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Nuclear News - 11/06/01
RANSAC Nuclear News, November 6, 2001
Compiled by Michael Roston

A. Cooperative Threat Reduction
    1. Taking Scientists Out of Nuclear Equation, Elizabeth Wolfe, Moscow Times (11/06/01)
    2. Ukrainian Officials Learn About Richland, Nathan Isaacs, Tri-City Herald (Washington) (11/05/01)
    3. US Awakens to a Rogue Nuclear Threat, Bryan Bender, Boston Globe (11/03/01)
    4. Russia Boosts Steps to Thwart 'Nuclear Terrorism', Clara Ferreira-Marques, Reuters (11/02/01)
    5. Russia Pleased Ukraine Has Destroyed Last Two ICBM Sites, RFE/RL Newsline (11/02/01)
    6. Kazakh Scientists to Get 1.2m Dollars from International Body, BBC Monitoring Service (11/01/01)
B. Nuclear Terrorism
    1. Security at Russian Nuclear Facilities Questioned, RFE/RL Newsline (11/06/01)
    2. Nuclear Experts Warn of Threat from 'Dirty Bombs', Sonya Yee, Christian Science Monitor (11/05/01)
    3. Nuke-Toting Gangs in Russia Pose a Threat to the West, David Satter, Los Angeles Times (11/05/01)
    4. Nuclear Experts' Nightmare: Terrorists Steal a Warhead, Walter Pincus, Washington Post (11/04/01)
    5. Experts Discuss Chances of Nuclear Terrorism, Peter Finn, Washington Post (11/03/01)
    6. Small Nukes Biggest Threat to Mankind: Chomsky (Excerpted), Rezaul H Laskar, Indo-Asian News Service (11/03/01)
C. Russia-India Cooperation
    1. Indian Defense Deals Spur Russian Market, Gerard Halford and Gabor Szabo, The Russia Journal (11/08/01)
    2. Vajpayee to Sign Nuclear Agreement During Russia Visit, Agence France Presse (11/02/01)
D. Nuclear Safety
    1. EU Completes Chornobyl Information Project, RFE/RL Newsline (11/06/01)
    2. Ukrainian Nuclear Engineers Sacked After Rise in Emergencies, BBC Monitoring Service (11/02/01)
    3. Russian Nuclear Industry Had No Emergencies in October, BBC Monitoring Service (11/01/01)
E. Nuclear Waste
    1. New Radwaste Storage in Krasnoyarsk, Rashid Alimov, Bellona Foundation (11/05/01)
    2. Greens Demand End to Nuclear Waste Transit Through Ukraine, BBC Monitoring Service (11/02/01)
F. Announcements
    1. Women In International Security invites you to a reception and discussion on U.S.-Russia Relations: Economic, Political, and Security Dimensions and the Upcoming U.S.-Russia Summit, Wednesday, November 7, 2001 5:30 - 7:30 p.m., Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1800 K St. NW, Washington DC 20036
G. Links of Interest

A. Cooperative Threat Reduction

Taking Scientists Out of Nuclear Equation
Elizabeth Wolfe
Moscow Times
November 6, 2001
(for personal use only)

They understand the physics behind creating weapons of mass destructionand some could cobble together blueprints for a nuclear bomb.

But since the mid-1990s, thousands of scientists and engineers fromformer Soviet weapons facilities have been trained to produce wheelchairseats, 3-D cameras and prosthetic legs, all courtesy of the U.S.government, which is spending money in the name of nonproliferation.

The latest project from the U.S. Department of Energy's Initiatives forProliferation Prevention program has 17 scientists — most from Moscow'sKurchatov Institute, the chief center for nuclear research in Russia —learning how to produce commercial software products.

It is another step by the United States to harness Russia's nuclearweapons knowledge before it gets exported to so-called rogue states —although many throw doubt on the risk these scientists actually pose toglobal security.

The project is the first time the IPP, run by the U.S. National NuclearSecurity Administration, a branch of the DOE, has tapped Russia'sgrowing market for offshore programming. It expects to eventuallyconvert 500 scientists and engineers — 120 a year — now working ininstitutes across the country into gainful employees in the global ITindustry.

In the first year, most of the allotted $525,000 will go to Kurchatovand Russian software firm Luxoft — divided 70/30, the DOE stated — torun a training center at the Kurchatov Institute. U.S. company CTG Inc.,which also participates in training and will employ some of thescientists, is expected to fund as much or more by the end of theprogram. The classroom opens this week.

The Kurchatov Institute, named for Igor Kurchatov, regarded as thefather of the Soviet nuclear weapons program, has worked with the DOE onnonproliferation projects since the mid-1990s.

After the fall of the Soviet Union, the institute saw its payroll halvedas military orders fell. Of its current 4,000 to 5,000 employees, abouta third work on state-funded projects, as opposed to almost 100 percentin the 1980s, while others have to find outside work.

Andrei Pimenov, a senior computer specialist who has been at Kurchatovsince 1979, and one of the 17 to start training this week, is using theprogram as a chance for a career change.

For nine months, Pimenov, 43, will learn how to capitalize on hispresent skills. With two children in school, the former nuclear weaponsscientist is looking for a way to earn more than $250 a month.

Others at the institute earn 1,000 rubles ($33) a month.

At a Washington news conference in early October, with the Sept. 11attacks still very much on everyone's minds, speakers billed thetraining as a way to reduce potential terrorism threats.

"Our primary goal is to ensure that former weapons scientists andengineers remain gainfully employed in meaningful, sustainable, peacefulcivilian endeavors," said Sarah Lennon, an NNSA official, in an e-mailinterview.

Earlier this year, the U.S. government proposed budget cuts for theDOE's nonproliferation programs in Russia, but these have not been asbig as expected. As part of a larger energy bill, the House ofRepresentatives and Senate approved last week $804 million for allNNSA's nuclear nonproliferation programs in 2002, $69 million down on2001 funding, but $30 million more than the amount requested by theadministration. The bill is expected to be signed by the White House anyday now.

There is a smattering of examples — some proven, some not — throughoutthe 1990s to support nonproliferation funding. Lennon recalled aninstance in 1992 when a group of Russian scientists were stopped "on thetarmac" as they were leaving for North Korea.

Yet many have questioned the success rate of such programs in wardingoff the spread of weapons of mass destruction.

Assessing the actual risk of nuclear proliferation is difficult as it isimpossible to count how many poorly paid scientists did not sell secretsto terrorist organizations, Iraq, North Korea or other states the UnitedStates has branded rogue, said Gary Milhollin, director of the WisconsinProject on Nuclear Arms Control in Washington

"I think the risk so far has not been very well defined," Milhollinsaid. "A scientist can give help to a rogue nuclear program withoutleaving home and while doing other work."

At the institute, Alexei Vertiporokh, the deputy director of Kurchatov's3-year-old commercial arm, Technopark, said he doubted that one oftheirs could sell out to North Korea.

