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Nuclear News - 09/08/00
RANSAC Nuclear News, 08 September 2000

A.  Plutonium Disposition

    1. No Financial Help To Siemens Pu-Plant To Russia, Bellona(09/09/00)
    2. Germany Refuses to Help Siemens Sell Plutonium Plant to Russia,Agence France Presse (09/07/00)
    3. Value Of Russian Weapons-Grade Plutonium After DisarmamentPut At 10bn Dollars, BBC Monitoring Service (09/06/00)
    1. Secretary Richardson Hails Completed Security Upgrades AtCeremony In Russian Far East, U.S. Department of Energy (09/01/00)
C. Nuclear Testing
    1. Russia Performed Three Subcritical Nuclear Tests, ThomasNilsen and Igor Kudrik, Bellona (09/08/00)
D. Russian Military Forces
    1. Armed Forces To Face Huge Personnel Cuts? RFE/RL, (09/08/00)
    2. Russian Defence Minister Confirms Planned Armed Forces Cuts,Interfax (09/08/00)
    3. Russia's Armed Forces And Other Power Structures To Be ReducedBy Over 400,000 Servicemen, Interfax (09/07/00)
    1. Missile Talks on Summit's Sidelines, Associated Press(09/08/00)
F.  Nuclear Power Industry
    1. Russia May Build First Close-Cycle Nuke Reactor, ItarTass (09/08/00)
    2. Putin Plan New Step in Checking Nuclear Arms Spread,Itar Tass (09/08/00)
    3. [Putin]Urges Nuclear Energy Without Weapons-Grade Materials,RFE/RL (09/07/00)
    4. Russia Urges Japan to Invest in Nuclear Power Plants,BBC Monitoring Service (09/06/00)
    5. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Imposes Strict Conditions OnExport Of Bomb-Grade Fuel To European Community Reactor, Nuclear ControlInstitute (09/05/00)
G.  U.S. - Russia General
    1. U.S.-Russian Strategic Stability Cooperation Initiative -U.S.-Russian Joint Statement and Implementation Plan, The White House(09/07/00)

A. Plutonium Disposition

No Financial Help To Siemens Pu-Plant To Russia
        September 9, 2000
        (for personal use only)

The German government has refused a request from Siemens on financialaid to sell a plutonium processing plant to Russia. The plant, built inthe German city of Hanau, has never been used. Siemens want to sell itto Russia as a part of the Russian plan to produce MOX-fuel out of thecountries large stocks of weapon-grade plutonium. MOX-fuel contains uraniumand plutonium oxides and can be used in civilian nuclear power plants.The MOX-fuel program has been heavily criticised by environmentalists becausesuch fuel both rise the risks of accidents in addition to problems of storageafter its use.
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Germany Refuses to Help Siemens Sell Plutonium Plant to Russia
        Agence France Presse
        September 7, 2000
        (for personal use only)

BERLIN, Sep 7, 2000 -- (Agence France Presse) German Economics MinisterWerner Mueller has refused financial aid to the German group Siemens inits bid to sell a plutonium processing plant to Russia, the daily SuddeutscheZeitung said Thursday.

"I will not agree to granting credit for the export of this factory,licensed by the public institute Hermes," he told the daily.

"Financing this project is Siemens' problem," he said.

The plant, built in the central German town of Hanau, has never beenused.

It produces a fuel which contains uranium and plutonium oxides, whichsave on natural uranium and burns plutonium, whose storage is a problem.It is used in conjunction with enriched uranium in nuclear power stations.

Siemens recently asked for authorization to export the facility to pushthe government into providing financial support.

Mueller said he would review the situation if there were a common initiativeof the G8 countries -- Britain, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan,Russia and the United States -- to finance the processing of plutoniumin such a factory.
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Value Of Russian Weapons-Grade Plutonium After Disarmament Put At10bn Dollars
        BBC Monitoring Service
        September 6, 2000
        (for personal use only)

Text of report in English by Russian news agency ITAR-TASS

Tokyo, 6th September: Russia will release 34 tonnes of weapons-gradeplutonium in the process of nuclear disarmament. Atomic Energy MinisterYevgeniy Adamov has estimated its price in fuel equivalent after utilizationat over 10bn US dollars.

However, "it remains to find 2bn US dollars for that (utilization) programme",he told reporters on Wednesday [6th September].

