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Nuclear News - (04/24/00)
RANSAC Nuclear News, 24 April 2000


A.  U.S. – Russia General

    1. Chance for a Safer World, Graham T. Allison and Sam Nunn,Washington Post (04/24/00)
B.  Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Deal
    1. "Secret Uranium Deal," Itar Tass (04/20/00)
    2. Uranium Fuel Exports Fetch Russia 2 Billion Dollars, ItarTass (04/24/00)
C.  Nuclear Waste
    1. Boost for BNFL, Tom McGhie (04/23/00)
D.  Loose Nukes
    1. Atomic Haul Raises Fears of bin Laden Terror Bomb, JulianWest, London Sunday Telegraph (04/23/00)
E.  Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT)
    1. U.S., Other Powers To Attract Scrutiny At U.N. Treaty Review,Edith M. Lederer, Associated Press (04/24/00)
    2. Russia to Suggest Global Nuclear Control System, ItarTass (04/24/00)
F.  U.S. Stockpile
    1. U.S. Nuclear Stockpile Plans Draw Scrutiny, Walter Pincus,Washington Post (04/24/00)



A.   U.S. – Russia General

1.
Chance for a Safer World
        Graham T. Allison and SamNunn
        Washington Post
        April 24, 2000
        (for personal use only)

We must embrace Russia's new willingness to fight nuclear terrorism.

The Russian Duma's ratification of the START II nuclear arms treaty,following president-elect Vladimir Putin's calls for even deeper cuts inRussia's nuclear arsenals, presents a major opportunity for the Clintonadministration to advance American national security interests. On thebasis of conversations with Russian experts and officials in Moscow, weare confident that Putin would be receptive to a bold proposal for a jointRussian-American initiative to prevent terrorist theft of Russian nuclearweapons and weapons-usable nuclear materials.

In a speech at a nuclear weapons center on March 31, Putin said thathis government should work to "free the world from piles of excess weapons."Calling for further cuts and stepped-up efforts to streamline Russia'snuclear capabilities, he said: "Our aim is to make our nuclear weaponscomplex more safe and effective."

We recently served as members of a task force that engaged 100 expertsin a review of nuclear security today--after a decade of vigorous engagementsupported by the Nunn-Lugar program and related legislation. Despite adecade of effort, the risks of "loose nukes" are larger today than theywere when these efforts began. U.S. programs have had positive results,but declines in Russia's economy and in the government's ability to controlanything--from money to nuclear materials--has had larger negative consequences.The good news is that Russians are ready to engage in more joint effortsto secure Russia's nuclear materials.

Russians' awareness of their vulnerability to terrorism has been raiseddramatically by recent experience. Last summer's attack upon Russian territoryin Dagestan by rogue warlords operating from Chechen territory; the bombingsof apartment buildings in Moscow and other cities that killed more than300 people; and threats by fighters in Chechnya to attack nuclear powerplants and other facilities in Russia--all have given terrorism a terrifyingface for ordinary Russians. Polls from last November find that 90 percentof Russians surveyed fear a terrorist attack on nuclear facilities, and86 percent fear that a nuclear weapon in the hands of a terrorist couldbe used against Russia.

The American public also recognizes the threat. A September Wall StreetJournal-NBC News poll showed that the threat of terrorist acts on U.S.soil ranks second among Americans' biggest fears.

Our task force identified a number of serious initiatives that can reducethis danger. At the top of our recommendations are:

* Buy and take all the nuclear weapons material Russia is prepared tosell. In addition to highly enriched uranium (HEU) purchases, the U.S.government should buy all available Russian HEU, which, when blended withlow-enriched uranium, becomes proliferation resistant and commerciallyvaluable. Under the current agreement, less than half of Russia's HEU wouldbe blended over the next 20 years. Plutonium also should be purchased,but that will require more substantial public subsidies since it currentlyhas no commercial use.

* Remove potential bomb material from the most vulnerable sites in Russia.Caches of highly enriched uranium and plutonium, sufficient for makingdozens of bombs, still can be found at many facilities across Russia. Aspart of a renewed "buy and secure" campaign, potential bomb material shouldbe consolidated in central, more secure storage facilities.

* Accelerate the blending down of highly enriched uranium. The UnitedStates should provide the capital investment and financial incentives forRussia to blend down all excess HEU in the next four years. For an investmentof approximately $500 million, we could get all of the excess Russian HEUblended to nonweapons-usable forms within Putin's first term.