Pimenov also views it as unlikely that a colleague could go to the otherside for want of money, but he doesn't rule it out.

"It could happen. But we wouldn't know about it," Pimenov said.

However, Vertiporokh, who earlier studied nuclear physics, said it's nothis place to gauge the risks.

"I can't speak for the DOE about whether something's dangerous or not,"he said. "I studied that and don't think it's dangerous, but maybe they[the DOE] have different ways to judge."

Making weapons also requires much more than just recruiting weaponsknowledge — the process relies on hard materials and the capability toactually produce.

"The problem always is that getting a scientist is not enough," saidindependent defense analyst Pavel Felgenhauer. "He needs a Sovietindustry."

Another criticism of the programs is that money has been mismanaged ormisallocated. A report a few years ago by the U.S. General AccountingOffice, the investigative arm of Congress, found that 37 percent of IPPprogram funds were going to the former Soviet Union, with the rest givento U.S. national labs. The report's recommendations have been actedupon, Lennon said.

Milhollin questioned whether the programs are worth it. "I think we'rejust throwing money into the shadows and hoping that it preventssomething bad from happening," he said.

Unsurprisingly, Russian participants in the latest project are grabbingthe opportunity for free job training.

"It can cost us $8,000 to $10,000 to train one employee," said AnatolyKarachinsky, CEO of IBS group, which created Luxoft.

However, Pimenov and Vertiporokh cast doubt on the DOE's projection oftraining 120 scientists a year, saying it was hard enough to gather 17.They estimated that only half that was feasible — partly because notall scientists and engineers are lured by better paychecks to leavetheir respective institutes and enter a daily work routine.

"There are two categories of people — those sitting happy earning $100a month and those who look for work," Vertiporokh said.
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Ukrainian Officials Learn About Richland
Nathan Isaacs
Tri-City Herald (Washington)
November 5, 2001
(for personal use only)

Oleksandr Lynkevych and Oleksandr Kudelin have traveled about 5,500miles to watch and learn how Richland makes street signs, clears stormwater pipes and treats its waste water.

The two officials are part of an exchange program between Richland andtheir hometown of Slavutych, Ukraine. They are visiting the city throughSunday to study the city's public works and administrative systems.

The relationship between the two cities makes sense, said Deputy CityManager Bill King.

Both are nuclear towns — Richland has Hanford and Slavutych hasChernobyl. Both have about the same number of residents. And both arelooking for ways to wean their economies from the nuclear industry.

The informal relationship has been around for about four years and hasincluded past exchanges with city officials, including King's and PublicWorks Director Stan Arlt's trip to the Ukraine in July.

"It's just kind of an exchange program to learn from each other," Kingsaid. "There is certainly things that they can use immediately and somethings they can incorporate in their long-term goals."

On the flip side, King said he and Arlt benefited from the questionsthey were asked by their counterparts — it's a chance to revisit howthe city does things.

On Friday, the two Ukrainian officials with their translator VicDotsenko followed public works officials on a tour that included thesign shops, staff offices, the waste treatment plant and a storm waterdrainage project near the Safeway on George Washington Way.

Behind the grocery, the crowd of engineers and officials watched asCottonwood tree roots were cut away from inside a three-foot storm waterpipe. Kudelin, who is a chief engineer back home, took notes andpictures of Richland's modern gadgets, including a robotic camera thatis used to see down the pipes.

"They're just fascinated with some of the equipment we have over here,"said Pete Squires, public works superintendent.

Lynkevych, who is the equivalent of a deputy city manager, said he waseager to take home some educational reforms.

Distance learning via the Internet and other technologies, teachingstudents with special needs and school library organization were threethings he plans to address.

"I'm more interested in studying the social structure you have in thecity and a general overview of your public works" he said.

He said the two cities have similar issues, however, but they may haveapproached those issues differently. The exchanges allow the two sidesto see the other's solution.
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US Awakens to a Rogue Nuclear Threat
Bryan Bender
Boston Globe
November 3, 2001
(for personal use only)

WASHINGTON - Robert Oppenheimer is well-known as the father of theatomic bomb. But he is less known for his 1950s study, more relevanttoday than it was then, warning about the dangers of nuclear terrorismin America.

Oppenheimer concluded that the only way to fully guard US bordersagainst attacks from illicit nuclear or radiological materials was todismantle everything entering or transiting the country, and examine itpiece by piece - a method that became known as the "screwdriver" plan.

Since Sept. 11, national and international security officials have beenscrambling for just such a tool.

After half a century of focusing almost solely on the threat of nuclearholocaust at the hands of the Soviet Union's intercontinental ballisticmissiles, the United States has awakened to the growing dangers ofnovel, or unconventional, means of waging nuclear warfare.

High on the danger list are smuggled nuclear weapons that could bedetonated on US soil, and so-called dirty bombs that disperse highlytoxic radioactive material but do minimal damage otherwise. Thetargeting of nuclear plants is also an emerging concern.

"We are not just dealing with the possibility of governments divertingnuclear materials into clandestine weapons programs," Mohamedel-Baradei, director general of the International Atomic Energy Agency,the United Nations' nuclear watchdog agency, in Vienna. "Now we havebeen alerted to the potential of terrorists targeting nuclear facilitiesor using radioactive sources to incite panic, contaminate property, andeven cause injury or death among civilian populations."

Delegates from most of the agency's 132 member states met in Viennayesterday for a special session to explore ways to minimize the risk ofnuclear-related terrorism. The agency, warning of an increased threat ofnuclear terrorism, urged governments to better protect radioactivematerial, to make sure it does not fall into terrorists' hands.

Today's concern focuses less on unfriendly governments developing anuclear weapon from scratch - Iraq, for example, spent 10 years and $2billion trying to build a nuclear weapon and failed - and more on thepossibility that terrorist organizations such as Al Qaeda could acquirean already-built nuclear weapon, or could assemble one by drawing on thestocks of the former Soviet Union. Specialists say such a secenario isplausible.

"It is conceivable," former secretary of defense Caspar Weinbergersaid Thursday. "Fissionable material is around. Some undesirable peoplehave nuclear weapons already" and could be sources for terrorists,wittingly or unwittingly.

At the same time, the United States' vulnerability has changed. It's nosecret that the Pentagon is increasingly worried about the nuclearthreat to its forces, both overseas and at home, from nations as well asnon-state terrorists.

Over the past decade, the number of US military bases overseas hasdwindled, making those that remain higher-value targets for enemies.There are about four dozen such sites in the United States and abouthalf a dozen in each region across the globe where the military conductsoperations.

Domestically, the United States has several civilian targets vulnerableto attack, a Pentagon study last year found; an example is the smallsection of Texas Gulf Coast where an estimated 80 percent of Americanpetroleum supplies come into the country. Similarly, making radioactiveportions of the Mississippi River or the St. Lawrence Seaway coulddisrupt the country more than a nuclear attack on people, the Pentagonstudy concluded.

