindfolded to a secretlocation.

``He used the word 'nuclear deterrent' and he said 'we will not usethese weapons first but we will retaliate'. After that I tried my bestto get more information on from where you get these kinds of weapons,but he was not willing to speak more on this issue,'' Mir said.

``But when my interview was finished and we were just having tea, Iengaged him again on this issue and I was trying to get information fromwhere you got these kind of weapons.

``They gave me some indication that you can if you have $10 million, $20million, you can get these kinds of weapons from the underworld mafia ofthe central Asian states and some disgruntled Russian scientists.''

Mir's comments elaborated on accounts of his interview published inPakistan on Saturday, when bin Laden's reference to nuclear retaliationwas first reported.

Senior U.S. officials, including Secretary of State Colin Powell, saidon Sunday it was unlikely that bin Laden or his al Qaeda network hadaccess to nuclear arms.

The United States is leading a military campaign to destroy al Qaeda andits Taliban protectors, accusing bin Laden's group of being behind theSept. 11 attacks on America in which about 4,500 people were killed.
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C. US-Russian Relations

1.
New Rules for Weapons Cuts
New York Times
November 14, 2001
(for personal use only)


The last time American and Russian leaders stepped into the East Room ofthe White House to initiate a new round of nuclear arms reductions, in1987, they signed an elaborate, painstakingly negotiated treaty.Yesterday George W. Bush and Vladimir Putin used the same setting tounveil a very different approach. President Bush announced steep cuts inAmerica's nuclear arsenal, which President Putin later in the day saidhe would match. No legally binding treaties were presented or signed.This new method has its advantages. Legislative action in Washington andMoscow, for example, is not needed. It also has some disadvantages.These include the possibility that either party will simply change itsmind.

Although Moscow says it will be matching Washington's cut, without atreaty it is under no legal obligation to do so, and Washington cannotoblige it to carry out its promised reduction. On the American side, Mr.Bush's plan to reduce long- range nuclear weapons by about two-thirdsover the next decade can be readily reversed by the next president oreven by Mr. Bush himself.

For now, existing arms treaties remain in force, although some, like the1972 Antiballistic Missile Treaty, face an uncertain future. Mr. Bush iskeen to change the way Washington and Moscow manage their nuclearrelationship. He hopes to replace the familiar system of arms controlnegotiations with a much simpler process of independent actions anchoredby mutual trust and the verbal commitment of national leaders. That maywork as long as the two nations have coinciding interests. If thoseinterests diverge, however, there will be no binding accord thatrequires America and Russia to honor their commitments.

Nevertheless, Mr. Bush's cuts are welcome and overdue. A decade afterthe end of the cold war, it makes no sense for the United States tomaintain nearly 7,000 nuclear weapons on its missiles, submarines andbombers, or for Russia to maintain nearly 6,000. The oversize Russianarsenal is the more dangerous, since decaying Russian technology poses arisk of accident, poor security arrangements invite theft and highmaintenance expenses burden Moscow's strained economy. Realistically,steep Russian reductions still depend on equivalent American reductions,and with the Pentagon assuring Mr. Bush that the nation now needs nomore than 1,700 to 2,200 long-range nuclear weapons, there was littlereason for delay.

The new American reductions are in line with Washington's negotiatingobjectives in recent years. Nearly nine years ago, a treaty negotiatedby Mr. Bush's father and Boris Yeltsin set limits between 3,000 and3,500 for each country's arsenal. Regrettably, political disputes inboth countries have so far kept that agreement from being carried out.During the Clinton years, Washington and Moscow announced plans tonegotiate a new treaty to reduce total long-range warheads to somewherebetween 2,000 and 2,500.

Moscow has long advertised its desire to see both countries reduce theirtotals to 1,500 or less, a goal they will now be approaching.

Over the next two days at Mr. Bush's Texas ranch, the two men willtackle the still unresolved issue of the ABM treaty and American missiledefense tests. Mr. Putin has made clear he is willing to accommodatefuture American testing plans if Washington does not walk away from thetreaty. President Bush should accept the Russian offer. Existingtreaties that have worked well and helped keep the peace for decadesshould not be needlessly discarded.
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2.
Nuclear Arms Cut Figures Hazy: Some Warheads Bush Offers to Remove Were Slated for Retirement
Marego Athans
Baltimore Sun
November 14, 2001
(for personal use only)


WASHINGTON - While the nuclear arms cuts pledged by President Bushyesterday seem dramatic, many of the 4,000 or so strategic warheads Bushpromised to remove over the next decade already had been earmarked forretirement.