These deals should be accompanied by Russia's agreement not to produceadditional nuclear materials. Also, given Europe's proximity to Russiaand Japan's experience as a target of terrorism, our allies should sharethe costs. July's G-8 summit in Okinawa provides a setting in which thesedeals could be done.

Mutual concern about terrorism and a new, energetic leader in Moscowwho seems to be willing to address his nation's nuclear reality presenta rare opportunity for sharply reducing dangers to Americans, Russiansand the world.

Graham T. Allison is director of the Belfer Center for Science andInternationalAffairs at Harvard's John F. Kennedy School of Government. Sam Nunn isa former Democratic senator from Georgia.
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B.   Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Deal

1.
"Secret Uranium Deal"
        Itar Tass
        April 20, 2000
        (for personal use only)

The myth of a Russia-US secret uranium deal is floated by Russia'sill-wisherswho are trying to sow seeds of mistrust in Russian authorities, VladimirRybachenkov of the Russian Foreign Ministry said.

Rybachenkov, who is security and disarmament department counsellor,said in an interview with Itar-Tass on Thursday that a spate of scoopsalleging a sell-off of the "national wealth to the detriment of the country'sinterests" is a myth, he said.

An accord on Russia's uranium sales to the US was signed in 1993 andwas later sealed as a contract.

Under the contract, Russia is to ship to the US 500 tonnes of high-enricheduranium from scrapped weapons after converting it to low-enriched uraniumto be processed in the US into fuel for nuclear power plants.

The 20-year contract is estimated at 11 billion dollars.

Opponents assert that this amount of uranium could fetch "trillionsof dollars".

Calls have sounded for breaking the contract and sending the deal tothe Russian Prosecutor-General's Office for investigation.

"Uranium stores at state storages indicate that Russia could live comfortablyin the nearest quarter of the century. One should not forget that the NuclearPower Ministry is poorly financed from the state budget, but it needs tofulfill a number of nuclear programmes, ensure national and ecologicalsecurity. Substantial currency investments in this sector come throughthis deal," Rybachenkov said.

Besides, the contract has to created 6,000 jobs in Russia.

Three factories working to "dilute" uranium use a unique technologydeveloped by the Nuclear Power Ministry's scientists.

"If we strop a great amount of uranium, significant costs are inevitable.For example, storage of one gramme of plutonium costs two dollars a year.There are no calculated figured for uranium, but expenditures are inevitable,"Rybachenkov said.

"Speaking of the price, there is a low-enriched uranium market in theworld, where one kilogramme of this product costs 780 dollars," he said.

"Proceeding from this, the contract's worth us estimated at 11 billiondollars. For this reason the myth of the secret deal and dirt cheap sell-offof the national wealth us untenable to say the least," Rybachenkov said.
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2.
Uranium Fuel Exports Fetch Russia 2 Billion Dollars
        Itar Tass
        April 24, 2000
        (for personal use only)

MOSCOW, April 24 (Itar-Tass) - Russia's exports of uranium fuel to theUS have fetched two billion dollars, the counsellor of the Russian ForeignMinistry's security and disarmament department, Vladimir Rybachenkov, toldItar-Tass on Monday.

He said Russia and the US signed a contract for deliveries uranium fuelfor the US' nuclear power plants in 1993.

Russia's factories started recycling high-enriched uranium into low-enricheduranium soon after the contract was made and shipped the first fuel batchto the US in 1994.

Russia has "diluted" about 80 tonnes of uranium by 2000 and got abouttwo billion dollars in contract payments.

Under the 20-year contract, which is estimated at 11 billion dollars,Russia is to export 500 tonnnes of recycled uranium from scrapped weapons.

"It perfectly meets national interests of our state," Rybachenkov said.

He said "there is enough uranium at state storages for Russia to livecomfortably in the nearest quarter of the century".

Moreover, the implementation of the strategci arms reduction treaty(Start-2) will make the store still larger, with disposal of warheads ofheavy intercontinental ballistic missiles.

The contract allowed Russia to create 6,000 jobs at three factirieswhich convert high-enriched uranium.

