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Nuclear News - 07/17/00
RANSAC Nuclear News, 17 July 2000

A. Nuclear Cities Initiative (NCI)

    1. Senate Accepts Domenici’s “Nuclear Cities” Amendment,News Release - Senator Pete V. Domenici (7/11/00)
B. Russian Nuclear Forces
    1. Russian Paper Voices Concern At Plan To Abolish StrategicMissile Troops, Izvestiya (7/13/00)
    2. Russian Generals Row Over Nuclear Arsenal, ITN Online(7/17/00)
C. ABM, Missile Defense
    1. U.S. NMD Effort Fueling Russia’s New Missile Plan, SimonSaradzhyan, Defense News (7/10/00)
    2. Russian General Slams U.S. "Fairy Tales" on Arms, Reuters(7/14/00)
D. U.S. – Russia General
    1. U.S. Congressional Hosts Prepare to Welcome Russian Duma Members;Visits to Focus on Security, International Relations and Women's Issues,Library of Congress Russian Leadership Program (7/14/00)

A. Nuclear Cities Initiative (NCI)

Senate Accepts Domenici’s “Nuclear Cities” Amendment
        News Release - Senator PeteV. Domenici
        July 11, 2000
        (for personal use only)

Nonproliferation Effort Added to Defense Authorization Bill

U.S. Senator Pete Domenici today gained Senate approval for a new UnitedStates effort to more effectively handle nuclear proliferation risks associatedwith the former Soviet Union.

The Senate on Tuesday night accepted the Domenici-authored amendmentas part of the FY2001 Defense Authorization Bill. The Domenici amendmentis similar to S.2492, the Nuclear Weapons Complex Conversion Act of 2000,which he introduced in May.

The amendment authorizes $30 million for U.S. non-proliferation programswithin the Russian nuclear complex, or the so-called Nuclear Cities Initiative(NCI). But release of future funding is conditioned on Russia demonstratingrapid progress in downsizing its nuclear weapons complex with the abilityof the United States to track progress against verifiable milestones.

Both Los Alamos and Sandia national laboratories in New Mexico are heavilyinvolved in the NCI program.

“This amendment sends Russia a very clear signal that the United Statesis serious about working with that country to stabilize its nuclear weaponsactivities and greatly limit the threat of its nuclear secrets, personneland materials from proliferating throughout the world,” Domenici said.“For our own long-term national security, we must do more to assist theRussians in restructuring their nuclear weapons complex. This will putus on the right track by increasing our involvement, but linking our investmentin this effort to clear and transparent progress by the Russians themselves.”

The legislation stipulates that a 10-year plan must be developed forrestructuring the Russian nuclear weapons complex from military to civilianactivities with transparent milestones. This plan would reflect new nationalsecurity needs and a production capacity consistent with future arms controlagreements.

While the United States has made dramatic progress in downsizing itsnuclear weapons complex, the Russian complex remains at its Cold War levels,including 10 closed cities and about 750,000 workers--120,000 of whom have“critical knowledge” to its secrets.

The amendment, like S.2492, also includes a Sense of the Senate Resolutioncalling on the administration to finally appoint a high-level non-proliferationczar to coordinate U.S. efforts, as directed in the 1996 Nunn-Lugar-Domenicilaw. Finally, the amendment authorizes $2 million for educational initiativesin both countries to develop new non-proliferation experts.
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B. Russian Nuclear Forces

Russian Paper Voices Concern At Plan To Abolish Strategic MissileTroops
        July 13, 2000
        (for personal use only)
A breakthrough is in prospect in one of the fiercest battles ever foughtwithin the walls of the Russian Defence Ministry. Yesterday the militarycollegium was discussing the question of the future fate of the StrategicMissile Troops (SMT). In all probability, the elite troops lost this battle.If the General Staff's plans begin to be implemented, the SMT will havedisappeared as a branch by as early as 2003, and their remnants will havefound refuge beneath the wing of the air force.