And the president also made it clear that only "operationally deployed"missiles would be counted, meaning that those being serviced or repairedwould be off the roster.

The remaining 1,700 to 2,200 strategic warheads would still be aneffective deterrent, and missiles based on submarines would enable theUnited States to retaliate even if a first strike wiped out itsland-based fleet, arms experts say.

Russian President Vladimir V. Putin, visiting the United States fortalks with Bush, did not identify yesterday what cuts his country wouldmake, saying only that it would respond "in kind."

In the months leading up to the summit, Russia had expressed hope thateach side could reduce its arsenal to 1,000 to 1,500 strategic warheads.

"What they've done is establish a level of trust and partnership," saidPeter Huessy, a defense consultant and former legislative aide who hasbeen working on intercontinental ballistic missile issues for 20 years.

"The chances of the U.S. and Russia getting eyeball to eyeball over acrisis and thinking one or the other would successfully strike first andpre-emptively wipe out the other guy's ability to respond has becomenearly impossible. ... To the extent that we have conflicts or problemsbetween the countries, we won't move to a higher state of nuclearalert."

Arms control advocates, however, said the cuts won't make muchdifference and will do nothing to move the two countries away from theCold War-era of suspicion and fear that has lingered in their militarypostures even as their diplomatic and economic relationship has drawncloser.

Bush won praise from this quarter when he called for the improvedprotection and accounting of nuclear materials and for measures toprevent illegal nuclear trafficking. But arms control advocatescriticized his plan to count only those weapons that are "operationallydeployed."

"If you take a submarine out and change the oil or do a maintenanceoverhaul, it's not counted," said Robert S. Norris, a senior researchassociate at the Natural Resources Defense Council. "This is a stepbackward, to be honest."

In addition, arms control advocates said Bush has been silent aboutseveral thousand bombs and warheads in storage around the United States,which could be brought back into use - which fuels Russian suspicion.

"Rather than taking on the difficult task of really changing things, I'mafraid that President Bush has gone with the status quo and left thelevels at approximately the levels that Clinton and [Boris N.] Yeltsinarrived at in 1997," Norris said.

Under the framework of the Start III agreement reached by PresidentsClinton and Yeltsin in 1997, each side would reduce the strategicwarheads they deployed to between 2,000 and 2,500.

Reducing the U.S. arsenal by thousands of warheads would likely meanparing down each family of weapons to ensure that enough remain inenough places to allow the system to survive a first strike, armsexperts say. The reductions, Huessy said, might proceed along thefollowing lines:

Four of the 18 submarines in the current Trident II fleet were alreadyslated for reductions and would be taken out of operation, leaving 14boats and reducing the number of warheads on them from 3,168 to 1,344.

At any given time, two submarines would likely be under repair; fourboats would be considered "combat ready," maintaining stations in theAtlantic or Pacific oceans.

Fifty Peacekeeper missiles, already targeted for retirement, each with10 warheads, would be eliminated. At 15 years old, they would be toocostly to refurbish. Peacekeepers are also deemed destabilizing weaponsbecause they can accommodate so many warheads.

The number of B-52 bombers, stationed at Air Force bases in Louisianaand North Dakota, might be reduced from 75 to 47, each with eightwarheads.

Twenty-one B-2 bombers would each be equipped with eight warheadsinstead of the current 16.

Those fleets likely to remain unchanged are 500 Minuteman IIImissiles, each with up to three warheads, at bases in Minot, N.D.;Cheyenne, Wyo.; and Malmstrom, Mont.

Questions still remain about what the countries will do with the retiredweapons, and whether those will be dismantled or stored for possiblefuture deployment.

Current and past arms control treaties have specified how each type ofweapon is to be taken apart and how long it is to be on display forinspection by verification teams. But Bush and Putin are not discussinga treaty, and it's unclear whether they will even produce a formal,signed agreement.

In the United States, weapons are typically dismantled at a plant nearAmarillo, Texas, by a private contractor working for the Department ofEnergy.

More than 12,000 plutonium cores - the guts of an atomic bomb - takenfrom weapons that have been dismantled since 1989 are stored at theplant, Norris said.

The Russians also have disassembled thousands of weapons, but the UnitedStates doesn't know how many, where the plutonium is or how much isscattered around the country. Of particular concern right now is thatthe materials might be stolen or sold to terrorists.

Daryl Kimball, executive director of the Arms Control Association, saidthe Bush-Putin talks involve only deployed strategic warheads, leavingaside an estimated 4,000 to 15,000 Russian tactical nuclear weapons,smaller in yield than strategic weapons but extremely powerfulnonetheless.