Given that the Russian Nuclear Power Ministry is inadequately fundedby the federal budget, the uranium exports are crucially important forthe Russian nuclear sector, Rybachenkov said.
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C. Nuclear Waste

1.
Boost for BNFL
        Tom McGhie
        April 23, 2000
        (for personal use only)

Russia's new president Vladimir Putin has overruled military commandersand will allow crisis-hit British Nuclear Fuels Ltd to enter top-secretArctic submarine bases to clean up radioactive waste.

His unprecedented offer, made at a three-hour meeting with Tony Blairin London last week, opens the way for BNFL to win hundreds of millionsof pounds of clean-up business.

It follows talks two weeks ago between BNFL and Russian military andcivil leaders at the giant Sellafield plant in Cumbria.

BNFL is under huge pressure to abandon nuclear reprocessing and concentrateinstead on cleaning up nuclear plants round the world.

The prospect of huge new contracts in Russia could transform its finances.The company made profits of £47 million last year but has faced aseries of safety scandals.

Last month it was forced to cancel its partial £1.5 billionprivatizationplan and there have been calls from the Irish and Danish governments fora financially damaging halt to reprocessing at Sellafield.

This year alone, BNFL has faced suspension of contracts worth hundredsof millions of pounds to reprocess nuclear fuel from Japan, Switzerlandand Germany.

Failure to win the contracts could put at risk the company's new £300million MOX fuel plant, which makes nuclear fuel from plutonium and uranium.

It could also threaten more than 10,000 jobs in Cumbria. With BNFL'snew chairman Hugh Collom declaring that the company had to think the'unthinkable',the Russian initiative could not have come at a better time.

Russia agreed two years ago to allow BNFL to help clean up radioactivescrap and waste from decommissioned nuclear submarines of Russia's NorthernFleet based on the Kola Peninsula inside the Arctic Circle.

But local officials and military leaders consistently thwarted implementationof the decision and, through a combination of military pride, bureaucracyand corruption, have prevented BNFL, French and Norwegian nuclear expertsfrom properly assessing the problems.

The environment in Russia and northern Europe is particularly underthreat from the reactors and spent nuclear fuel from more than 100decommissionednuclear submarines and nuclear ice-breakers around Murmansk on the KolaPeninsula. The vessels' reactors account for 20% of the number in the world.

Spent nuclear fuel elements in the region represent a greater radioactivestockpile than that released in the meltdown at Chernobyl in the Ukrainein the Eighties. They also have the capacity to be much longer lasting.

Experts say storage facilities on the Kola Peninsula are totally inadequateand are leaking radioactive waste into the sea.

There are widespread fears that an accident could trigger a chain reaction.According to the Norwegian environment group, Bellona, the resulting nuclearexplosion would make Murmansk and the surrounding area uninhabitable fordecades.

Under the deal agreed, but not yet carried out, BNFL and the Norwegianand French companies would remove the reactors and spent fuel from thesubmarines and icebreakers.

They would transport them by special train to Siberia where they wouldbe stored at a complex near the city of Chelyabinsk. The facility is expectedto be able to provide safe storage for the next 40 years.

Already £38 million has been agreed for BNFL's initial assessmentwork, but completing the clean-up would have the potential to generatehundreds of millions of pounds of business.

BNFL hopes that as the Russian economy improves the country will bein a position to pay the costs of the clean-up and the West will feel confidentenough to lend money for the work.
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D. Loose Nukes

1.
Atomic Haul Raises Fears of bin Laden Terror Bomb
        Julian West
        London Sunday Telegraph
        April 23, 2000
        (for personal use only)

WASHINGTON fears that the Saudi terrorist Osama bin Laden is tryingto develop an "Islamic bomb" following the seizure of nuclear materialbeing smuggled to Pakistan from the former Soviet Union. Customs officersfrom Uzbekistan discovered 10 lead-lined containers at a remote bordercrossing with Kazakhstan at the end of last month. These were filled withenough radioactive material to make dozens of crude weapons, each capableof contaminating a large area for many years.

Military analysts have described such "radiation bombs" as "poor man'snuclear weapons", in which conventional explosives are used to spreadradioactivematerial. The seizure has raised fears that the wealthy bin Laden and hisfellow terrorists could be developing the capability to unleash them onthe West and Israel.