The means for launching such a nuclear attack are diverse. From asuitcase bomb smuggled into the United States, to a detonation ininternational waters causing a tidal wave, the Pentagon envisions aseries of novel ways in which a nuclear weapon could be used.

"The unconventional use of nuclear explosives was in fact deemed anincreasing threat," said Sandia National Laboratory's RogerHagengruber, who last year chaired a classified Pentagon study of"unconventional nuclear warfare defense."

However, a more likely scenario than a nuclear detonation, and one thatis much more difficult to prevent, would be the use of so-called dirtybombs designed to disperse radiological material, specialists believe.While these bombs pose a much more limited threat than a nucleardetonation, they are still tremendously dangerous and far easier forterrorists to come by.

Unlike nuclear explosives, the potential sources of radiologicalmaterial are vast and largely unsecured. From products used inradiotherapy to the preservation of food products and identification ofwelding errors in buildings and pipes, "security of radioactivematerials has traditionally been realtively light," according to AbelGonzalez, the atomic energy agency's director of radiation and wastesafety.

A high explosive charge, packed with radioactive material, could havethe effect of "infecting a lot of people with serious leukemia,"Zbigniew Brzezinski, former national security adviser, said recently."It's like Chernobyl writ large."

An example of what the spread of radiological material could do occurredin 1987 when scavengers broke into an X-ray clinic in Goiania, Brazil,and took what appeared to be valuable-looking scraps of metal. Unknownto them, it was a highly radioactive substance called caesium 137, ofwhich they sold pieces. More than 100,000 people had to be monitored forexposure, four people died, and 289 more were overexposed.

Until now the deliberate use of a radiological weapon was consideredunlikely because of the health risks to the perpetrators.

"We are dealing with a totally new equation since Sept. 11," Gonzalezsaid. "These terrorists demonstrated before our eyes their willingnessto give up their lives. The deadliness of handling intensely radioactivematerial can no longer be seen as an effective deterrent."

Concern about the security of nuclear power plants has also grown inrecent days. Some governors have posted National Guard troops at plants,and US Representative Edward J. Markey, Democrat of Malden, urgedPresident Bush on Thursday to make it mandatory. He also proposed thatenough potassium iodide be stockpiled to treat everyone within a 50-mileradius of a nuclear plant in the case of an accidental release ofradiation.

"These threats are very real, and they require an immediate andeffective response," Markey said.

US Representative Chet Edwards, Democrat of Texas and a member of theAppropriations Committee, this week proposed $130 million more fornuclear nonproliferation efforts. His proposal calls for beefing upantinuclear efforts in Russia through the remote monitoring offacilities and more stringent accounting standards. He said, forexample, that monitoring ignores uranium that is enriched less than 20percent, although it is sufficient to make a crude nuclear bomb.

Edwards said in an interview that the Office of Management and Budgetplanned to slash $100 million from these efforts, claiming the nuclearthreat is not an emergency. "I am appalled by the administration'sattitude on this," he said. "This is the kind of threat you want toprevent, not react to after it occurs."
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Russia Boosts Steps to Thwart 'Nuclear Terrorism'
Clara Ferreira-Marques
November 2, 2001
(for personal use only)

Russia is stepping up training of personnel at its nuclear facilities tocombat possible nuclear terrorist attacks amid Europe-wide fears thatsuch installations could be targeted, a Defense Ministry official saidon Friday.

"(We are taking) measures for the preparation of our staff so that theywill be able to understand and identify the threats," Viktor Kholstov,head of the Radiation, Chemical and Bacteriological Defense Forces, tolda news conference.

"There are detective stories about transporting nuclear substances. Butwe should take into consideration the possibility of such a situation inreal life," he said.

Kholstov's statement follows a warning by the global nuclear securitywatchdog, the International Atomic Energy Agency, whose director said onThursday that an act of nuclear terrorism was "far more likely" thanpreviously thought.

Kholstov did not elaborate on the measures, but other officials havesaid security has also been stepped up at the country's nuclearfacilities.

The 1986 explosion at the Chernobyl nuclear plant in then Soviet Ukrainekilled dozens in the immediate aftermath of the disaster and exposedmore than five million Europeans to increased levels of radiation.


Since the collapse of Soviet Union in 1991, there have been a number ofcases of nuclear material being stolen from poorly-guarded former Sovietnuclear facilities, sparking grave concern in the West.

In 1994, three men were arrested at Munich airport carrying 12.8 ouncesof weapons-grade plutonium from Moscow.

IAEA Director-General Mohamed ElBaradei called on countries to take aninventory of security risks at their nuclear power plants, given concernthat al Qaeda — the militant group blamed for the September 11 attacksin the United States — had tried to acquire nuclear material.

A former aide to al Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden, testified to a U.S.court in February that he had been asked to obtain uranium for theorganization.

Kholstov said Defense Ministry staff were being trained to deal withchemical and biological weapons along with the threat of "nuclearterrorism."

Russia inherited the world's largest chemical stockpile from the SovietUnion and is aiming to destroy its 40,000 tons of toxic agents by 2012.

But Kholstov said there were no biological weapons in the country,categorically excluding any link between the U.S. cases of anthrax andRussia or the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), a grouping of 12former Soviet republics.

Russia's chief medical officer Gennady Onishchenko told the newsconference that the CIS had only had enough anthrax for medicalpurposes, and that trade in the bacteria was impossible.
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Russia Pleased Ukraine Has Destroyed Last Two Icbm Sites
RFE/RL Newsline
November 2, 2001
(for personal use only)

Foreign Ministry spokesman Aleksandr Yakovenko said on 1 November thatMoscow is pleased by reports that Ukraine has destroyed the last twoICBM silos on its territory in conformity with the 1992 Lisbon Protocolto the START-I treaty, ITAR-TASS reported. PG
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Kazakh Scientists to Get 1.2m Dollars from International Body
BBC Monitoring Service
November 1, 2001
(for personal use only)

Astana, 1 November: The Council of Managers of the InternationalScientific and Technical Centre [ISTC] has approved, at a sitting, thefinancing of Kazakh scientists' projects worth a total of 1.2m dollars,the press service of the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resourcesreported today.

Specifically, the ISTC approved the financing of a project on assessingthe aftermath of environmental disasters involving chemicals andradiation on the health of children in Aral Sea areas (southernKyzyl-Orda Region) and on working out a strategy for rehabilitating theregion.

In addition, the ISTC will finance the implementation of Kazakh projectson studying children's deaths as a result of the tests at the [former]Semipalatinsk nuclear testing ground and other pollutions; on radiationtests of lithium ceramics for blanketing a thermonuclear reactor and ondeveloping a biological technology for extracting associated rheniumthrough underground leaching.

The sitting approved a total of 76 projects worth 16.5m dollars, thepress service said.