"Because there has been no arms control agreement to try to reducetactical weapons, we have no idea how many are out there. These are thekinds of weapons that can be stolen or sold to a high bidder, such asal-Qaida," Kimball said, referring to the network headed by Osama binLaden and believed to be responsible for the Sept. 11 attacks in NewYork and Washington.

A key Bush strategy, Huessy said, is to reduce the strategic warheads instages rather than all at once. That would allow the United States toperiodically re-evaluate the state of the world - how many nuclearpowers exist, how dangerous the world seems - before making more cuts.

"The future is uncertain," he said. "You want to be able to go back upif things don't work out."
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D. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

1.
Russia Warns Against 'Slightest Possibility of Nuclear Blackmail'
Pravda.RU
November 11, 2001
(for personal use only)


The international community must not allow a slightest possibility ofnuclear blackmail and must spare no effort to strengthen the nuclearnonproliferation regime, the strategic stability aide to the RussianPresident, Marshal Igor Sergeyev, told the second United Nationsconference on the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) in New York onSunday.

Sergeyev stressed that "the implementation of the CTBT will be a crucialstep toward" a more robust nonproliferation regime. He reaffirmedRussia's enduring commitment to the treaty and its promptimplementation. Sergeyev said that the five years after the treaty wasopened to signing have shown that not only has it failed to enter intoforce, but also dangerous tendencies have emerged for the treaty tounravel. The Kremlin aide believes such a development "would pave theway for the crisis of the regime founded on the Nonproliferation Treatyand for an uncontrolled spread of nuclear weapons." He insisted that"the consequences of the breakdown" of the 1972 Anti-Ballistic MissileTreaty would include the proliferation of missiles capable of deliveringweapons of mass destruction. The marshal called it "a very alarmingsignal" in that, among other things, "the vector of securing strategicstability could be reoriented anew to the nuclear sphere." By ratifyingthe CTBT, the START-II Treaty, and the ABM Treaty package, and bymaking, despite its own difficult situation, far-reaching initiatives onfurther deep cuts in the strategic nuclear stockpiles and on limitationsof delivery vehicle's of weapons of mass destruction, Russia has"demonstrated its genuine determination to carry on reduction of nuclearweapons and disarmament," Sergeyev said.
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2.
Russia, USA to Join Hands for More Safety in Nuclear Testing Grounds: Ex-Defence Minister
Pravda.RU
November 11, 2001
(for personal use only)


Confidence-building measures must increase after the CTBT, comprehensivenuclear test ban treaty, enters into force. In this context, Russiaintends to call other countries, primarily the USA, to analyseopportunities for enhanced nuclear testing ground safety, which willoverstep treaty demands. Such measures might include exchanges ofgeological information, certain test and experiment results, andincreasing the number of gauges, Marshal Igor Sergeyev, PresidentVladimir Putin's strategic stability adviser and recent DefenceMinister, said to a second conference on promoting the CTBT entry intoforce. Strategic stability depends not only on nuclear disarmament.Mass destruction weapon and vehicle proliferation, and other newchallenges largely determine global security. Russia is well aware ofthat. There is another appalling danger--international terrorism.Suffice it to mention unprecedentedly cruel terror acts in New York Cityand Washington, D.C. The American tragedy of September 11 showed thatthe world is facing an unflinching and uncompromising struggle, andnuclear nonproliferation efforts are an essential part of that struggle,said Marshal Sergeyev. An available system of international treaties inthat field is sufficient for today, though it requires furtherimprovement,remarked the marshal as he called for the utmost circumspection in theuse of force against terrorism. He pointed out the necessity to see theimportance of preventive measures. Some of these base on increasedefficiency of implementing the acting international treaties, of whichthe CTBT is prominent.
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3.
Russia Says Test Ban Impasse Could Bring Crisis
Reuters
November 11, 2001
(for personal use only)


Russia, challenging U.S. objections, Sunday warned of ``dangerous trendstoward disrupting'' a global treaty banning nuclear tests and said thiscould lead to a crisis and the uncontrolled spread of nuclear weapons.

In strongly worded statements to a U.N. conference that the Americansboycotted, Russian officials dismissed U.S. concerns that theComprehensive Test Ban Treaty would undermine the safety of U.S. andRussian nuclear arsenals and they offered to develop new verificationmeasures that go beyond treaty requirements.

In one statement, President Vladimir Putin said Moscow has alwaysconsidered the treaty a ``most important instrument'' in limitingnuclear weapons and preserving strategic stability. He expressed concernthe pact has not yet taken effect and urged its quick ratification bythe United States and others.