The consignment was addressed to a company in Quetta, Pakistan, calledAhmadjan Haji Mohammed. Quetta, where border controls are virtuallynon-existent,is the main Pakistani crossing into southern Afghanistan and only a six-hourdrive from Kandahar, the Taliban regime's heartland where bin Laden operateshis terror network.

Uzbek border guards were alerted to the lorry shipment when their radiationsensors "went off wildly". The Iranian driver had declared his cargo tobe stainless steel, and carried a certificate from Kazakh authorities declaringthat it contained no radioactive material.

The Telegraph has learnt that United States intelligence officials inthe region believe that the vehicle was carrying strontium 90. This canbe used to make a radiation bomb (or radiological weapon, as such a deviceis also known).

Kazakhstan has denied knowledge of the consignment. But the countryhouses many of the former Soviet Union's nuclear installations, and illegalshipments of atomic materials - sold by scientists or crime gangs – areknown to leave the Central Asian republic. Two years ago, Washington issuedportable radiation detectors to Customs agents from several countries inthe former Soviet bloc in an attempt to stem the trade.

Although the cargo manifest stated that the shipment was destined forPakistan, most experts believe that it is unlikely to have been intendedfor use by Islamabad's military regime. Pakistan, which demonstrated itsnuclear capability with six test blasts two years ago, has at least 10nuclear facilities, all producing radioactive bi-products.

Doug Richardson, the editor of Jane's Missiles said: "Pakistan is quitecapable of making a nuclear bomb, so why would they want something likethis? Radiation bombs are nuclear dustbin bombs - they're capable ofcontaminatingan area around the explosion and making a city uninhabitable."

Five years ago, Chechen rebels announced that they had planted a radiationbomb in a Moscow park. It was dug up by Russian bomb-disposal experts.Although it would have caused little damage because it was buried, Americanexperts say that such a bomb exploded above ground would be devastating.

Stephen Bryen, the former head of the Pentagon's Defence TechnologySecurity Administration said: "It's an ideal terror weapon, used in a cityand especially places such as subways, to cause maximum harm. There istherefore a high possibility that [the seized consignment] was going toterrorist groups in Pakistan and that it might well have been for bin Laden."

Reports that bin Laden has been trying to acquire chemical weapons havebeen confirmed recently by Western intelligence agencies. Meanwhile, thetightening American net around the ailing terrorist leader, who is beingtreated by an Iraqi doctor for serious kidney and liver problems, has thrownup evidence of at least two failed bomb plots:

- in Canada and Jordan
- which bin Laden's organisation, Al Quaeda, is said to haveplanned.


A host of virulently anti-American terrorist groups are based inAfghanistan and Pakistan, in addition to Kashmiri militant factions, andUS officials believe that several may be interested in acquiring a radiationweapon. Among them are groups funded and trained by bin Laden, such asHarkat ul Mujahideen, the organisation believed to have carried out theChristmas Eve hijacking of an Indian airliner and the kidnapping and murderof six Western tourists - including two Britons – in Kashmir in 1995.

In addition, large numbers of Islamic terrorists from bin Laden's campsand Pakistan have been fighting in Chechnya, whose rebels once deployeda radiation device. The latest incident heightens American alarm aboutthe smuggling of nuclear materials from the former Soviet Union.

Last week, Madeleine Albright, the US Secretary of State who was visitingCentral Asia, said Washington would increase funding for counter-terrorismand cross-border controls. The US has previously provided a small handfulof portable radiation detectors in addition to training from the defencedepartment and Customs officers. US advisers have included two AmericanIndian trackers, who have taught local officers how to follow trails throughthe region's mountains.
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E. Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT)

1.
U.S., Other Powers To Attract Scrutiny At U.N. Treaty Review
        Edith M. Lederer
        Associated Press
        Monday, April 24, 2000
        (for personal use only)

UNITED NATIONS -- Countries without nuclear weapons say they intendto let the United States and other nuclear powers know they want an unequivocalcommitment to disarmament at a conference that starts today.

When 187 nations gather for the four-week dialogue to review the NuclearNon-proliferation Treaty, the non-nuclear states probably will cast a criticaleye at the United States, Russia, Britain, France and China.

Thirty years after the treaty was signed, nations that disavowed nuclearweapons are frustrated that the treaty's goal of a world free of nuclearweapons appears to be slipping away -- even with Russia's ratificationof two key nuclear agreements last week.

Secretary of State Madeleine Albright will be among the first speakerstoday and is likely to defend Washington's record.