He recalled that the G8 summit in Okinawa had called for the necessaryfunds to be found, including from commercial sources.

Adamov said that "the total nuclear weapons reduction in Russia fullymeets the START-2 commitments, which Moscow observed even before the treatywas ratified".
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Secretary Richardson Hails Completed Security Upgrades At CeremonyIn Russian Far East
        U.S. Department of Energy
        September 1, 2000
        (for personal use only)

Expands Cooperation With Russian Navy To Secure Nuclear Materials

In Russia's Far East today, Secretary of Energy Bill Richardson commissionedthe completion of security upgrades at two Russian Navy nuclear fuel storagesites located near Vladivostok. The upgrades were designed by the U.S.Department of Energy to provide better protection from theft or diversionof weapons-usable nuclear materials.

"The success of our joint cooperation here is further evidence thatwe can cooperate, no matter the sensitivity of the site, to achieve importantresults. Site 32, and Site 34, are models for the world in its pursuitof peace," said Secretary of Energy Richardson.

The Secretary presented plaques and letters of commendation to thoseinvolved in significantly improving security of these nuclear materials.The naval sites involved are Site 32, which stores irradiated and damagednaval fuel, and Site 34, a large capacity facility able to hold tons offresh naval fuel. The Russian Navy is a major user of highly enriched uraniumfuel, that if stolen, could be processed for use in nuclear weapons.

Separately, security upgrades to a nuclear fuel service ship were commissionedin a separate ceremony near Vladivostok attended by other Energy Departmentofficials on August 30.

On August 31, Secretary Richardson signed an agreement with the RussianFederation Navy that outlines expanded future cooperation in the area ofnuclear material security. Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Navy Admiralof the Fleet Vladimir Kuroyedov signed on behalf of the Russian Federation.

This effort is a component of the Department of Energy's Material Protection,Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program, which seeks to reduce the threatof theft or diversion of weapons-usable nuclear material in Russia by cooperativelyupgrading physical security and accountancy systems.

Since 1996, the Department of Energy has been cooperating with the RussianFederation Navy to upgrade the security of naval nuclear material. Securityupgrades for a naval fuel storage site and security enhancements aboarda nuclear-powered service ship of the Northern Fleet were completed inSeptember 1999.
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C. Nuclear Testing

Russia Performed Three Subcritical Nuclear Tests
        Thomas Nilsen and Igor Kudrik
        September 8, 2000
        (for personal use only)

Minatom is to continue subcritical nuclear testing this autumn at NovayaZemlya in the Arctic. Funding shortfalls prevent Russia from a more frequentreplacement of ageing plutonium in nuclear warheads.

Russian Ministry for Nuclear Energy, or Minatom, will be busy this autumncontinuing its subcritical test program for nuclear weapons at Novaya Zemlya.The main purpose of the tests is believed to ensure that the lifetime ofthe old weapon grade plutonium stocks can be prolonged. The research ofnew generation weapons is also named as one of the reasons for testing.

Over the past two weeks, Minatom and Defence Ministry have carried outthree tests, on August 28 and 31, and September 3. A spokesman from Minatom,Yury Bespalko, said that the amount of weapon-grade plutonium used in eachtest is around 100 grams, reported.

Yuri Bespalko said that plutonium of various ages was tested to establishwhether it could perform well. Alexey Yablokov, chairman of the RussianEnvironmental Policy organisation, said he agreed with the official explanation.According to Yablokov, the behaviour of plutonium under various conditionsis not known. The research conducted so far was mainly focused on the militaryaspects related to power output in order to increase the sufficiency ofnuclear weapons. In the meantime, the ageing atoms of plutonium convertto americium-241. Yablokov said that the speed of the conversion is theoreticallyknown, but the performance of plutonium-americium nuclear device is notbeing studied well enough. This might be the main purpose for Minatom toconduct the subcritical tests.

During the Soviet times plutonium was being replaced at all nuclearwarheads each 6-10 years to ensure good performance of the devices. Today,the funding cut backs do not allow the same tempo of replacement even forthe drastically reduced Russia's nuclear weapon stocks. The number of warheadshas been reduced from around 40,000 down to 10,000-12,000 during the pastten years. The subcritical tests are aimed at verifying whether the possibilityexists to prolong the service time of nuclear warheads and reduce the expenses.

Yablokov would not exclude that a part of the experiments may be usedto improve and design new nuclear weapon devices.

