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Nuclear News - 08/18/99
RANSAC Nuclear News, 18 August 1999

A. Nuclear Power Industry

  1. Ukraine Fails to Pay for Russian Nuclear Fuel, Itar Tass(08/13/99)
  2. Russia, China Continue To Cooperate On Nuclear Energy,RFE/RL(08/18/99)
  1. First Typhoon Submarine to Be Utilized in Severodvinsk, ItarTass (08/18/99)
  2. U.S. Helps Murmansk Destroy Nuclear Submarines, RFE/RL(08/18/99)
C. Russian Nuclear Forces
  1. Russian Com, Xinhua (08/17/99)
  2. Yakovlev Stresses Importance Of Strategic Nuclear Forces,RFE/RL(08/18/99)
  1. Russia, US to Hold Consultations on ABM, Start Treaties, ItarTass (08/16/99)
  2. U.S., Russia Begin Three Days of Nuclear Arms Talks, AssociatedPress (08/18/99)

A. Nuclear Power Industry
Ukraine Fails to Pay for Russian Nuclear Fuel
         Itar Tass
         August 13, 1999
         (for personal useonly)

KIEV, August 13 (Itar-Tass) - Ukraine is due to pay Russia 74.66 milliondollars for nuclear fuel deliveries in the first six months of this year,Ukrainian Minister of Power Ivan Plachkov told a news conference on Friday.

He has the information Ukraine ran up a huge debt for gas, coal andnuclear fuel as Ukrainian consumers owe seven billion grivna for electricity.

According to the Ukrainian Ministry of Power, the reloading with fuelof Zaporozhye, South Ukrainian and Rovno nuclear power plants is delayedbecause of debts. Nuclear power plant repair during which fresh nuclearfuel is loaded proceeds at a low pace. Two out of 14 nuclear power generatingsets have been repaired, six are undergoing repair and six more are yetto be shut down for repair.

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Russia, China Continue To Cooperate On Nuclear Energy
        August 18, 1999
        (for personal use only)

The president of Russia's TVEL, the scientific-industrial associationof nuclear energy enterprises, and the director-general of the ChineseNuclear Energy Industry Company have signed a contract whereby Russianexperts will draft blueprints for the active zone of an experimental nuclearreactor using accelerated neutrons and also will supply enriched nuclearfuel for the reactor, "Vek" reported in its latest issue (No. 31, August1999). According to the publication, the Russian Atomic Energy Ministryand the Chinese State Corporation for the Nuclear Industry concluded anagreement in 1995 on cooperation in developing such a
reactor in China.

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First Typhoon Submarine to Be Utilized in Severodvinsk
        Itar Tass
        August 18, 1999
        (for personal use only)

SEVERODVINSK, ARKHANGELSK REGION, August 18 (Itar-Tass) – The firstnuclear-powered submarine of the Typhoon class, which symbolized the mightof the Soviet and then Russian Navy, has been berthed at the NorthernMachine-BuildingEnterprise (Sevmash) in Severodvinsk for utilization, press
secretary of the defence-industry shipyard Boris Linshits told Tasson Wednesday.

According to his information, the submarine was built at the same shipyardearly in the 80s. The utilization of the Typhoon submarine is expectedto be done on the money, allocated by the U.S. Administration under theinterstate programme "On the reduction of mutual threat," which was adoptedby Russia and the U.S.
in 1992.

The scheme is being effectively implemented at the Zvezdochkadefence-industryshipyard of Severodvinsk. The U.S. supplied gratis to Russia special equipmentfor the cutting of nuclear- powered submarines, which were phased out.A total of 46 nuclear-powered submarines are planned to be utilized atthe Sevmash and Zvezdochka plants within two years. Part of the work willbe done with the help of the United States.

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U.S. Helps Murmansk Destroy Nuclear Submarines
        August 18, 1999
        (for personal use only)

The U.S. is to grant $15 million for the destruction of nuclear submarinesat the Nerpa shipyard at Snezhnogorsk, "Segodnya" reported on 17 August.That project is being carried out within the framework of the program "Onthe Reduction of Mutual Threats," to which Russia and the U.S. agreed in1992. Under the program, the shipyard has already destroyed three decommissionedsubmarines belonging to the Northern Fleet.