In another statement, senior Russian official Igor Sergeev said: ``Thereare dangerous trends toward disrupting (the treaty). This may result ina crisis of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty regime and anuncontained spread of the nuclear weapons.''

He did not mention the United States directly in this regard. Washingtonsigned the pact, but it has not ratified it and the Bush administration-- which refused to even send a representative to the conference -- hassaid it had no plans to do so.
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E. Russia-Iran Cooperation

1.
Russian Equipment to be Delivered to Iranian Nuclear Plant on 16 November
BBC Monitoring Service
November 13, 2001
(for personal use only)


Text of report in English by Russian news agency Interfax

St Petersburg, 13 November: Russian power engineering concern IzhoraWorks (St Petersburg), which is part of the Unified Engineering Worksholding company (Uralmash-Izhora), is to supply equipment for the firstpower-producing unit at Bushehr nuclear power plant in Iran on 16November, a source in the company told Interfax.

Work on the production of the equipment for the Iranian nuclear powerplant has been under way for about three years, the source said. IzhoraWorks has produced the casing and upper unit of the reactor's waterunit, a compensator, all of the units within the casing, a steamgenerator and other equipment for the Bushehr plant.

Russia and Iran signed a contract for the construction of the first unitat Bushehr nuclear power plant, with a capacity of 1,000 megawatts, at acost of about 800m dollars, in January 1995. It is planned that other StPetersburg companies will also supply equipment for the plant in 2002 -Leningrad Metals Plant (turbine) and Electrosila (generator). Theschedule for the supply of the reactor is the end of 2002 and the launchof the reactor will possibly take place at the end of 2003 or start of2004.

Earlier Izhora Works General Director Yevgeniy Sergeyev announced thatif the Russian engineering companies, and particularly Izhora Works,meet their contract obligations, then they can count on receiving ordersfor equipment for the second unit at the plant as early as the firstquarter 2002.

Source: Interfax news agency, Moscow, in English 0934 gmt 13 Nov 01
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F. Nuclear Waste

1.
Ukrainian Plant Tests Carriage for Transporting Nuclear Waste
BBC Monitoring Service
November 13, 2001
(for personal use only)


Text of report in English by Russian news agency Interfax

Kiev, 13 November: The Stakhanov rail car construction plant (in LuhanskRegion) will send to Russia for final tests soon the trial model of anuclear waste carriage it has manufactured.

The plant's chief Yuriy Syrovetskyy has told Interfax that the car wastested at the Zaporizhzhya nuclear power plant successfully.

"The bulk of the tests are over and we are looking forward to theirsuccessful completion in Russia and their production according to plan.We have a contract for one such transporter already," he said.

Source: Interfax news agency, Moscow, in English 1301 gmt 13 Nov 01
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2.
Russia Will Earn Money on Spent-Fuel Processing
Dmitry Litvinovich
Pravda.RU
November 9, 2001
(for personal use only)


The delivery of spent nuclear fuel from the Bulgarian Kozloduy nuclearpower plant to the factory in the Krasnoyarsk region has been completed,the Russian Ministry for Nuclear Power stated.

We can remember the long debate in the Russian parliament pertaining tothe relevancy of passing the law about the spent nuclear fuel. Therewere so many supporters and protesters of that law. The communists andmany others were yelling that Russia would turn into a spent-fuel dump.They were right to a certain extent, but every medal has its backside,and this side was not taken into consideration.

The newly appointed Minister for Nuclear Power, Alexander Rumyantsev wasgiven detailed evidence to prove the advantages of the law. He said onlya few of countries control the world market of the spent-fuelprocessing. The largest of them are Great Britain and France. The annualprofit from the spent nuclear fuel processing could be compared with theannual revenues of the Russian budget.

Russia has built a large number of nuclear power plants all over theworld, so it was its commitment to take on the liability to process andstore the spent nuclear fuel. Rumyantsev also hinted at a big contractwith the USA, but it was only words and nothing more. So, today, we findout the spent fuel arrived in Russia from Bulgaria.