Subcritical tests, or what Minatom calls them - hydrodynamic experiments,contain the ingredients of a nuclear warhead, plutonium or uranium, butfizzle out without any thermonuclear blast and, theoretically, are notaccompanied by radioactive emissions.

The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) does not prohibit subcriticaltests - the fact that many of the signature countries to the treaty havecriticised. This flaw in the CTBT allows countries like USA and Russiato continue research and development of new nuclear devises, making othercountries nervous. Russia ratified CTBT on June 30, 2000.

Last winter, Russia carried out seven subcritical tests at Novaya Zemlya.A series of such tests was also conducted in September 1999. In 1998 fivetests were carried out. The first time Russian authorities confirmed thatthey did indeed have a program for subcritical tests was back in 1997.

In September ten years ago, Bellona's ship M/S Genius was protestingagainst the Soviet nuclear tests at Novaya Zemlya. The ship stayed outsidethe Russian territorial waters in the Barents Sea for three weeks.
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D. Russian Military Forces

Armed Forces To Face Huge Personnel Cuts?
        September 8, 2000
        (for personal use only)

Two Russian news agencies, AVN and Interfax, cited unnamed militarysources on 7 September as saying that Russia's top military brass intendsto significantly reduce the strength of the armed forces. According toInterfax, beginning next year troops will be reduced by some 350,000 servicemento a total of 850,000 by 2003. The ground forces will lose 180,000 soldiers,the navy 50,000, the air force 40,000, the Interior Ministry 20,000, theRailways Ministry 10,000, the Federal Border Guard Service 5,000, and otherministries and agencies with troops 25,000 servicemen. (The agency didnot explain from where the remaining 20,000 servicemen would be cut.) Accordingto AVN, the Russian armed forces will be cut by 400,000 during the sametime period. In a recent public opinion survey, respondents said Russiashould support a large army, regardless of whether the country can affordone (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 6 September 2000).
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Russian Defence Minister Confirms Planned Armed Forces Cuts
        September 8, 2000
        (for personal use only)

Kubinka test range (Moscow region), 8th September: Russian Defence MinisterMarshal Igor Sergeyev has confirmed reports of planned radical cuts inthe country's armed forces.

Answering journalists' questions on Friday [8th September] on whetherthere were indeed plans to cut back 350,000 servicemen between 2001 and2003, the marshal said: "Decisions on that have been taken, and proposalsto be made to the president on their implementation are now being drafted."

According to Interfax sources, the plan is to reduce the numerical strengthof the Ground Troops by 180,000 servicemen, the navy by over 50,000 andthe air force by nearly 40,000.

"There will be radical cuts in the Strategic Missile Troops, in therear services and auxiliary structures," the agency's sources also said.

Furthermore, according to them, the numerical strength of military unitsof other force structures in Russia [i.e. those outside the Defence Ministry]is to be reduced by over 60,000 servicemen. In particular, the InternalTroops of the Russian Interior Ministry are to be cut back by 20,000, theRailway Troops by 10,000 and the Federal Border Guard Service by 5,000.

Another 25,000 servicemen or so are to be cut back in other militarydepartments (the Federal Agency for Government Communications, the FederalSecurity Service and others), Interfax sources noted.
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Russia's Armed Forces And Other Power Structures To Be Reduced ByOver 400,000 Servicemen
        September 7, 2000
        (for personal use only)

MOSCOW. Sept 7 (Interfax) - Russia is planning to radically reduce thearmed forces and other power structures of the country which have militaryformations.

The reduction of troops will start in 2001 and the main measures areto be completed by 2003, sources in Moscow told Interfax on Thursday. Itis planned that Russia’s armed forces will have been reduced by 350,000servicemen by that time and will total 850,000 people.

It is planned to reduce the Land Forces by almost 180,000 servicemen,the Navy by over 50,000 servicemen and the Air Force by roughly 40,000servicemen, the sources said. Serious reorganization will also be carriedout in the administration of the Defense Ministry and rear structures,including military medicine.

"Radical reduction is also expected in the Strategic Missile Force,"the sources told Interfax. According to their information, the StrategicMissile Force (RVSN) will see a reduction of some 10 missile divisionsby 2006. The space missile defense troops and the space military forceswill be taken out of this branch of service in 2001 and will be put underthe control of the Russian General Staff, they said.

The Strategic Missile Force is expected to be transformed into an independentarm of service in 2002, and later, approximately in 2006, to be includedin the Russian Air Force, they said.