[Passage to end omitted: the centre was set up in 1992; the centre'smajor aim is to support projects related with researches, technologies]

Source: Interfax-Kazakhstan news agency, Almaty, in Russian 1233 gmt 1Nov 01 /BBC Monitoring/ © BBC.
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B. Nuclear Terrorism

Security at Russian Nuclear Facilities Questioned
RFE/RL Newsline
November 6, 2001
(for personal use only)

An article in "Versiya," No. 41, by environmental activists said thereare significant security shortfalls at Russia's nuclear facilities,including a lack of checkpoints around many of them and the absence ofequipment needed to detect thefts. As a result, the authors said, it isuncertain how many attempts to penetrate these facilities have been madeand how many were in fact successful. PG
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Nuclear Experts Warn of Threat from 'Dirty Bombs'
Sonya Yee
Christian Science Monitor
November 5, 2001
(for personal use only)

VIENNA - Before commercial airliners were used as guided missiles, fewexperts viewed x-ray materials as potential terrorist weapons.

But now, in the wake of Sept. 11, experts are warning that not justnuclear weapons, but other radioactive materials - widely used inmedicine, agriculture, industry and research - as well as civiliannuclear installations, could become weapons in the hands of terrorists.

Experts meeting in Vienna Friday at a conference on nuclear terrorismcalled on the international community to act quickly to impose bettersafeguards for nuclear and radioactive materials. The security ofnuclear arsenals in Pakistan and the countries of the former SovietUnion must also be ensured, they said.

The ruthlessness of the Sept. 11 attacks makes it clear that the risksof a nuclear terrorist act are higher than previously thought, saysMohamed ElBaradei, Director General of the International Atomic EnergyAgency (IAEA), the UN's nuclear watchdog, which organized theconference.

Commonplace radioactive materials — such as those used in radiotherapyor for the preservation of foodstuffs - could be fashioned into a crude"dirty" bomb that could be detonated with conventional explosives, theexperts note. "There are few security precautions on radiotherapyequipment, and a large source could be removed quite easily, especiallyif those involved had no regard for their own health," says AbelGonzalez, the IAEA's director of radiation and waste safety.

A "dirty" bomb would not necessarily result in a high number ofcasualties. "But contamination in even small quantities could have majorpsychological and economic effects," Gonzalez says.

Similarly, an attack on a nuclear power plant would not automaticallymean a disaster on the scale of Chernobyl. Most nuclear power plantswere built to withstand natural disasters and accidental crashes ofsmall aircraft.

But the design of most reactors did not take into account the potentialfor an attack like that on the World Trade Center, and IAEA expertsacknowledge that they are not sure how bad the fallout would be if afully fueled jetliner crashed into a nuclear reactor. An attack bywell-trained terrorists is "a much larger threat than civilian nuclearsecurity systems are generally designed to deal with," says George Bunnof Stanford University.

Security procedures at nuclear power plants are already under review inthe US and across Europe. A number of countries have restricted airspacearound plants and posted additional guards. France has deployedantiaircraft missiles near its plant for spent nuclear fuel in La Hague.

Russia has announced that it is stepping up training of personnel at itsfacilities. But experts warned that the vast nuclear arsenal of theformer Soviet Union remains dangerously vulnerable - less to attack thanto theft.

Osama bin Laden's Al Qaeda network has in the past attempted to buynuclear material stolen from the former Soviet states. There have beenfrequent reports that not all of the former USSR's nuclear weapons canbe accounted for, although the Russian government has denied theseclaims. Pakistan's nuclear weapons are also seen as a security threat,because of the country's current political instability and former closeties with Afghanistan's Taliban regime. Mr. ElBaradei said thatsafeguards for Pakistan's arsenal - which is not under the purview ofthe IAEA - appear to be sufficient. But there are fears that thecountry's nuclear weapons could end up in the hands of pro-Talibanforces if the government were destabilized.

Despite the dangers, conference speakers say that the chances ofterrorists setting off a major nuclear bomb remain small, due to thedifficulty of acquiring the necessary high-grade materials andexpertise.

The experts agreed that safeguarding all nuclear materials should be acounterterror priority In the short term, the IAEA estimates that itneeds between $30 million and $50 million annually in additionalresources. The IAEA has been underfunded in the face of anever-increasing workload, and earlier this year the Bush administrationhad moved to cut funds that help Russia dismantle its nuclear arsenal.But governments may now be more willing to pay the price for greatersecurity.
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Nuke-Toting Gangs in Russia Pose a Threat to the West
David Satter
Los Angeles Times
November 5 2001
(for personal use only)

Political cooperation is only one of the things that the West needs fromRussia. We also need a measure of order within Russia itself.

Without a drive against Russia's internal lawlessness, Russia couldalign itself with the West completely and still be a base area forIslamic terrorism.

This is because Russia has huge amounts of poorly guarded weapons ofmass destruction and powerful organized crime groups that have theability to obtain and sell them. Russia has enough plutonium and uraniumto make 33,000 nuclear weapons stored at 50 scientific centers guardedby soldiers who are frequently underpaid.

It also has vast quantities of nuclear waste that could be used to makecrude bombs capable of contaminating large areas.

It has the world's largest inventory of chemical weapons—40,000tons—and a wide variety of bacterial cultures, including drug-resistantanthrax, smallpox and plague.

On Vosrozhdeniye Island, a former Soviet open-air biological weaponstesting site 600 miles from Afghanistan, there are enough anthrax sporesburied in metal drums a few feet below the surface to kill the world'spopulation several times over.

Russian and Chechen criminal organizations are involved in the transportand marketing of heroin from Afghanistan.

And according to the Russian newspaper Izvestia, Osama bin Laden usedthese criminal organizations to launder money for the Taliban, with hiscut being from $133 million to $1 billion a year.

In the 1995 sarin nerve gas attack on the Tokyo subway by the Japanesedoomsday sect Aum Shinrikyo, the production design for the manufactureof sarin was given to the sect by Oleg I. Lobov, Russia's former firstdeputy prime minister, for $100,000, according to testimony at the trialof those accused in the attack.

In recent weeks, there have been reports in the Russian press that BinLaden has bought several suitcase nuclear bombs from Russia that havenot been used only because they are protected by Soviet codes requiringa signal from Moscow before they can be detonated.

Under these circumstances, it is as important for Russia to crack downon organized crime as it is for the Muslim world and the West toeliminate any network capable of facilitating terror.

Russia's job would seem to be relatively easy.

The activities of Russia's organized crime groups, which have extensivebusiness holdings, have been documented not only by law enforcement butalso by their commercial competitors.

The Russian Internal Affairs Ministry has been in a position to crackdown for years; it needed only a signal from political authorities.

This didn't come from former President Boris N. Yeltsin, or so far fromPresident Vladimir V. Putin.

In 1997, FBI Director Louis J. Freeh told the House InternationalRelations Committee that there was a serious possibility that Russiancriminal gangs could get nuclear weapons and that Russian organizedcrime constituted a direct threat to U.S. national security.