"Some countries have the quite unrealistic notion that disarmament issomething that happens overnight," State Department spokesman James Rubinsaid. "The fact is that the United States has led the way among the nuclearpowers in trying to reverse the nuclear arms race."

The treaty, which went into force in 1970, represented a bargain betweenthe nuclear haves and have-nots.

In return for a pledge from non-nuclear states to not acquire nuclearweapons, the treaty committed nuclear-weapon states to pursue nucleardisarmament.

In 1995, when the treaty's 25-year term was set to expire, the UnitedStates led the successful campaign to extend the treaty indefinitely andpromised "systematic and progressive efforts" toward disarmament and aglobal ban on nuclear tests.

But there is widespread feeling that the efforts have not gone far enoughand that the spread of weapons has in fact increased. India and Pakistanhave become official nuclear states after conducting rival nuclear testsin May 1998.

In addition, the 66-nation Conference on Disarmament, the main disarmamentforum, has deadlocked on a new disarmament agenda. There has been no progresson a treaty to end production of weapons-grade plutonium and uranium.

Ten years after the Cold War, thousands of U.S. and Russian warheadsremain on "hair-trigger" alert.

Global disarmament negotiations on a host of issues were virtually gridlockeduntil the Russian Duma ratified the long-delayed START II treaty to cutnuclear arsenals last week.

Friday, the Duma ratified the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, which theU.S. Senate refused to ratify last year.

Russia hopes the two votes will generate support for its drive to stopthe United States from building a nuclear missile defense system -- anissue that is likely to feature prominently in the conference. Criticssay the U.S. system would trigger a new arms race.

The recent Russian action "helps to relieve some of the gloom surroundingsome of this conference and will help to answer some of the criticism withregard to nuclear disarmament," U.N. Undersecretary-General for DisarmamentJayantha Dhanapala said.

Some of that criticism is expected to come from a group of moderatecountries called the New Agenda Coalition, which has successfully lobbiedthe U.N. General Assembly to approve a resolution on steps toward a worldfree of nuclear weapons for the past two years.

The coalition, which consists of South Africa, Brazil, Ireland, Egypt,New Zealand, Mexico and Sweden, has demanded that nuclear-weapon states"make an unequivocal undertaking to accomplish the speedy and total eliminationof their nuclear arsenals and to engage without delay in an acceleratedprocess of negotiations, thus achieving nuclear disarmament."
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2.
Russia to Suggest Global Nuclear Control System
        Itar Tass
        April 24, 2000
        (for personal use only)

MOSCOW, April 24 (Itar-Tass) - Russian Foreign Minister Igor Ivanovwill present Russia's strategic initiative on the development of the globalcontrol system over the non- proliferation of missiles and missile technologiesat the Nuclear Weapons Non-proliferation international conference thatis to open in New York on Monday. The Russian foreign minister, in hisspeech at the plenary meeting of the conference, will set out Russia'sview on the role of the Nuclear Weapons Non- Proliferation treaty and willdwell on some results in the sphere of the nuclear disarmament reachedby Russia and the United States, Tass learnt from the Russian Foreign Ministry.Attention will be payed on Russia's approaches to the utilisation of surplusweapon-grade fissionable materials. However, the global control systemwill be the core of the report as the basis for the further tighteningof control in the area of nuclear armaments.

A matter tied with the development of such a system of global controlwas preliminary discussed at Russia's initiative at the first internationalmeeting of experts that was held on March 16, 2000 in Moscow.

Over 80 experts and observers from more than 40 countries and internationalorganisations attended the meeting. Russian Deputy Foreign Minister GeorgyMamedov made the main report. Mamedov recalled that the idea of developmentof the global control system had been put forward by the Russian presidentin June 1999, and proposed to the world community at the 54th session ofthe United Nations General Assembly.

The effect of the Nuclear Weapon Non-Proliferation Treaty will be reviewedat the present conference in New York. Such a conference is held once everyfive years. The latest one took place in 1999 when it was decided on termlessextension on the treaty. Representatives of 187 countries will discussits effectiveness and a programme of the further improvement of controlof offensive nuclear arms non-proliferation.
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F.   U.S. Stockpile

1.
U.S. Nuclear Stockpile Plans Draw Scrutiny
        Walter Pincus
        Washington Post
        April 24, 2000
        (for personal use only)

Navy Upgrading Warheads as Talks With Russia Seek Further Arms Reduction

While U.S. and Russian negotiators work on a new treaty to sharply reducestrategic nuclear weapons, the Navy is upgrading a 20-year-oldsubmarine-launchedwarhead to enable it to destroy any remaining super-hardened Russian missilesilos, according to government officials and private analysts.