A source within the General Staff recounted to `Izvestiya' the argumentsin favour of abolishing the SMT as a branch of the armed forces that werecited at the military collegium session. The SMT are one-shot forces: theyfire their missiles and vanish. And since (according to the General Staff'scalculations) it is hardly likely that it will ever be necessary to firethem, for purposes of deterrence there is no point in having enough missilesto destroy any power 100 times over. Just once is enough. So there is certainlyno need to maintain almost 20 missile divisions. It is enough, for instance,for the US taxpayer to know that the Russians have just one missile left,but a missile that is guaranteed to deliver its nuclear charge directlyto his home.

Just one missile is just an image, of course. In reality, [Chief ofGeneral Staff] Anatoliy Kvashnin's subordinates say, we will reduce ournuclear arsenals only within the framework of START-1, 2 and 3. In otherwords, there is no question of unilateral reductions and thereby of upsettingthe world balance of forces. But these treaties condemn the SMT to extinctionas a species. It is unprofitable, to put it mildly, to maintain an entiredivision for the sake of five or six launchers. And a cut in the divisions,together with their staffs, generals and other officers, is inevitable.Such is the verdict of the General Staff.

It was also said that the president has finally rejected the idea ofcreating a unified strategic forces command, which, as is well known, originatedfrom [Defence Minister] Marshal Igor Sergeyev. Otherwise, the role of theGeneral Staff would have been reduced to looking after the infantry...

It appears that Kvashnin has outplayed his elderly colleague. Now, themarshal [Sergeyev] has no option but to endure the blow with dignity, especiallyas the fateful changes for his favourite branch of the armed forces [theStrategic Missile Troops] will not begin today... The same considerationsshould prevent the newly-promoted Army General Vladimir Yakovlev, commander-in-chiefof the SMT, from submitting his resignation, irrespective of how personallyinsulting and disastrous for Russia he thinks the decision by the supremeauthority is.

It cannot be denied that the persecutors of the missilemen have theirreasons, of course. The army is indeed suffocating for lack of money. Thereare not enough ground units to counter the real enemy. They are boggeddown in Chechnya. Central Asia will flare up at any moment. That is theforecast already made by the General Staff. In these conditions, the GeneralStaff officers think, it is an unjustified luxury to spend billions ofroubles on troops that cannot go into the attack.

At the same time, it was this respected command and control body ofthe armed forces that made a mess of the first Chechen campaign (with theactive participation of Anatoliy Kvashnin). It was the General Staff thatboldly poured into "the same vessel" forces whose combat tasks differ somewhat,to put it mildly - the SMT and the Air Defence Troops. It was the GeneralStaff that abolished the Ground Forces as an independent branch of thearmed forces... Experience of the reforming activities of our strategistgenerals is only too unfortunate. We are still losing defensive might yearin, year out. And there is no guarantee that the SMT - today the most combat-capableand effective branch of the Russian armed forces – will not swell the listof victims of this "drastic" reform of the army.
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Russian Generals Row Over Nuclear Arsenal
        ITN Online
        July 17, 2000
        (for personal use only)

Top Russian military officials who have been feuding over which branchesof the military will control the country's nuclear arsenal have reacheda partial agreement, news reports claim.

The defense minister, General Igor Sergeyev, and the head of the GeneralStaff, General Anatoly Kvashnin, have been engaged in a rare public argumentabout a military reform plan to downgrade the Strategic Rocket Forces byfolding them into the Air Force. Sergeyev, a former commander of thoseforces, has staunchly opposed the plan.

President Vladimir Putin summoned the two generals to the Kremlin onSaturday to discuss the dispute, and they followed him to the Black Searesort of Sochi on Sunday for more discussions.

After the Sochi talks, Sergeyev said the points of contention had been"reduced to a minimum," but no details of the accord were released.

Sergeyev and other generals think Russia must depend on nuclear forcesto deter attack because the conventional army has decayed over a decadeof economic troubles. Proponents of putting more money into the conventionalarmy say Russia's main security threats these days are ethnic and separatistwars such as in Chechnya, and international terrorism.