Now, with the entire world under threat from Islamic extremists, theUnited States needs to ask our new ally Putin to begin to eradicate thisdanger, even at the expense of the system of robber capitalism that hasgrown up in the past decade.
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Nuclear Experts' Nightmare: Terrorists Steal a Warhead
Walter Pincus
Washington Post
November 4, 2001
(for personal use only)

Nuclear weapons experts say the greatest threat posed by terroristgroups seeking nuclear weapons comes from their stealing a warhead orobtaining highly enriched uranium or plutonium from which they couldfashion a nuclear device.

"We have been worrying about this kind of threat emerging for years,"Roger L. Hagengruber, senior vice president for national security andarms control at Sandia National Laboratories, said Friday. Since theSept. 11 attacks, "my worry index has gone up substantially,"Hagengruber said, adding that the skills shown by the al Qaeda terroristnetwork putting together that operation demonstrate "the potential isthere."

Hagengruber said the first threat of terrorists like Osama bin Laden,the al Qaeda leader, acquiring a nuclear capability comes from theirstealing a weapon. That is "the most devastating scenario," according tothe International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

But Hagengruber noted that U.S. weapons have built-in locks to preventtheir being exploded, a secure system that he said would take outsidescientists years to break.

Hagengruber added that, having worked with the Russians on security fortheir weapons, "I just don't think Russians are missing weapons, theycare about this . . . they care about safety and security about theirsas we do about ours."

Bin Laden or others obtaining highly enriched uranium is the secondgreatest threat, according to the IAEA and other experts.

IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei said on Monday that "while wecannot exclude the possibility that terrorists could get hold of somenuclear material, it is highly unlikely they could use it to manufactureand successfully detonate a nuclear bomb."

Paul Leventhal, president of the Nuclear Control Institute, a researchand advocacy center on nuclear proliferation and terrorism, disagreed.He said a team of five former U.S. weapons designers "found thatterrorists indeed would be capable of making an effective,first-generation nuclear weapon if they could obtain enoughreactor-grade plutonium or highly enriched uranium."

But those designers said terrorists working with the material would haveto be trained in physical, chemical and metallurgical properties ofnuclear materials, the characteristics of their fabrication, highexplosives, chemical propellants, hydrodynamics and electricalcircuitry.

"It is exceedingly unlikely that any single individual, even after yearsof assiduous preparation, could equip himself to proceed confidently ineach part of the diverse range of necessary knowledge and skills," thepanel wrote in a 1997 paper. It concluded that at least threespecialists would be required.

Hagengruber said that if an aspiring bomb builder had enough pure,highly enriched uranium, and had some fundamental understanding ofnuclear weapons design, he "could create a situation with a 10 percentchance of having a sizable explosive yield."

But obtaining the roughly 30 kilograms — or 65 pounds — of highlyenriched uranium required for such a result is a difficult task,according to counterterrorism experts.

Much less plutonium is needed for a nuclear explosion, but it is farmore dangerous to handle and much more difficult to treat in a mannerthat would cause a nuclear explosion.

If a terrorist group succeeded in obtaining enough fissile material, itwould need a place where it could work "uninterrupted for a significantperiod of time," according to David Albright and his colleagues at theInstitute for Science and Security. "The necessary weaponizationfacilities can be small," Albright wrote in September, noting that SouthAfrica's "initial nuclear weapons effort in the 1970s used small,rudimentary facilities that were extremely difficult to detect byoverseas intelligence agencies."

One other consideration is what is known as a dirty bomb, a devicecontaining radioactive materials and explosive chemicals that isdetonated to contaminate a selected area.

The potential impact from such a device can be measured using theexperience recorded in 1987 in the Brazilian city of Goiania. There,some scrap scavengers broke into an abandoned radiological clinic andstole a capsule containing a little more than an ounce of highlyradioactive cesium 137. The capsule was cut into more than 100 pieces,which were passed along to family members and friends around the city.

"Fourteen people were overexposed to radiation out of 249 contaminated,"according to the IAEA. "Four subsequently died and more than 110,000 hadto be continuously monitored. To decontaminate the area, 125,000 drumsand 1,470 boxes were filled with contaminated clothing, furniture, dirtand other materials; 85 houses had to be destroyed."
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Experts Discuss Chances of Nuclear Terrorism
Peter Finn
Washington Post
November 3, 2001
(for personal use only)

VIENNA, Nov. 2 — A crude nuclear device could be detonated by someterrorist group, including Osama bin Laden's al Qaeda, which would haveno qualms about using a weapon of mass destruction, weapons experts toldthe U.N. atomic agency at a conference here today.

Following the Sept. 11 attacks, Western countries, particularly theUnited States, must accelerate efforts to protect inadequately housednuclear material that could easily — and may already have — falleninto the hands of terrorists, speakers at the conference said.

"The only strategy is to protect the material where it is," said MortenBremer Maerli, a researcher at the Norwegian Institute of InternationalAffairs. But, he added, implementation of that strategy "doesn't exist."

While building and setting off a nuclear device is technicallydifficult, those hurdles should not be overestimated. Suicidalextremists bent on mass destruction may be indifferent to the safetystandards that mark government weapons programs.

One speaker quoted the late Manhattan Project researcher, Luis W.Alvarez, who said, "Most people seem unaware that if [highly enricheduranium] is at hand, it's a trivial job to set off a nuclear explosion .. . even a high school kid could make a bomb in short order."

Maerli and other speakers said there is a shocking lack of control atnuclear facilities in numerous countries, especially Russia, to preventthe pilfering and sale of highly enriched uranium and plutonium that canbe used in bomb-making.

The Vienna-based International Atomic Energy Agency, which organizedtoday's conference, reports 175 cases of trafficking in nuclear materialsince 1993, including 18 cases that involved small amounts of highlyenriched uranium or plutonium. What is unknown is whether these numbersrepresent the extent or just the tip of the problem.

In these cases, the material was seized by law enforcement agencies, butrecords at the facilities, most of them Russian, from which the uraniumor plutonium was stolen showed that nothing was missing, officials said.

"The controls on nuclear material and radioactive sources are uneven,"said Mohamed ElBaradei, director general of the agency. "Security is asgood as its weakest link and loose nuclear material in any country is apotential threat to the entire world."

Since the breakup of the Soviet Union, the United States has spentbillions of dollars on anti-proliferation programs, including some todismantle the nuclear arsenals of such former Soviet republics asUkraine, employing former Soviet nuclear scientists and beefing upsecurity at their old facilities. But up to 60 percent of nuclearmaterial in Russia remains inadequately secured, according to MatthewBunn, assistant director of the science, technology and public policyprogram at Harvard University's Kennedy School.

"This is a threat that we know how to fix and it's a matter of writingchecks," said Bunn, who criticized the Bush administration for cuttingfunding for such nuclear programs in Russia after it came to office. "Ithink it's shocking. There has been a complete lack of leadership."

In a letter to the conference, President Bush said, "We will look to theIAEA to continue serving as a critical instrument to help combat thereal and growing threat of nuclear proliferation."

Today's meeting was intended to drive home the urgency of action andincrease the profile of a U.N. agency whose funding has been low foryears.