Other power structures will also be greatly reduced, the sources said.The internal troops of the Russian Interior Ministry are expected to bereduced by over 20,000 servicemen. The number of railway troops will bereduced by 10,000 and the Federal Border Guard Service will be reducedby 5,000, they said.

Other ministries and agencies that have military formations will bereduced by a total of over 25,000 people, the sources said.

Thus, it is planned to reduce the Russian armed forces and other powerstructures by over 400,000 servicemen.

The Defense Ministry, the General Staff, the Finance Ministry and theMinistry for Industry, Science and Technologies (which is in charge ofissues relating to state defense orders) are currently calculating howmuch funding will be required for the planned reforms, the sources said.

Such a radical reduction is being planned because the state cannot adequatelyfinance the structures, they said.

"Next year, funding for defense expenditures will mainly be spent onplanned reforms and research and design work, as well as on upgrading andrepairs of military technology. It is not planned to purchase large batchesof new samples of weapons and military technology," the sources said.

The final decision has not yet been made "at the highest political level,"where the final parameters of reduction will be determined, they said.

Official representatives of the Defense Ministry would not comment onthe information reported to Interfax by the sources.
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Missile Talks on Summit's Sidelines
        Associated Press
        September 8, 2000
        (for personal use only)

UNITED NATIONS -- With both sides refusing to budge, U.S. PresidentBill Clinton and President Vladimir Putin remained at odds about an Americanprogram to build an anti-missile defense system. Raising the stakes, theUnited States said it would not discuss deeper cuts in nuclear arsenalsuntil Moscow agrees to negotiations on strategic defense.

Beginning a three-day marathon of diplomacy, Clinton met with Putinon Wednesday on the sidelines of the United Nations' Millennium Summit,a gathering of about 160 presidents, kings and prime ministers.

Meeting for the third time in three months, now in a 35th-floor hotelsuite in midtown Manhattan, Clinton and Putin registered stubborn differencesabout anti-missile defense systems.

Clinton last week decided not to authorize deployment of a missile shield,deferring the decision to his successor. Russia adamantly opposes sucha system, saying it would wreck arms-control agreements and trigger a newnuclear arms race.

The United States said it was prepared to open talks on deeper armsreductions f but only if they proceed "in parallel with meaningful andproductive discussions on strategic defenses. And ... we're not there yetwith the Russians,'' said Strobe Talbott, deputy secretary of state.

He said Russia needs to recognize that amendments will be necessaryin the Anti-Ballistic Missile treaty "probably sooner rather than later.''

Talbott said that starting formal negotiations on arms cuts - a STARTIII agreement - "is going to have to wait until Russia is prepared to joinus in formal negotiations on strategic defense.''

Seeking areas of compromise, Clinton and Putin signed a statement onstrategic stability cooperation. It commits both countries to finishingan accord on pre-notification of launches of ballistic missiles. Talbottsaid the statement "puts more flesh on the bones" of accords signed byClinton and Putin in June in Moscow and in July in Japan.

On Thursday, Putin and the other heads of state of the 15 Security Councilmembers scheduled a special open council meeting on peace and securityin the next century. The wars in Sierra Leone, Congo and Eritrea-Ethiopiaare among the biggest challenges today to the United Nations.

The UN peacekeeping department has taken on enormous duties in recentmonths in Africa, but has found itself at a loss to carry them out effectivelybecause of poorly trained and equipped troops spread over large areas fCongo itself is one-fourth the size of the United States.

In Sierra Leone, 500 UN peacekeepers were taken hostage last May byrebels of the Revolutionary United Front - an embarrassing debacle thatled to calls for UN member states to provide peacekeeping troops who aretrained, equipped and willing to counter such challenges with force.

Russia on Wednesday strongly deplored an airport search that promptedthe North Korean delegation to snub the Millennium Summit, saying the incidenthas thwarted important peace talks.

"Such incidents, even if they are technical, hamper the diplomatic workcarried out by Russia and other countries," Foreign Minister Igor Ivanovtold reporters on the sidelines of the summit.
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F. Nuclear Power Industry

Russia May Build First Close-Cycle Nuke Reactor
        Itar Tass
        September 8, 2000
        (for personal use only)

WASHINGTON, September 8 (Itar-Tass) - Russia may build the first close-cyclenuclear reactor which is necessary to implement the initiative of PresidentVladimir Putin to exclude enriched uranium and plutonium from nuclear powerengineering.