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C. Russian Nuclear Forces

Russian Com
        August 17, 1999
        (for personal use only)

MOSCOW, August 17 (Xinhua) ategic Rocket Forces said Tuesday emphasison nuclear deterrence as weak economy hidevelopment of the general army.

In an interview with the army newspaper, Krasnaya Zvezda, or Red Star,Colonel-General Vladimir Yakovlev said at a time when economic difficultyis hampering the development of general- purpose forces, Russia pins greathope on its nuclear deterrence forces, and especially their main component-- the
combat-ready strategic rocket forces.

Yakovlev said the role of Russia's strategic nuclear forces is increasingin the present-day situation. "Today we have every right to talk aboutextended nuclear deterrence," he said.

He listed two main priorities in the development and maintenance ofthe country's strategic rocket forces: the work on completing the developmentof and introducing mobile and fixed- site "Topol-M" complexes, and themaximum prolongation of the existment ing missile complexes' service life.

On prospects for the developma. ent of the space component of the strategicrocket forces, he said thate asking for a tangible flow back of benefitsfrom the rocket forces wouldrtaken in the last round," Hegde told the have"50 to 80 military and dua ministers of the daunting l-purpose space vehicles."

He also said thain coming t "measures will be taken to create lightcarrier rockets on ths still e basis of the decommissioned 'RS-18' missiles,and to upgrade the medium-class 'Soyuz-2' and heavy ' Proton-M' carrierrockets."

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Yakovlev Stresses Importance Of Strategic Nuclear Forces
        August 18, 1999
        (for personal use only)

In an interview with "Krasnaya zvezda" published on 17 August,Colonel-GeneralVladimir Yakovlev, commander of the Strategic Rocket Forces, stressed thatRussia's economic situation is "not favorable" for the development ofgeneral-purposeforces, which he described as "extremely necessary" following the expansionof NATO and in view of the "absence on the CIS border of a firm systemof collective security." "Our hopes remain [pinned] on nuclear deterrenceforces and their main component--the strategic rocket forces," he said.Yakovlev also named the two main priorities with regard to the developmentand maintenance of the strategic rocket forces: completing the introductionof mobile and fixed-site Topol-M
complexes and prolonging for as long as possible the service life ofexisting missile complexes.

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Russia, US to Hold Consultations on ABM, Start Treaties
         Itar Tass
         August 16, 1999
         (for personal useonly)

WASHINGTON, August 16 (Itar-Tass) - The United States' intersectoraldelegation leaves Wasghinton for Moscow on Monday for consultations withRussian experts to work on August 17-19.

The delegation is led by John Holum, undersecretary of state in chargeof armaments and international security.

The American and Russian delegations will open discussion of prospectsof changes to Russia-US anti-ballistic missile treary of 1972 and of preparinga Start-3 strategic arm reduction treaty.

The delegation of Russian specialists to the consultations is expectedto be headed by Grigory Berdennikov, chief of the Russian Defense Ministry'ssecority and disarmament department.

Agreement to start these consultations was reached at the meeting ofthe Russian and American presidensts, Boris Yeltsin and Bill Clinton, inCologne and during the former Prime Minister Sergei Stepashin's visit toWashington in late June.

The need for the consultations is in particular prompted by the factthat the United States is considering a new national anti-ballistric missilesystem that is to protect it from missiles of "unfriendly regimes", orNorth Korea, Iran and Iraq.

A US administration official in charge of arms and security problemssaid in an interview with Itar-Tass that he hoped the sides can exchangeopinions on the situation with ballistic missiles in the world. He saidincreasing dangers of these arms prompt, from the standpoint of the UnitedStates, the need for discussing changes to the anti-ballistic missile treatythat would needed in order to create the limited-scope anti-missile defensesystem.