There were about 41 tons of that fuel delivered. As the press service ofthe Russian Ministry for Nuclear Power stated, the Russian Federationhas fulfilled its obligations connected with non-proliferation. Thecargo was delivered under the international agreement, which was signedby Russia and Bulgaria in 1995. The cost of the contract made up 25.7million rubles, the contract totally complied with the Russianlegislation , including the environmental one. The spent fuel will beprocessed after the storage and the wastes are returned to Bulgaria. Apart of the received funds (25%) will be transferred to the budget ofthe Krasnoyarsk region for implementing ecological programs.
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3.
Greens Are Set to Bring Atomic Ministry to Trial
Sergei Ivashko
Gazeta.Ru
November 9, 2001
(for personal use only)


Greenpeace activists held a protest action in front if the Atomic EnergyMinistry building in Moscow on Friday. Environmentalists said thatRussia had narrowly escaped another Chernobyl, when a day earlier 14carriages of a cargo train were derailed on the Transsiberian Railway.Greenpeace activists have already filed a complaint with the ProsecutorGeneral's Office, whereby they accuse the Atomic Energy Ministry ofRussia of illegal turnover of nuclear materials and smuggling.

On Friday activists of the international environmental organizationGreenpeace staged a series of actions in protest against importingforeign spent nuclear fuel to Russia. Head of Greenpeace anti-nucleardepartment in Moscow Maxim Shingarkin told Gazeta.Ru that those actionswere dedicated to the nuclear disaster Russia had narrowly escaped.

As a reminder, railway traffic on the Transsiberian railway wascompletely halted on the border of Kemerovo and Krasnoyarsk regionsafter derailment of 14 carriages of a cargo train early in the morningon Thursday, November 8. Derailed carriages completely destroyed 250meters of rails and two electric line supports.

Greenpeace' Maxim Shingarkin said on Friday that only a few hours beforea cargo train derailed on the Transsiberian Railway, another train wasmoving along that very branch line, carrying 41 tons of the used nuclearfuel from the power station Kozlodui in Bulgaria.

"If the nuclear train had ran into that crash," says Shingarkin, "Russiawould have run into the far more terrible disaster, than the one thathappened at the nuclear power station in Chernobyl".

Russian Greens insist that importing spent nuclear fuel from Bulgariaviolates the Russian law. As a reminder, the recently adopted amendmentsto the environmental and nuclear energy use legislation allow importingnuclear waste to Russia, provided the deal is duly sanctioned by aspecial presidential commission.

In order to punish ministerial officials, the environmentalists filed acomplaint with the Prosecutor General's Office of Russia, whereby theyaccused the ministry of illegal entrepreneurship, illegal turnover ofnuclear materials, abuse of office, breach of railroads safetyregulations and smuggling. If convicted on any of those charges,officials involved may face up to 10 years' imprisonment.

On Friday, Greenpeace activists presented a copy of their complaint tothe Atomic Ministry's representative. They also presented him with adummy nuclear container with a symbolic personal share of nuclear wastepre each Russian national inside. The amount is 140 gram, calculatedproceeding from the Atomic Minsitry's plans to import 20 thousand tonsof spent nuclear fuel.

In response to Friday Greenpeace action the Atomic Ministry's spokesmanNikolai Shingaryov told Gazeta.Ru that the threat of criminalproceedings against his agency is non-existent, since the spent nuclearfuel from Kozlodui has been imported to Russia in full compliance withRussian laws.

"The deal with the station (Kozlodui) was concluded long before theamendments cited by environmentalists were adopted," said the Ministry'sspokesman. "And, since these amendments have no retroactive effect, inthis case we do not violate anything".

Commenting on ecologists' claims the nuclear train could have run intoan accident on the Transsiberian Railway, Nikolai Shingaryov said thatin truth the train carrying the nuclear fuel had passed the site not afew hours before the tragedy, but two days earlier.

But even if the train collided with another, or somebody attempted toblow it up while in motion, there would not be any radiation leaks,since containers are highly durable. "Each container undergoes specialtests, therefore we are absolutely convinced of durability of ourcontainers," Shingaryov said.

Shingaryov complained that Greenpeace activists had misled him. "Theycalled me yesterday and said they wanted to arrange for a publicdiscussion. No protest actions were ever mentioned".

The official expressed sorrow over the flowerbed in front of theministerial building that protestors used as a rostrum on Friday.Shingaryov said the only thing the friends of Mother Nature achieved bytheir action was the ruined flowerbed with crushed flowers.
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4.
Spent Nuclear Fuel from Bulgaria Delivered to Russian Facility
BBC Monitoring Service
November 9, 2001
(for personal use only)


[Presenter Kirill Pozdnyakov] The Russian Atomic Energy Ministry todayannounced the successful completion of the delivery of Bulgarian spentnuclear fuel to Zheleznogorsk, Krasnoyarsk Territory. The new law onnuclear waste was put to the test for the first time in a rigorouslysecretive way. Vitaliy Kalugin reports

[Correspondent] A train carrying spent nuclear fuel has arrived at theKrasnoyarsk mining and chemical combine. The train's trip across Russiawas strictly secretive and guarded by the military. The railways andnuclear energy authorities explained the secrecy by the all-out struggleagainst terrorism. Environmental people said that information was beingconcealed on purpose - out of the fear that numerous protests would beheld across the train's route.