"Now we are engaged in research in this direction", Russian Deputy AtomicEnergy Minister Valentin Ivanov told Tass on Thursday.

"The final aim of the first stage to is construct an experimental unit.The work has already begun and I hope it will continue", he said.

Ivanov said the future location of the new unit had not been specifiedyet. However, he added that it may be erected close to the Beloyarskayanuclear power plant.

"Construction time will depend on financing. In case of favourable conditionsthe construction will take 7-10 years", Ivanov said.

He added that "the real introduction of the new technology, if it isaccepted by the international community, may take place in 30 years as'traditional' reactors are already operating and cannot be stopped".
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Putin Plan New Step in Checking Nuclear Arms Spread
        Itar Tass
        September 8, 2000
        (for personal use only)

WASHINGTON, September 8 (Itar-Tass) - If backed by the world community,proposals by Russian President Vladimir Putin at the Millennium Summit"will be a new step toward solving the problem of nuclear nonproliferation,"Valentin Ivanov, Russian deputy minister for atomic energy, told Itar-Tasson Thursday.

"We suggest to the world community a technological instrument to removepure plutonium and enriched uranium from the fuel circle. If this proposalis accepted, it will be possible to work out restrictions on the developmentof nuclear energetics in the distant future," he said.

Ivanov said such calculations, projects and technologies are alreadybeing developed in Russia and are quite feasible.

The deputy minister arrived in the US to coordinate specific moves toimplement the US-Russian agreement on plutonium utilisation and to takepart in an international conference on nuclear materials coming to a closein Alexandria, Virginia, near Washington, on Friday.
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[Putin]Urges Nuclear Energy Without Weapons-Grade Materials
        September 7, 2000
        (for personal use only)

In his 6 September address to the UN Millennium Summit, Russian PresidentPutin also said that in order to make nuclear nonproliferation measuresmore effective, Moscow wants weapons-grade materials such as enriched uraniumand plutonium gradually eliminated from use in peaceful nuclear energy,Interfax reported. The practice of storing plutonium should be ended andits existing stocks "returned to the nuclear fuel cycle," he said. Researchcarried out in Russia has shown that nuclear energy can be developed withoutsuch materials and Moscow is prepared to cooperate with all countries inthis field, Putin added.
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Russia Urges Japan to Invest in Nuclear Power Plants
        BBC Monitoring Service
        September 6, 2000
        (for personal use only)

TOKYO, Sep 6, 2000 -- (BBC Monitoring) Text of report in English byRussian news agency ITAR-TASS

Russia wants Japan to invest into its program of construction of nuclearpower plants (NPP) in the Far East and pay back with electricity.

Atomic Energy Minister Yevgeniy Adamov told reporters on Wednesday [6thSeptember] that it would be more profitable for Japan to invest in NPPconstruction in Russia and import the electricity rather than to buildits own nuclear power plants.

He explained that construction costs of a nuclear power unit in Russiaare 3.5 times less than in Japan. "Electricity deliveries would be a guaranteeof the return of Japanese investments," he said.

The total capacity of nuclear power plants, which are planned to bebuilt in the Russian Far East, may reach 12 gigawatts, according to theminister. Last May the Russian government approved the strategy of thedevelopment of nuclear power engineering, which provides for the constructionof nuclear power plants in the Russian Far East between the years 2010and 2020.

Adamov said the number of power plants, their capacity, type and constructiontime depend on the demand for electricity in the Far East and on whetheror not electricity will be exported.
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Nuclear Regulatory Commission Imposes Strict Conditions On ExportOf Bomb-Grade Fuel To European Community Reactor
        Nuclear Control Institute
        September 5, 2000
        (for personal use only)

Embraces NCI's Proposals in Culmination Of Nine-Year Fight to Win Reactor'sConversion to Non-Weapons Fuel

WASHINGTON---The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has imposedstrict conditions proposed by the Nuclear Control Institute (NCI) on anexport of bomb-grade uranium fuel to a European Community nuclear researchreactor in The Netherlands.