However, the American delegation does not appear to be coming with specificproposals on modifications of this crucial treaty. The administration official,who spoke on the condition of anonymity, said the United States expectedthe Moscow consultations to centre on general needs of the day and theirsignificance for the anti-balllistic missile treaty. He said he did nitthink that the very wording of the treaty would be discussed.

The American governmental expert also said that in a few coming years,the deveploment of ballistic missiles in different countries could becomea menace to many states.

As the nature of this menace is changing, the United States believesthat it has to take certain measures in the military field.

The US administration hopes to demonstrate to the Russian governmentthat these measures are aimed just against the changing military menaceand not against Russia, he said.

The administration official voiced confidence that there is is a stringof real possibilities for cooperation of Russia and the United States inthe field of anti-ballistic missile defense.

Certainly, such work is sometimes related to the use of very sensitivetechnologies, and both sides would handle this problem very cautiously,he added.

However, there are possibilities for cooperation both at the stage ofworking out the system and at the stage of its use, he said.

As for subjects of the Moscow consultations, the official said the sideswould address the issues of the next phase of strategic arm reduction treaty.

It would be good if the discussion would help the Start-2 treaty'sratificationby Russia's State Duma, or the lower house of parliament, the administrationofficial said.

We expect that discussion of the preparation of Start-3 will be continual,the American expert said.

He said the United States and Russia need to hammer out an agenda ofthese talks and determine the stance of the sides.

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U.S., Russia Begin Three Days of Nuclear Arms Talks
         Associated Press
         August 18, 1999
         (for personal useonly)

MOSCOW (AP) -- The United States and Russia began talks Tuesday on reducingtheir nuclear arsenals and on U.S. plans to set up a new anti-ballisticmissile defense system.

The three days of talks were not expected to produce any agreements,although the sides were likely to explore the possibility of a START IIItreaty that would cut their nuclear weaponry to 2,000 to 2,500 warheadseach.

The U.S. team was led by Undersecretary of State John D. Holum. GrigoryBerdennikov, the head of the Russian Foreign Ministry's department forsecurity and disarmament, led the Russian team.

The existing START II treaty, signed by both countries in 1993 but notyet ratified by Russia's parliament, calls for both countries to scaleback to 3,000 to 3,500 warheads each.

Russia has also agreed to listen to U.S. proposals on amending the 1972Anti-Ballistic Missile treaty. The United States is considering a proposalfor an anti-ballistic missile defense system that is currently banned underthe ABM treaty.

The U.S. plan calls for a defense system that could shoot down a singlemissile or a small number of missiles from such countries as Iran or NorthKorea. It would not be designed to counter the kind of large-scale missileattack that Russia is capable of launching, the Americans say.

Moscow adamantly opposes such changes, saying a new anti-missile defensesystem in the United States would upset the strategic balance. But RussianPresident Boris Yeltsin agreed to discuss ABM modifications when he metPresident Clinton in Germany in June.

Many Russian politicians continue to oppose any changes to the ABM treaty."Such actions, far from helping to cut nuclear arsenals, can trigger theirbuildup and draw new participants into this process," said Andrei Nikolayev,a former general who is now a member of the Duma, the parliament's lowerhouse.

Military analyst Pavel Felgenhauer said the Russian military and diplomaticelite have been deeply critical of Yeltsin's decision to discuss the ABMtreaty, seeing it as a "betrayal of national interests."

However, Moscow has expressed a strong interest in a START III agreement,which would allow the cashapped government to save money.

The current talks are expected to be continued in Washington at a sessionof the Russian-U.S. Strategic Stability Group in September. Russia's ForeignMinister Igor Ivanov would take up these issues with U.S. Secretary ofState Madeleine Albright when the two meet at the U.N. General Assembly'ssession later in

But the new treaty cannot be formally agreed upon until the RussianDuma ratifies the START II treaty.

The U.S. Senate ratified the treaty in 1996, but Communists and otherhard-liners in the lower house have balked at its approval, saying it endangersRussia's security.

The Kremlin has urged the Duma to make START II a priority, but lawmakerssay there is virtually no chance of approval until after a new parliamentis elected in December.

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