The agency wants between $30 million and $50 million to step up itssafety work; securing nuclear material worldwide could cost up to $30billion, according to one study in the United States.

Before Sept. 11, the IAEA was primarily concerned about the risk ofstates believed to sponsor terrorist acts "diverting nuclear materialsinto clandestine weapons programs," said ElBaradei. Sept. 11 hasexpanded the dimensions of the threat — the conference heard that somereligious extremists would likely use a weapon of mass destruction,whether nuclear, chemical or biological, if they could get one.

"From a psychological point of view, the thresholds have already beencrossed," said Jerrold M. Post, professor of psychiatry, politicalpsychology and international affairs at George Washington University anda CIA veteran. "There is no reason to think the choice of weapon wouldbe a constraint."

The agency was also warned that terrorists may seek to kill scores andcause widespread panic by dusting a conventional bomb with radioactivematerial widely in use in civilian life, and that nuclear power plantsare not prepared for the kind of multipronged attack employed by theterrorists on Sept. 11.

"Suppose that these 19 [hijackers] had formed into teams to drive fourvans with large high-explosive bombs into the power reactors and spentfuel ponds for a large nuclear facility," said George Bunn, a professorat Stanford University's Center for International Security andCooperation. "Does any civilian facility's design . . . suggestprotection against such threats?"

The answer, Bunn said, is no.

ElBaradei pleaded for international unity to create universal minimumsecurity standards for nuclear plants and material, standards that arenow largely left to individual countries.

Such efforts have failed in the past, with poor countries saying theycannot afford them and richer countries, including France, Germany andBritain, saying a new system of international oversight infringes ontheir sovereignty. The United States, at various times, has supportedand then rejected new requirements for the protection of nuclear plants.

Those sentiments are changing, U.S. and European officials here said,but any new protocol is still years away, given the pace at whichinternational agreements are reached and ratified.
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Small Nukes Biggest Threat to Mankind: Chomsky (Excerpted)
Rezaul H Laskar
Indo-Asian News Service
November 3, 2001
(for personal use only)

Noted intellectual Noam Chomsky on Saturday said weapons of massdestruction, especially small nuclear devices, posed the greatest threatto countries all over the world.

One of America's most prominent political dissidents, Chomsky said smallnuclear weapons, particularly those weighing less than 15 pounds, couldbe smuggled into almost any country with relative ease.

Even in a highly advanced country like the US, studies had shown thatthe possibility of such a nuclear weapon being smuggled in had a greaterchance of succeeding than a military strike using ballistic missiles, hesaid while delivering the D T Lakdawala memorial lecture.

Chomsky emphasised the danger posed by thousands of nuclear devicescurrently believed to be in former Soviet republics and scores ofnuclear scientists left "with no work" following the break-up of theSoviet Union.

He attributed the rapid proliferation of nuclear weapons to the failureof the US to agree to some sort of protocol on controlling the spread ofweapons of mass destruction as far back as the 1950s.

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C. Russia-India Cooperation

Indian Defense Deals Spur Russian Market
Gerard Halford and Gabor Szabo
The Russia Journal
November 8, 2001
(for personal use only)

With some $1 billion in Indian contracts flowing into the sector everyyear, orders from Delhi are one of the key drivers of Russia'smilitary-industrial complex, keeping it in cash and spurring developmentand innovation.

"A lot has already been done, but the prospects for even more growth incooperation look good," said Yelena Sakhnova, a defense-industry analystat ATON.

With U.S. military support falling mostly to Pakistan, India spent mostof the Cold War as a Soviet client, and ties have remained strong withRussian defense manufacturers. And as many Eastern and Central Europeanmilitaries begin switching to NATO systems — and as the Russian defensebudget continues to shrink — the Indian market is becoming all the morevital for Russia.

"Right now, it is of tremendous importance to have very warm and closeties in this area with India," Sakhnova said.

India consistently purchases Russian missiles, tanks and ships, but thevast majority of its business — some $4.5 billion of the $5 billionspent since 1996, according to Sakhnova — concerns airplanes. Aside fromupgrading and replacing hundreds of aging fighters, bombers andpatrollers, the promise of Indian orders is the main driver in thedevelopment of Russia's fourth-generation Su-30MKI multi-role strikefighter.

And that, in and of itself, is vital, Sakhnova said. Now that thePentagon has given Lockheed Martin the go-ahead to build itssuper-modern Joint Strike Fighter, Russia desperately needs to develop afifth-generation fighter capable of competing in world markets, shesaid. And with the JSF nominally priced at$30 million each — the same price Russia gets for the Su-30 — Russiawill need all the impetus it can get to make sure it comes up with theright fighter to win Indian contracts, she said.

Similarly, India is working side-by-side with Russia to develop asupersonic cruise missile — one of the most formidable of its kind inthe world and feared by the countries' neighbors for its believedpotential to carry a nuclear warhead.

Below is a rundown of these and other major defense deals between Indiaand Russia.


  • India purchased a Russian upgrade package developed by the SokolAircraft Plant in Nizhny Novgorod, the MiG Design Bureau and the formerPhazotron radar manufacturer to modernize its fleet of 125 MiG-21fighters. The aging MiGs, which were of Soviet design but built byHindustan Aeronautics — or HAL — in the 1970s, have been fitted with newcockpit displays, mission computers, radars and weapons, aimed at makingthe fighter a closer match to Pakistani F-16s.
  • India is planning to build 140 Sukhoi Su-30MKI strike fighters, underlicense from Russia. The Su-30MKI is a modification of the standardSu-30, which is itself a derivative of the Su-27 fighters common in theRussian Air Force. The MKI version includes modern radar andweapons-control systems, allowing the plane to attack ground targetswith precision-guided weapons. The cockpit is fitted with French-madedisplays and some Indian-made equipment.
  • Other aircraft programs include upgrades for India's aging Il-38 andTu-142 maritime-patrol aircraft, an avionics upgrade for Mi-8 and Mi-17helicopters and the lease of four Beriev A.50 airborne early-warningaircraft and four Tupolev Tu-22 long-range strike aircraft. A possibleupgrade for India's MiG-29 fighters has also been suggested.
Missile Systems

  • India has purchased a range of systems, including short-range Tunguskamissiles for air defense and the mid-range Tor surface-to-air missiles.India has also recently negotiated the purchase of the sophisticatedlong-range S-300 system, which can also be used as ananti-ballistic-missile defense.
  • Indian ships, submarines and aircraft are to be fitted with theNovator 3M-54E Klub cruise missile, a high-speed weapon that can attackships and ground targets within a range of 300 km.
  • Perhaps the most formidable weapon under joint development is theBrahmos PJ-10 supersonic cruise missile, developed jointly by India andRussian manufacturer NPO Mashinooyeniye. The missile wassuccessfully tested at the Chandipur Test Range in June 2001 and has arange of 280 km and a speed of more than Mach 2.5. It is expected toenter production in another two years and will be launched from ships,submarines, aircraft and land-based mobile launchers.