More than 2,000 of the aging W-76 warheads will soon be going throughthe Energy Department's service-life extension program to be put back insubmarines beginning in 2005.

Each warhead now has a destructive power more than three times greaterthan that of the bomb dropped on Hiroshima in 1945. After they are refurbishedwith new arming, fusing and firing systems, the W-76 warheads will havea greater destructive effect on their buried, reinforced targets than whenthey first went to sea in 1977.

As the number of strategic land- and sub-based intercontinental ballisticmissiles is reduced, "the U.S. must maintain the number of hard-targetkillers we have on alert," a senior Pentagon officer with responsibilityfor nuclear weapons said recently. Upgrading the W-76 warheads is in linewith that need, he said.

At a conference on the 1968 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in NewYork this week, officials expect delegates from the signatory countriesto raise questions about the upgrading of the U.S. stockpile. The delegateswill review the records of Russia and the United States in moving towardelimination of nuclear weapons, as envisioned by the 1968 treaty.

Although the United States and Russia have both ratified START II (strategicarms reduction treaty) and are working on START III, both nations are expectedto draw criticism from other signatory countries for not disarming fastenough and for keeping stockpiles of thousands of warheads.

The Russian decision to store rather than destroy 20,000 tactical nuclearweapons it has withdrawn from deployment will be a subject of concern atthe New York conference. Nations in Asia and Europe, where such weaponscould be used, are particularly critical of Russia's refusal to destroythe battlefield nuclear weapons. Then-President Mikhail Gorbachev tookthe weapons out of deployment in Eastern Europe in response to the unilateralwithdrawal of U.S. tactical weapons from Europe and Asia.

Delegates to the conference are also expected to complain about U.S.plans to refurbish and upgrade its 6,000 deployed strategic warheads, suchas the W-76, and Washington's intention to maintain in an "inactive reserve"weapons withdrawn from deployment when START II's limit of 3,500 warheadsgoes into effect.

Questions will also be raised about Washington's "war reserve" of 4,000plutonium triggers, taken from dismantled weapons, which could be convertedinto nuclear warheads within a year. Triggers from U.S. tactical weaponswithdrawn from Europe in 1991 are in that reserve.

Secretary of State Madeleine K. Albright is to speak to the New Yorkconference and release a report defending the U.S. approach to disarmament.State Department spokesman James P. Rubin told reporters Thursday that"the United States has led the way amongst the nuclear powers in tryingto reverse the nuclear arms race."

The START III negotiations, which got underway in Geneva last week,are based on an agreement reached in Helsinki in 1997 between PresidentClinton and Boris Yeltsin, then Russian president. The two leaders notonly agreed to reduce deployed warheads to between 2,000 and 2,500, butalso to take steps to destroy "strategic nuclear warheads."

Russia plans to make an issue of U.S. stockpile practices based on theHelsinki agreement, according to government sources. The Russians believeone flaw in START II was that it allowed the United States to store excesswarheads rather than destroy them, according to Alexander Pikayev, an armsexpert at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

U.S. stockpile practices have drawn little attention on Capitol Hillor from the public at large.

"Despite its potential adverse effects on . . . arms control and disarmamentefforts, there has been no public or congressional debate over upgradingwarheads or the gratuitous modification and novel design of nuclear explosives,"said Greg Mello, director of the Los Alamos Study Group, in a recent articleabout the W-76 upgrade in the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists.

Congressional testimony on the fiscal 2001 budget infrequently touchedon the nation's strategic nuclear weapons program, which costs roughly$30 billion a year, according to the Congressional Budget Office.

Buried in testimony of Brig. Gen. Thomas F. Gioconda, the acting directorof the Energy Department's National Nuclear Security Administration, isthe one mention of the W-76--in a list of three deployed warheads thatwill be refurbished. The main thrust of Gioconda's testimony was to assuremembers of Congress that U.S. weapons would still work, not that they wouldbe more effective.
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