Kvashnin is the reform proposal's main supporter. Few details of theplans under discussion have been released. Sergeyev, Kvashnin and PresidentVladimir Putin's top security adviser Sergei Ivanov stood before televisioncameras on Sunday night to announce the tentative deal.

Sergeyev said a final reform plan would be left to Putin to refine andapprove.
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C. ABM, Missile Defense

U.S. NMD Effort Fueling Russia’s New Missile Plan
        Simon Saradzhyan
        Defense News
        July 10, 2000
        (for personal use only)

Russia’s leading designer of ballistic missiles has prepared blueprintsfor the serial production of modernized intermediate-range missiles thatwould be targeted at Europe.  This is part of the Russian military’sresponse to the possible abrogation of the Anti-Ballistic Missile treaty(ABM) by the United States, officials said here.  The Moscow Instituteof Heat Engineering is ready to “transfer technical documentation” to manufacturersof intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), such as Production AssociationVotkinsky Zavod of Votkinsk, to begin production of modified SS-20 Pionermissiles, one institute official said in a June 28 phone interview.
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Russian General Slams U.S. "Fairy Tales" on Arms
        July 14, 2000
        (for personal use only)

A top Russian general said on Thursday Washington's justifications forwanting to build a national anti-missile defense system were based on "fairytales".

Just over a week before Russian President Vladimir Putin is due to meetU.S. President Bill Clinton at a three-day summit of Group of Eight (G8)countries in Japan, Colonel-General Leonid Ivashov emphasized Russia'shard-line approach on the issue.

"In our view - this is the opinion not just of the Defense Ministrybut of Russia - there are no threats to the United States from these countrieswhich they dub rogue states," Ivashov told foreign reporters.

Washington says it is concerned about states such as North Korea andIran developing nuclear missiles. Putin and Clinton said they had agreedat a summit in Moscow last month that the world faced an emerging missilethreat.

But Ivashov said Washington was barking up the wrong tree.

"This tale that North Korea or Iran may be a threat, is just that -a fairy tale," he said.

A longstanding critic of U.S. plans to build a National Missile Defense(NMD), Ivashov was among the first to welcome the failure last week ofthe third prototype test of the system. He said political negotiationswere the best way to ward off any potential threats.

"The forthcoming visit of Vladimir Putin to North Korea is a continuationof this political process - you don't have to immediately grab some weapons,"he said.

Putin is to make an unprecedented visit to North Korea on his way tothe G8 summit on the Japanese island of Okinawa. Officials in Moscow havesaid Putin will press Clinton to drop the NMD plans when they meet.

Nor was Iran a threat to U.S. interests, Ivashov said.

"I am also convinced that Iran is not striving for a confrontation overits military potential," he said.

"Iran is striving to end sanctions against it and to cooperate withEurope, Russia, and its neighbors in the Middle East. President (Mohammad)Khatami's recent visit to Berlin confirms this."

Russia opposes NMD, saying the Star Wars-like system could spark a newarms race and would infringe the terms of the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missiletreaty (ABM) which it says is the keystone linking all arms reduction pacts.

Moscow is keen to reduce its huge nuclear arsenal, which is expensiveto maintain.

It recently ratified the START-2 arms reduction pact, reducing the numberof U.S. and Russian warheads to 3,500 each and is urging Washington tomove quickly to agree on START-3, expected to slash levels to 2,000 orfewer.
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D. U.S. – Russia General

U.S. Congressional Hosts Prepare to Welcome Russian Duma Members;Visits to Focus on Security, International Relations and Women's Issues
        Library of Congress RussianLeadership Program
        July 14, 2000
        (for personal use only)

Nineteen Members of Russia's Parliament and two Russian Government DeputyMinisters will obtain a first- hand look at the U.S. political processwhen they are hosted in the U.S. next week by Members of Congress as partof the ongoing Library of Congress Open World 2000 Russian Leadership Program(RLP).  The RLP is a unique legislature- to-legislature exchange programinvolving more than 1,800 Russian political leaders, U.S. Members of Congress,and federal, state and local officials.