The conditions were among those proposed by the Nuclear Control Institute,which filed a petition in 1991 seeking to block further exports of highlyenriched uranium (HEU) to a large research reactor in Petten, the Netherlands,until the reactor operator agreed to switch to a low-enriched uranium (LEU)fuel unsuitable for weapons.  NCI's position was supported the followingyear by enactment of an American law, the Schumer Amendment to the EnergyPolicy Act of 1992, which prohibited bomb-grade exports to research reactorsexcept on an interim basis prior to conversion to LEU. NCI's petition andthe new law held up NRC consideration of the export license for nine years.

The need for removing bomb-grade fuel from the isolated Petten siteon the North Sea coast was dramatically demonstrated by Dutch Marines in1988, when they staged a mock attack and reached the fuel vault in sevenminutes, well before the local constabulary could respond.  The EuropeanCommunity, however, resisted conversion of the Petten reactor, despitea U.S.-led, international initiative to convert research reactors frombomb-grade to non-weapons usable fuel.  After enactment of the SchumerAmendment, U.S. exports of highly enriched uranium dropped from about 300kilograms a year, equivalent to at least dozen nuclear weapons, to nearzero. The United States is the principal western supplier of this fueland exported as much as three tons a year in the 1960s before the reactorconversion program began.

Finally this year, as remaining stocks of U.S.-origin HEU dwindled inEurope, the operator of the Petten reactor, in an exchange of diplomaticnotes, committed to convert to LEU and to cease use of HEU no later than2006.  NCI then lifted its opposition to the long-pending export licenseapplication, but requested that certain conditions be imposed on the license.

In granting the license on August 24, the Commission imposed severalof the conditions requested by NCI to help ensure that the Petten reactoris converted to LEU expeditiously and that any excess U.S.-origin HEU isnot diverted to another reactor or other unapproved uses.  First,the Commission obtained detailed information from the reactor operatorindicating that all of its existing HEU supply would be exhausted priorto obtaining any new HEU fuel under the license.  Second, to ensureagainst supplying a surplus of HEU that could be diverted to unapproveduses, the Commission restricted Petten to annual shipments of less than38 kilograms, as NCI had urged, rather than authorizing export of the totalquantity of 134 kilograms of HEU in a single shipment, as the operatorrequested.  In addition, the Commission made clear it will keep aclose watch on implementation of the conversion pledge, requesting that"the Executive Branch provide the Commission with annual reports detailingthe status of the Petten reactor's conversion effort.  Should theamount of HEU authorized for export under this license exceed the Pettenreactor's actual needs, the Commission can then determine what action,if any, it should take."

Alan J. Kuperman, Senior Policy Analyst at NCI, said: "The pledge bythe European Community to convert the Petten reactor to low-enriched uraniumis a major victory for nuclear non-proliferation.  The NRC has wiselydesigned the export license in a way that will hold the community to thatpledge. No more HEU can be exported from the United States to Petten beyondthis license, and under no circumstances will Petten use HEU from any sourceafter 2006.  Nearly a decade of NCI's vigilance and hard work havepaid off, paving the way for conversion of one of the last reactors torely on bomb-grade fuel and thereby reducing risks of nuclear proliferationand nuclear terrorism."

NCI President Paul L. Leventhal will be in the Netherlands this weekto observe implementation of the agreement, especially arrangements nowbeing discussed for storage and disposal of Petten's spent fuel, whichcontains bomb-grade uranium.  The United States has offered to takeback and dispose of the spent fuel, as part of an offer to all operatorswho agree to convert their reactors to LEU.  However, the EuropeanCommunity now wants to transport the spent fuel to a Dutch waste storagesite before deciding whether to return the material to the United States---aplan that is stimulating controversy in the Netherlands.  Leventhalsaid it appears possible to begin sending spent fuel directly to the UnitedStates as early as December without any need to transport it within theNetherlands.

Kuperman noted that other high-power research reactors are likely tofall into line behind Petten for conversion.  Late last year, Belgiumsigned an exchange of notes with the United States committing to convertits BR-2 reactor to LEU fuel upon final qualification of suitable fuel,now in the final stage of development at the U.S. Argonne National Laboratory.Previously, France had made a similar commitment to convert its ILL-Grenobleresearch reactor.  Finally, South Africa has announced initiationof a new feasibility study to convert its Safari research reactor to low-enrichedfuel, despite having ample stocks of HEU fuel from dismantled weapons.