In any case, the Krasnoyarsk combine's special storage facility took in41 tonnes of spent uranium.

[Viktor Bespalov, captioned as deputy head of the unit for nuclear wastetransportation and storage] There were no incidents during the delivery.The first two carriages have been unloaded. The containers have beenplaced inside a special facility for preliminary cooling.

[Correspondent] The fuel comes from Bulgaria. The nuclear power stationof Kozlodui was constructed by Russian specialists during the period ofsocialism. For many consecutive years the foreigners have been using ourenergy. However, they did not want to keep the spent materials.

[Anatoliy Butorin, captioned as head of a nuclear waste transportationgroup] We have been cooperating under the Soviet Union's commitmentsbecause we have supplied them with fresh fuel and we are continuing tosupply them. However, we had to accept the [spent] fuel in accordancewith the government's previous decisions.

[Correspondent] Ninety-six uranium [fuel] assemblies were being carriedacross Russia by railroad. Just yesterday, 16 empty cargo carriagesderailed at the Krasnoyarsk section of the Trans-Siberian railway. Thespent fuel was transported via the same section three days before.

[Nikolay Zubov, captioned as chairman of the Krasnoyarsk branch of theinternational social and ecological union] We can only thank Lord thatthe carriages that fell off were not the ones carrying spent nuclearfuel. We were very lucky indeed...

Source: NTV International, Moscow, in Russian 1900 gmt 9 Nov 01
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5.
Spent Nuclear Fuel Arrived at Zheleznogorsk
Rashid Alimov
Bellona Foundation
November 9, 2001
(for personal use only)


The first special train carrying spent nuclear fuel from Bulgariaarrived at the Mining and Chemical Combine near Krasnoyarsk on November8th. Spent fuel from the sister-country Bulgaria is not foreign, theCombine representatives say.

A large batch of spent nuclear fuel from Bulgaria delivered for storageat the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC) in Zheleznogorsk nearKrasnoyarsk.

The Combine representatives say, the special train brought 96 fuelelement assemblies from the Kozloduy nuclear plant in Bulgaria, built bythe Soviet Union. On November 8th, the MCC workers began unloading thetrain and placing the assemblies in the storage pool.

Accident at TransSib
Throughout Russia, the train went without any incident, the MCCrepresentatives claim.

But at the same day it was reported that in midnight between November7th and 8th an accident had occurred at the Trans-Siberian railway,where the nuclear train was to pass.

Between the Krasnoyarsk and Kemerovo counties, 14 tank-wagons came offthe tracks. One kilometre long railway was damaged, the railway trafficwas halted for 12.5 hours.

"We tried to find out, where the nuclear train was last night andwhether it had been damaged as a result of the accident at the TransSib,- Vladimir Slivyak, co-chairman of Ecodefence! envirogroup, said onThursday, - but the authorities said they have no information aboutthat. The train could be in Kemerovo county, where the train crashhappened, or could have been delayed at the frontier for the paperwork."

In Mr Slivyak's opinion, secrecy and lack of coordination between theofficial departments makes railway transportation of nuclear materialseven more serious. The Ecodefence! representatives insist, Russianauthorities must adopt the Western experience of informing people abouthot cargos passing - people have right to know, what danger they areexposed to.

Earlier, on October 24th, envirogroups of six towns, situated along theTransSib, carried out protest actions against spent nuclear fuelimports, saying that safety of Russian railroads is poor.

The nuclear bills
The MCC representatives stress, the spent fuel deliveries "have norelation" with the laws, approved by the State Duma in June, regulatingspent nuclear fuel imports to Russia from foreign NPPs.

On June 6th, the State Duma approved in the third reading the bills,which legalised and structured the proceedings for storage of foreignnuclear waste in Russia. But even these laws require environmentalevaluation for each such shipment. The laws do not say a word aboutspecial sister-country status of Bulgarian spent fuel.

But no evaluation was carried out. No licence was acquired - in themid-October the State Nuclear Regulatory harshly told the Ministry forNuclear Energy (Minatom) that an official licence is required to carryout such activity.

Minatom has no legal foundation for this import from Bulgaria, it hasonly a desire to get $25.5m for 41 tonnes of spent fuel. By the way,these figures disclaim Minatom's promises of huge revenues on the importoperations (amounting to $20bn).