  • Foremost among the Indian navy's purchases is the modified aircraftcarrier Admiral Gorshkov. Russia is likely to sign the final deal on thesale by the end of the year, after an agreement on technicalmodifications at the Sevmash Shipyard was signed last month. ThoughIndia is buying the ship itself at scrap cost, it is paying around $600million for upgrades, as well as 20 MiG-29K naval fighters and six KamovKa-31 helicopters for a total of about $1.5 billion.
  • Sevmash has already delivered one frigate to India, with a secondProject 11356-class ship launched last year at the Baltiisky Shipyard inSt. Petersburg. A third is under construction.
  • India has also bought advanced Russian submarines, including nine877EKM Kilo-Class submarines. A 10th, the INS Insushastra, has recentlybeen launched. The ships, designed by the Rubin Central Maritime DesignBureau, were built at the Admiralty Shipyard in St. Petersburg andfitted with Novator 3M-54E Klub cruise missiles.

  • The Indian market has also provided rich pickings for Russia's tankmanufacturers. A sale was agreed last year for several hundred T-90tanks, with the first batch due for delivery by mid-December and therest to come by March 2003.
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Vajpayee to Sign Nuclear Agreement During Russia Visit
Agence France Presse
November 2, 2001
(for personal use only)

Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee will sign a framework agreement on athree-day visit in Moscow starting Sunday that paves the way forRussia's construction of a nuclear power plant in Tamil Nadu, officialssaid on Friday.

The agreement will determine how many reactors will beset up at theKudankulum plant, in Tamil Nadu, Nuclear Power Minister AlexanderRumyantsev told Interfax.

The price of the plant will depend on how many nuclear reactors Indiadecides to set up, each VVER-1000 unit costing 600 million dollars, saidRumyantsev. Moscow and New Delhi initially agreed on the plant'sconstruction some 13 years ago, but the project was abandoned followingthe Soviet Union's collapse.

The deal was resurrected when former Russian president Boris Yeltsinvisited India in 1998. Officials in India earlier said that Russia wouldsupply the design and 90 per cent of the equipment for the plant andalso provide 54 per cent of the credit at four per cent interest.

India will have to repay the credit in 14 equal instalment, one yearafter the commissioning of the plant. The first unit of the plant isexpected to be commissioned by December 2007 and the second by December2008. The plant will supply power to Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Keralaand Tamil Nadu.
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D. Nuclear Safety

EU Completes Chornobyl Information Project
RFE/RL Newsline
November 6, 2001
(for personal use only)

Officials of the EU's TACIS program on 5 November said they havecompleted a $1.2 million project aimed at informing the public inBelarus, Ukraine, and Russia about the consequences of the Chornobylnuclear disaster, AP reported. The TACIS project included a collectionof scientific information about the catastrophe's aftermath, which wasthen distributed with the inclusion of new statistics andrecommendations on how to survive in affected areas. The information ispublished in books, booklets, videotapes, and compact discs distributedto government institutions, lawmakers, and various regionalorganizations. "We cannot clean food products from radiation with CDs,but we can learn from them that 90 percent of all products in Ukraineare clean and that people don't need to do something special aboutthem," one of the program's participants said. JM
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Ukrainian Nuclear Engineers Sacked After Rise in Emergencies
BBC Monitoring Service
November 2, 2001
(for personal use only)

Text of report in English by Russian news agency Interfax

Kiev, 2 November: Ukraine's nuclear energy company Enerhoatom has sackedthe chief engineer of the Zaporizhzhya nuclear station, his assistant incharge of power engineering equipment, the chiefs of the electric andautomatic heat supply workshops, and power engineering serviceexecutives for the violation of operational procedures in October.

This was reported at a session of the Fuel and Energy Ministry'scollegiate by Yuriy Nedashkovskyy, president of Enerhoatom.

He said the sacking followed an investigation by an Enerhoatomcommission into the reasons for the sharp rise in the number ofpersonnel-created emergency situations in October.

Nedashkovskyy said 49 violations were registered at national nuclearplants over nine months this year, four times less than over the samelast year period. At the same time, the number of errors jumped to 11 inOctober, seven of this number at the Zaporizhzhya plant, three of whichwere blamed on personnel. Yet another two malfunctions were registeredat the Rivne and Khmelnytskyy stations, one at the Rivne plant throughpersonnel fault.

Source: Interfax news agency, Moscow, in English 1352 gmt 2 Nov 01 /BBCMonitoring/ © BBC.
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Russian Nuclear Industry Had No Emergencies in October
BBC Monitoring Service
November 1, 2001
(for personal use only)

Text of report in English by Russian news agency Interfax

Moscow, 1 November: Russia's nuclear and radiation centres did not haveany emergencies that could lessen nuclear and radiation safety inOctober, reads a report of the State Committee for Nuclear and RadiationSafety Oversight (Gosatomnadzor).

The automatic safety systems were triggered twice, at the Kola andLeningrad nuclear power plants. "There was no violation of theconditions and limits of safe operation. The radiation was normal," thereport says.

The automatic safety systems of research reactors were also triggeredtwice, in Obninsk and Gatchina. "There was no radiation aftermath thereeither," the Committee said.

Source: Interfax news agency, Moscow, in English 0858 gmt 1 Nov 01 /BBCMonitoring/ © BBC.
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E. Nuclear Waste

New Radwaste Storage in Krasnoyarsk
Rashid Alimov
Bellona Foundation
November 5, 2001
(for personal use only)

In the turn of October, press service of the Ministry for Nuclear Energy(Minatom) commented on the information, published by the Ecodefence!environmental group. The group says spent nuclear fuel storage site isunder construction 30 kilometres from Krasnoyarsk-26 (Zheleznogorsk).

Minatom's statement begins with the words "the mentioned information isfalse", but the statement itself actually confirms that the constructionis underway.

Ministry's answer to the environmentalists says that not spent nuclearfuel, but radioactive waste, including long-lived fission products andactinide elements. The actinide elements refer to a range of isotopes,including plutonium and uranium. The waste will come from reprocessingof spent nuclear at RT-2 plant, which is currently under construction inKrasnoyarsk-26.

In Ecodefence's view, such phrases are used only to draw a veil over thedumping foreign nuclear waste in Russia.

"Minatom's disclaimer only proved our correctness," the Ecodefence!co-chairman Vladimir Slivyak says. "In fact, Minatom misleads Russiancitizens, while naming a dump site a "long-term storage site."

Governor's appeal
Early in October, the Kemerovo county governor Aman Tuleev appealed tothe Russian prime minister Mikhail Kasyanov to make public the data,pertaining to building of the storage site.

In his view, new information proves, that despite Minatom's assurances,spent nuclear fuel would be imported to Siberia not for reprocessingwith return of the waste products, but for eternal dumping. "Siberia isgoing to become a dump site for foreign nuclear waste, causing problemsfor environment and human health. The issues of transportation anddumping of spent nuclear fuel have not been solved so far," Tuleev'ssays in the appeal.