However, in Germany, a plan by the Technical University of Munich touse bomb-grade uranium in a new research reactor, the FRM II, is underminingthe growing international consensus against use of HEU.  The reactoris under construction and in the final stages of licensing.  The U.S.Government has objected to start-up prior to redesign of the core to useLEU, and continues to press the point in talks with German officials. A special German commission has studied options for conversion of the FRMII to LEU, and the government is expected to reach a decision soon.
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G. U.S. - Russia General

U.S.-Russian Strategic Stability Cooperation Initiative - U.S.-RussianJoint Statement and Implementation Plan
        The White House
        September 7, 2000
        (for personal use only)


Strategic Stability Cooperation Initiative

President William Jefferson Clinton of the United States of Americaand President Vladimir Putin of the Russian Federation met today in NewYork and agreed on a Strategic Stability Cooperation Initiative as a constructivebasis for strengthening trust between the two sides and for further developmentof agreed measures to enhance strategic stability and to counter the proliferationof weapons of mass destruction, missiles and missile technologies worldwide.In furtherance of this initiative, the two Presidents approved an implementationplan developed by their experts as a basis for continuing this work.

The Strategic Stability Cooperation Initiative builds on the Presidents'agreement in their two previous meetings. The Joint Statement on Principlesof Strategic Stability, adopted in Moscow on June 4, 2000, and the JointStatement on Cooperation on Strategic Stability, adopted in Okinawa onJuly 21, 2000, establish a constructive basis for progress in further reducingnuclear weapons arsenals, preserving and strengthening the ABM Treaty,and confronting new challenges to international security. The United Statesand Russia reaffirm their commitment to the ABM Treaty as a cornerstoneof strategic stability. The United States and Russia intend to implementthe provisions of the START I and INF Treaties, to seek early entry intoforce of the START II Treaty and its related Protocol, the 1997 New Yorkagreements on ABM issues and the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty,and to work towards the early realization of the 1997 Helsinki Joint Statementon Parameters on Future Reductions in Nuclear Forces. The United Statesand Russia also intend to seek new forms of cooperation in the area ofnon-proliferation of missiles and missile technologies with a view to strengtheninginternational security and maintaining strategic stability within the frameworkof the Strategic Stability Cooperation Initiative between our two countries.

The Strategic Stability Cooperation Initiative could include, alongwith expansion of existing programs, new initiatives aimed at strengtheningthe security of our two countries and of the entire world community andwithout prejudice to the security of any state.

START III Treaty and ABM Treaty. The United States and Russia have presentedtheir approaches to the principal provisions of the START III Treaty andon ABM issues. The United States and Russia have held intensified discussionson further reductions in strategic offensive forces within the frameworkof a future START III Treaty and on ABM issues, with a view to initiatingnegotiations expeditiously, in accordance with the Moscow Joint Statementof September 2, 1998, the Cologne Joint Statement of June 20, 1999 andthe Okinawa Joint Statement of July 21, 2000 by the two Presidents. Theywill seek to agree upon additional measures to strengthen strategic stabilityand confidence, and to ensure predictability in the military field.

NPT, CTBT, FMCT, BWC and Nuclear Weapon-Free Zones. The United Statesand Russia reaffirm their commitment to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferationof Nuclear Weapons as the foundation of the international nuclear non-proliferationand nuclear disarmament regime.

The United States and Russia will seek to ensure early entry into forceand effective implementation of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty.They will continue to work to begin negotiations to conclude a FissileMaterial Cutoff Treaty and to strengthen the Biological Weapons Convention.They will continue to facilitate the establishment of nuclear weapon-freezones in the world, based on voluntary agreements among states in the relevantregion, consistent with the relevant 1999 Report of the United NationsDisarmament Commission, as an important avenue for efforts to prevent nuclearweapons proliferation.

Discussions of issues related to the threat of proliferation of missilesand missile technology. The United States and Russia are prepared to expandtheir discussions of issues related to the threat of proliferation of missilesand missile technologies. These discussions will include annual briefingsbased on assessments of factors and events related to ballistic and cruisemissile proliferation. Annual assessments will address potential threatsto international security. With a view to preventing the proliferationof missiles and weapons of mass destruction, political and diplomatic measureswill be discussed and undertaken, using bilateral and multilateral mechanisms.

Cooperation in the area of Theater Missile Defense. The United Statesand Russia are prepared to resume and then expand cooperation in the areaof Theater Missile Defense (TMD), and also to consider the possibilityof involving other states, with a view to strengthening global and regionalstability.