As with all RLP Parliamentary delegations, the upcoming delegationswill visit the home districts of their U.S. Congressional hosts and alsovisit Washington, DC for meetings with key policymakers.  Three ofthe upcoming delegations, arriving on July 22, are from Russia's StateDuma (the Lower House of Parliament) and one, arriving on July 16, is fromthe Federation Council (upper house).

These delegations, organized in collaboration with the American ForeignPolicy Council, will focus on issues that are critical to Russia's democraticand economic reform transition.  The delegations and their Congressionalhosts include:

  • A Security issues delegation comprised of eight Duma members and led byPavel T. Burdukov, Deputy Chairman of the Duma Committee on Security. Delegationmembers will be hosted in New Jersey and Washington, DC by RepresentativeJim Saxton (R-NJ)
  • An Interparliamentary & International Relations issues delegation,comprised of six Duma members, and led by Sergei N. Shishkarev, DeputyChairman of the Duma Committee on International Relations. Delegation memberswill be  hosted in Pennsylvania, California and Washington, DC byRepresentatives Curt Weldon (R-PA) and Dana Rohrbacher (R-CA).
  • A special delegation on Women's issues, comprised of two Russian GovernmentDeputy Ministers and two Duma members will be hosted in Ohio, Indiana andWashington, DC by Representatives Dennis Kucinich (D-OH) and Mark Souder(R-IN).
  • An Agriculture delegation comprised of four Federation Council membersand led by Valery A. Kechkin, a member of the Federation Council Committeeon Agricultural Policy and the Chair of the Novgorod Oblast Duma, is alsobeing hosted in Nebraska by Nebraska Governor Mike Johanns.
Duma and Federation Council delegations consisting of more than 80 expertson defense, energy, environment, agriculture, land reform, banking andtax and other issues have visited the United States in May and June underthe auspices of the RLP.  Defense Secretary William Cohen, FederalReserve Chairman Alan Greenspan and Deputy Treasury Secretary Stuart Eisenstatare among the officials who have met with RLP delegations.

RLP Open World 2000 is designed to expose Russian leaders to Americanfree enterprise and democratic institutions.  In turn, U.S. leaderslearn, first hand, their counterparts' experience in leading Russia's transitionfrom communism to a society based on market economies and the rule of law.

"The response we have received from Members of Congress who have hostedthe previous nine Duma/Federation Council delegations has been great, "said RLP Executive Director Geraldine Otremba.  "These visits areforging new relationships between Members of Congress and Members of theRussian Parliament - not only are the Russians obtaining a first hand lookat American democracy in action, but Members of Congress have come awayfrom these visits with a better understanding of Russia's transition anda greater interest in the country."

This year's RLP program emphasizes direct legislature-to-legislatureexchange between Members of Congress and members of the Duma and FederationCouncil.  About 130 members of the Russian Parliament are travellingto the United States over a five month period.  The RLP will alsoinclude a broad range of Russian political leaders from national, regional,state and municipal government from 87 of Russia's 89 regions.  Morethan 2,150 Russian political leaders visited the United States under theauspices of the RLP in 1999.  The total for the two years will beapproximately 4,000.

The Librarian of Congress James H. Billington is Chairman of the RLPand the Hon. James W. Symington serves as Chairman of the RLP AdvisoryCommittee. The U.S. Congress established the RLP at the Library of Congressin 1999 and authorized it again for 2000, allocating $10 million for eachyear.  The chief sponsor of the authorizing legislation (PL106-31)for both the 1999 and 2000 OPEN WORLD RLP was Senator Ted Stevens (R-Alaska),Chairman of the Senate Appropriations Committee and Chairman of the JointCommittee on the Library. Leaders of the U.S. Senate and House of Representativesand the Russian State Duma and Federation Council have worked closely togetherto implement RLP's unprecedented legislative exchange.

The Library of Congress awarded grants to partner organizations to implementthe OPEN WORLD 2000 program and has contracted again with American councilsfor International Education: ACTR/ACCELS headed by Dr. Dan Davidson tomanage the logistical aspects of the program.
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