It can be calculated that Bulgaria paid $620 for one kilogram of spentnuclear fuel. Minatom used to say it would take not less than $1000 perkilo.

Now Minatom negotiates with Bulgaria two more trains bringing spent fuelfrom Kozloduy next year. And at the same time, the ministry admits, noreprocessing is planned for the next 30 years: radioactive waste istaken for storage.

Bulgaria's electricity is generated from the following sources: thermalpower plants account for 48 percent; 32 percent by the Kozloduy nuclearpower plant; 14 percent by independent suppliers; and, 6 percent byhydroelectric plants.

Zheleznogorsk
Zheleznogorsk, also known as "Iron City", is situated approximately 50kmnorth of Krasnoyarsk on the eastern side of the River Yenisey inKrasnoyarsk county, Siberia. The city has a population of 90,000 and wasknown by its code name Krasnoyarsk-26 until 1994.

The Mining and Chemical Combine with its three plutonium producingreactors and a radiochemical plant are well shielded 250m to 300munderground. The first reactor was shut down on June 30th 1992, and thesecond followed on September 29th the same year and the third (AD-2) hasbeen in operation since 1964.

In 1985, a facility to store spent nuclear fuel from the VVER-1000reactors (third generation of Russian light water reactors) was takeninto use. This storage facility is right next to the half-completed RT-2reprocessing plant. At present the facility stores a total of 3,000tonnes of spent fuel while it has a capacity of 6,000 tonnes. In june,2001 Krasnoyarsk Biophysics Institute proved that Zheleznogorsk Miningand Chemical Combine suffered at least two serious accidents 30 and 20years ago. The MCC representatives admitted that after decades ofsecrecy, adding the Combine influence can be traced by spots with highlevel of cesium-137 content down to Igarka town in the Russian Arctic.According to scientists, Yenisey River is polluted with radionuclidesfor the length of 1,500 km, down to the Arctic Ocean.

The bear trapped in atomic ring
The first shipment of spent nuclear fuel after President Putin signedthe bills, allowing nuclear waste imports shows that no laws arefollowed by Minatom. Even those, passed under pressure of Minatomitself. President, who said in summer, that he would personally controleach spent nuclear fuel import contract, seems to have heard nothingabout the nuclear waste coming from Bulgaria.

Minatom has legalised its corporative business, which is under noindependent control. The revenues of this business will be diverted tosupport post Soviet vast nuclear weaponry complex, which has been mostlyuseless after the cold war was over. Whereas the future generations willenjoy taking care of the hazardous waste for the coming thousands ofyears.

Zheleznogorsk, where radioactive waste will be stored at least duringthe next 30-50 years, has a shocking emblem. It's the Russian bear,encircled in nuclear orbits. The orbits seem to be tightening. Would thebear manage to get out from the atomic rings?
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G. Russian Nuclear Forces

1.
Russia's Nuclear Arsenal Large, Aging.
RFE/RL Newsline
November 9, 2001
(for personal use only)


Officials at the Moscow Center for the Study of the Problems ofDisarmament told Interfax on 8 November that Russia has 6,094 nuclearweapons, of which 3,444 are on ICBMs, 2,024 are on submarines, and 626are on bombers. The majority of the rockets have a predicted useful lifelasting until 2010, the strategic bombers have an expected use until2020, but many of the land- based rockets will be beyond their projectedlifetimes by 2005, the center's officials said. PG
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H. Submarine Dismantlement

1.
Russia Needs Several Hundred Million Dollars to Salvage Nuclear Submarines.
RFE/RL Newsline
November 9, 2001
(for personal use only)


Deputy Energy Minister Valerii Lebedev told ITAR-TASS on 8 November thatRussia needs several hundred million U.S. dollars to salvage the 109decommissioned Russian nuclear submarines kept along the Kola Peninsula.He added that construction of a long-term storage facility for emptyreactors alone is estimated to cost up to $100 million. PG
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I. Addresses

1.
Transcript: Bush Announces Deep Cuts in Nuclear Arsenal (excerpted)
The White House
Office of the Press Secretary
November 13, 2001


[...]

The United States and Russia are in the midst of a transformation of arelationship that will yield peace and progress. We're transforming ourrelationship from one of hostility and suspicion to one based oncooperation and trust, that will enhance opportunities for peace andprogress for our citizens and for people all around the world.

The challenge of terrorism makes our close cooperation on all issueseven more urgent. Russia and America share the same threat and the sameresolve. We will fight and defeat terrorist networks wherever theyexist. Our highest priority is to keep terrorists from acquiring weaponsof mass destruction.