The sides will consider as specific areas of such cooperation:

  • Expansion of the bilateral program of joint TMD command and staff exercises.
  • Possibility of involving other states in joint TMD command and staff exercises.
  • Possibility of development of methods for enhanced interaction for jointuse of TMD systems.
  • Joint development of concepts for possible cooperation in TMD systems.
  • Possibility of reciprocal invitation of observers to actual firings ofTMD systems.
Early warning information. The United States and Russia, in implementationof the Memorandum of Agreement between the United States of America andthe Russian Federation on the Establishment of a Joint Center for the Exchangeof Data from Early Warning Systems and Notification of Missile Launchessigned in Moscow on June 4, 2000, intend to establish and put into operationin Moscow within a year the joint center for exchange of data to precludethe possibility of missile launches caused by a false missile attack warning.The Parties will also make efforts to come to an early agreement on a regimefor exchanging notifications of missile launches, consistent with the statementof the Presidents at Okinawa on July 21, 2000.

Missile Non-Proliferation measures. The United States and Russia intendto strengthen the Missile Technology Control Regime. They declare theircommitment to seek new avenues of cooperation with a view to limiting proliferationof missiles and missile technologies. Consistent with the July 21, 2000,Joint Statement of the Presidents at Okinawa, they will work together withother states on a new mechanism to integrate, inter alia, the Russian proposalfor a Global Control System for Non-Proliferation of Missiles and MissileTechnologies (GCS), the U.S. proposal for a missile code of conduct, aswell as the MTCR.

Confidence and transparency-building measures. Bearing in mind theirobligations under the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons,the United States and Russia will seek to expand cooperation related tothe Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) to promote a mutuallybeneficial technical exchange that will facilitate the implementation ofthe CTBT after its entry into force. The United States and Russia are preparedto discuss confidence and transparency-building measures as an elementof facilitating compliance with, preserving and strengthening the ABM Treaty.These measures could include: data exchanges, pre-notifications of plannedevents, voluntary demonstrations, participation in observations, organizationof exhibitions, and strengthening the ABM Treaty compliance verificationprocess.

The Presidents of the United States and Russia have agreed that officialsfrom the relevant ministries and agencies will meet annually to coordinatetheir activities in this area, and look forward with interest to such ameeting in the near future.

The United States and Russia call upon all nations of the world to unitetheir efforts to strengthen strategic stability.


-- Discussions of issues related to the threat of proliferation of missilesand missile technologies

The U.S. will brief Russia on the update of the National IntelligenceEstimate of the ballistic missile threat that has just been completed,and Russia will provide its latest assessment.
-- Cooperation in the area of Theater Missile Defense
The United States and Russia agreed to conduct a U.S.-Russianplanning and simulation exercise in February, 2001 at Colorado Springs,Colorado and a U.S.-Russian field training exercise at Fort Bliss, Texasby late 2001 or early 2002. Planning meetings for the 2001 exercise willcontinue in Moscow in September and November-December at the Joint NationalTest Facility in Colorado Springs. Joint TMD exercise expert talks willalso discuss the possibility of reciprocal invitation of observers to actualfirings of TMD systems.
-- Early warning information
By the end of this fall, the United States and Russia expectto begin preparation of the Moscow site for the Joint Data Exchange Center(JDEC) and begin renovation of the building that will house the center,as well as begin drafting concept of operations and standard operatingprocedures documents. The United States and Russia intend to commence operationsat the JDEC in June of 2001, with full operations to begin in September2001. Regular meetings of working groups under the Joint Commission willtake place in coming months.

The United States and Russia have agreed to set as an objective thecompletion of a bilateral agreement on a pre-launch notification systemfor launches of ballistic missiles and space launch vehicles by the APECsummit in November, while also reaching agreement on how the system willbe opened up to the voluntary participation of all interested countries.They will meet to intensify negotiations in September.

-- Missile Non-Proliferation measures
The United States and Russia will work to reach consensus amongMTCR partners at the October 9-13 Plenary, as well as with other countries,on plans for a global missile non-proliferation approach.
-- Confidence and transparency-building measures
Experts will meet this fall to review and approve additionalwarhead safety and security issues for expanded cooperation related tothe CTBT. Experts will meet before the end of this year to consider expandedcooperation in the area of computations, experiments and materials. Expertsin CTBT monitoring and verification will be scheduled to meet in late 2000or early 2001 to consider expanded cooperation in this area.
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