The bills, favouring spent nuclear fuel imports to Russia for storageand reprocessing were signed by the President after parliament'sapproval, despite negative attitude of 90% Russian citizens as pollsshow.

The Minatom officials persuaded MPs to legalize imports of foreign spentfuel, referring to the two advantages. Firstly, spent fuel will bereprocessed, not reposited. And secondly, the imports would bring $20bn,at the price of $1000 for one kilo. Today as the bills are approved,Minatom admits that storage term may be much longer than said earlier -it may last for thousands of years. At the same time, the first importof spent nuclear fuel from Bulgaria is being carried out now at theprice of $620 per kilo.

Tonnes of radwaste
Spent nuclear fuel is to be brought into the country, despite the tonnesof domestic radioactive waste being accumulated.

Environmental situation around Russian nuclear industry plants remainsdifficult, and Minatom's representatives have to admit that. Forexample, an article by V.Rybachenkov published in the Nuclear Controlmagazine No.4, in which the author favours spent fuel imports, but alsohas some doubts: "Russia is facing a great number of tasks in this field[of nuclear environmental safety]. According to some Western experts,only three Russian nuclear plants in Chelyabinsk-65, Tomsk-7 andKrasnoyarsk-26, have produced more than 95% of all the radioactive wastefound in the world. Those wastes are dumped on the surface and into theunderground water systems."
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Greens Demand End to Nuclear Waste Transit Through Ukraine
BBC Monitoring Service
November 2, 2001
(for personal use only)

Text of report by Ukrainian One Plus One TV on 1 November

[Presenter Lyudmyla Dobrovolska] The Party of Greens of Ukraine iscalling for an end to nuclear waste transit through Ukrainian territory.This year, 40 tonnes of dangerous waste are to be transported fromBulgaria to Russia for burial. Ukraine, Bulgaria, Moldova and Russiasigned a treaty on nuclear waste transit back in 1997. But this problembecame pressing for Ukraine only after the Russian State Duma[parliament] approved a law permitting the burial of nuclear waste onRussian territory.

Two containers have already crossed Ukrainian territory, unbeknown toresidents of the areas through which they passed. The Greens have calledfor the treaty to be abolished and for waste transit to be stopped. Theyare proposing a signature-raising campaign to support this initiative.

[Vitaliy Kononov, captioned as the leader of the Party of Greens ofUkraine, speaking at a news conference] I think we need to treat this ina different way. The situation concerning Bulgarian waste is a test ofour civil society. For this reason, I am asking for your support. Forour part, we have been collecting signatures of residents living inareas adjacent to those through which we believe waste may betransported.

Source: One Plus One TV, Kiev, in Ukrainian 1730 gmt 1 Nov 01 /BBCMonitoring/ © BBC.
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F. Announcements

Women In International Security invites you to a reception anddiscussion on U.S.-Russia Relations: Economic, Political, and SecurityDimensions and the Upcoming U.S.-Russia Summit
Wednesday, November 7, 2001 5:30 - 7:30 p.m.
Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1800 K St. NW,
Washington DC 20036


Angela E. Stent (panel moderator) is Professor of Government andDirector of the Center for Eurasian, Russian and East European Studiesin Georgetown University's School of Foreign Service. From 1999-2001,she served on the Policy Planning Staff of the U. S. State Department,where she dealt with Russian and Central European affairs. She is aspecialist on Soviet and post-Soviet foreign policy, focusing on Europeand the Russian-German relationship. She has also published works onEast-West technology transfer. She has taught at Holy Cross College,M.I.T., and the U.S. State Department's Foreign Service Institute.

Laura S. Hayes Holgate is Vice President for Russia/NIS Programs at theNuclear Threat Initiative, a non-profit organization established bySenators Nunn and Lugar, and co-chaired by Ted Turner. She servedpreviously as Assistant Deputy Administrator for the Fissile MaterialDisposition, National Nuclear Security Administration, U.S. Departmentof Energy, where she was responsible for disposing of materials fromdismantled U.S. and Russia nuclear weapons. Ms. Holgate also served asSpecial Coordinator for Cooperative Threat Reduction at the Departmentof Defense, where she oversaw policy for the Nunn-Lugar program of U.S.assistance to NIS for eliminating weapons of mass destruction.

Sarah E. Mendelson is a Senior Fellow in the Russia and Eurasia Programat the Center for Strategic and International Studies, and AssistantProfessor of international politics at the Fletcher School of Law andDiplomacy, Tufts University, specializing in Russian politics andforeign policy. Her current research interests include Chechnya and theuse of force, as well as democracy and human rights issues. From 1997 to2000, she directed a collaborative study, funded by the CarnegieCorporation of New York, evaluating the impact of Western democracyassistance to Eastern Europe and Eurasia. She holds a Ph.D. fromColumbia University.

Astrid S. Tuminez is Director of Research for alternative investments atAIG (American International Group) Global Investment Corp., where sheresearches and writes on private equity (venture and buyouts), investsdirectly in biotechnology and life science companies, and helps developsclient relationships. She is also an Adjunct Fellow at the Council onForeign Relations and is the author of Russian Nationalism Since 1856.Ideology and the Making of Foreign Policy (Rowman and Littlefield,2000). Before joining AIG, Dr. Tuminez worked as a consultant to TheWorld Bank, an institutional sales/research professional at BrunswickWarburg, Inc., and a program officer at Carnegie Corporation ofNew York. Dr. Tuminez holds a Ph.D. in political science from MIT.

Celeste Wallander is Director and Senior Fellow at the Russia andEurasia Program at the Center for Strategic and International Studies.Previously, she was a senior fellow at the Council on Foreign Relationsand Associate Professor of Government at the Davis Center for RussianStudies and the Weatherhead Center for International Affairs at HarvardUniversity. Since 1997, she has also been Director of the Program on NewApproaches to Russian Security. Dr. Wallander received her Ph.D. inPolitical Science from Yale.

This event is free and open to the public. Seating is limited, so pleaseRSVP (acceptances only) as soon as possible, and no later than 10.01.01to Women In International Security, fax: (202) 687-3233 For more information, please contact the WIIS EventsCoordinator Kate Capossela at (202) 687-2964 or
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G. Links of Interest

Russia's Nuclear Warriors
November 6, 2001

Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces
Edited by Pavel Podvig
November 1, 2001

What If the New Strategic Framework Goes Bad?
Joseph Cirincione and Jon B. Wolfsthal
Arms Control Today
November 2001

Reducing the Threat of Nuclear Theft and Sabotage
Matthew Bunn and George Bunn
Symposium on International Safeguards:Verification and Nuclear Material
October 30, 2001

"Reducing the Nuclear Threat in the 21st Century"
Charles Curtis
Symposium on International Safeguards:Verification and Nuclear Material Security
October 29, 2001

Other Presentations from the Symposium on International
Safeguards:Verification and Nuclear Material Security
October 29-November 2, 2001

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