Today, we agreed that Russian and American experts will work together toshare information and expertise to counter the threat from bioterrorism.We agreed that it is urgent that we improve the physical protection andaccounting of nuclear materials and prevent illicit nuclear trafficking.

And we will strengthen our efforts to cut off every possible source ofbiological, chemical and nuclear weapons, materials and expertise.Today, we also agreed to work more closely to combat organized crime anddrug-trafficking, a leading source of terrorist financing.

[...]
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2.
Statement by Russian President Vladimir Putin in Relation to Destruction of Last Nuclear Missile Withdrawn from Territory of Ukraine
Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs
November 13, 2001


Following is the full text of the Statement of President of the RussianFederation Vladimir Putin in connection with the destruction of the lastnuclear missile withdrawn from the territory of Ukraine:

"At the end of October 2001, in accordance with the decision of theRussian, US and Ukrainian presidents of January 14, 1994, the lastnuclear warhead withdrawn from the territory of Ukraine was destroyed.

"The relevant provisions of the protocol to the Treaty on the Reductionand Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms have thus been implemented,the nuclear-free choice of Ukraine itself has been realized, and one ofthe basic terms of the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weaponshas been respected.

"The liquidation of the nuclear warheads withdrawn from the territory ofUkraine has again demonstrated the consistency and responsibility ofRussia in questions of disarmament, has shown the sincere desire of ourcountry to develop international cooperation in the interests of thepromotion of stability and security in the world.

"I want to especially note that at all the stages of this operation,unprecedented in scale and complexity, the full safety and security ofthe nuclear warheads were ensured. I express sincere gratitude to theservicemen, atomic industry workers, diplomats and all the specialistswho participated in carrying out this important job."

The Kremlin, Moscow, November 13, 2001
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3.
Speech by Russian President Vladimir Putin at a Meeting with the Commanding Personnel of the Russian Armed Forces, the Ministry of Defense, Moscow
Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs
November 12, 2001


[...]

First, the content of the policy documents in the field of defense,analysis of the rapidly changing situation in the world in recent monthsshows that we have correctly defined the character of the new threats tothe national security of Russia. Terrorism threatens not only individualcountries, but also the entire system of strategic stability and you andI know that the aim of terrorists is to gain access to weapons of massdestruction, and bioterrorism has already become a fact. All these arevery alarming things, alarming signals, and it requires of us theadditional specification of the priorities in defense policy.Specification with skillful analysis and regard for the situation,especially in the area of international military and military-technicalcooperation; both jointly with the participants of the antiterroristcoalition and with other countries.

[...]
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J. Announcements

1.
Fact Sheet: U.S. Government Nonproliferation and Threat Reduction Assistance to the Russian Federation
The White House
Office of the Press Secretary
November 13, 2001


The United States is committed to strong, effective cooperation withRussia and the other states emerging from the former Soviet Union toreduce weapons of mass destruction and prevent the proliferation ofthese weapons or the material and expertise to develop them. Theimportance of that cooperation has long been recognized, and isunderscored by the tragic events of September 11.

The U.S. Government currently conducts over 30 different cooperativeprograms with Russia in this area, with a total appropriation fromFiscal Year 1992 through Fiscal Year 2001 of approximately $4 billion[$4,000 million]. Another important cooperative endeavor in this area isU.S. purchase of material blended down from Russian highly enricheduranium from dismantled nuclear warheads, for use in civilian nuclearreactor fuel.

Principal elements of the multifaceted U.S. nonproliferation and threatreduction assistance to Russia include:

  • Reduction of strategic nuclear delivery vehicles, includingintercontinental ballistic missiles and silos, ballisticmissile-carrying submarines, submarine-launched ballistic missiles, andheavy bombers;


  • Support for safe and secure transport of nuclear warheads todismantlement;


  • Reduction of weapons-usable material from dismantled nuclear warheads;


  • Increased security for storage of nuclear warheads, chemical weapons,and biological materials; and


  • Provision of alternative, peaceful employment for Russian scientistspreviously employed in nuclear, chemical or biological weapons programs.
The Administration is nearing completion of a detailed review of theseprograms, designed to ensure that existing efforts serve priority threatreduction and nonproliferation goals, as efficiently and effectively aspossible, and to examine new initiatives to further those goals.

DISCLAIMER: Nuclear News is presented for informational purposes only.Views presented in any given article are those of the individual authoror source and not of RANSAC. RANSAC takes no responsibility for thetechnical accuracy of information contained in any article presented inNuclear News.
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