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Nuclear News - 04/28/99
RANSAC Nuclear News, 28 April, 1999

A. Russia's Nuclear Forces
1. Russia Up In Arms Over New NATO Strategic Doctrine, Reuters(04/28/99)
2. Russia Is Reconsidering Its "Nuclear Argument", Izvestiya (04/28/99)

B. Lab-to-Lab Exchanges
1. Shelby Would Restrict Nuclear Lab Visits by Foreigners, WashingtonPost (04/28/99)
A. Russia's Nuclear Forces
Russia Up In Arms Over New NATO Strategic Doctrine
April 28, 1999
(for personal use only)

MOSCOW -- Russia's defense minister savaged NATO's newstrategy and enlargement plans on Tuesday, saying Moscow would now have to reshape its own security doctrine and review its vast nuclear and conventional forces.

At a 50th anniversary summit in Washington last week, NATO leaders agreed a Strategic Concept that extends the alliance's sphere of operations and may open the way for action without U.N. Security Council backing.

"All this forces Russia to reconsider many provisions for ensuring its own military security," Marshal Igor Sergeyev told reporters in his first major statement on the summit outcome.

"This covers conventional forces and strategic nuclear deterrence forces," said Sergeyev, who led atomic forces before becoming minister two years ago to speed up military reforms.

He reiterated criticism of NATO air strikes on Yugoslavia, saying the whole post-Cold War security picture was at stake.

"If no peaceful solution is found in Yugoslavia, the world, in my view, will look entirely different from the way it looked before," the minister said in televised comments.

Sergeyev said Russia would never agree to the Baltic states -- Estonia,Latvia and Lithuania -- joining NATO. The three states are formerSoviet republics that border Russia. NATO said it would keep the dooropen for up to nine potential new members, including the Baltics.

"This would be a great threat to Russia," he said. "We will take allnecessary measures to minimize the military threat that would followfrom such a development."

The Defense Ministry could not confirm news agency reports thatSergeyev would visit NATO-member Norway next Tuesday for talkswith North European defense ministers. Interfax news agency said hewould outline his complaints about NATO there.

A leading Russian daily newspaper, Izvestiya, spelled out on Tuesdaywhat Sergeyev's overall security review could involve.

In a front-page report, it said President Boris Yeltsin's advisorySecurity Council would meet later this week to consider militaryproposals to extend the service life of Soviet-era nuclear weapons,aircraft and submarines.

"This week, the Security Council will, in all likelihood, have to backthese proposals," Izvestiya said.

It said among them were plans to keep 10 Soviet-era Kalmarmissile-carrying submarines, code-named Delta III by NATO, up to2005 instead of retiring them next year.

The service life of RS-20 intercontinental ballistic missiles, known toNATO as Satan, would also be extended under the proposals.Long-range bomber aircraft would also be kept on station longer andMoscow may even ask Ukraine to return some Soviet-era strategicplanes.

The Defense Ministry would not comment directly on the Izvestiya story,but a spokesman told Reuters Russia was looking to modernize itsnuclear and conventional forces.

Sergeyev told the military newspaper Krasnaya Zvezda that Russia's newmilitary doctrine would be completed in three months and presented toYeltsin for approval.

It is not clear how Russia, in the depths of an economic crisis, couldafford an overhaul or re-equipping of its forces. The emphasis hithertohas rather been on trimming and merging.

Interfax quoted First Deputy Prime Minister Yury Maslyukov as sayingRussia had neither the means nor the need to reassess defense spending.
Russia Is Reconsidering Its "Nuclear Argument"
Old Soviet Weapons For The New "Cold War"
April 28, 1999
(for personal use only)

At the end of this week, the Security Council will meet to discuss the"development of nuclear weapons of Russia," the daily wrote.

President Boris Yeltsin, who will chair the meeting, has alreadyreceived reports from the nuclear forces' commanders. According to thedaily's sources, they have proposed upgrading the status of the nucleartroops to combat readiness.

According to the daily, the Kremlin has been hesitating for some timeover whether to adopt a tougher military policy. They were hoping thatthe situation on the world political front would take a turn for thebetter. However, this did not happen, despite Moscow's numerous warningsthat "NATO's actions [in Yugoslavia] may force Russia to amend itsmilitary doctrine."

At present, Russia's military doctrine is based on the postulate that aglobal nuclear conflict is no longer a threat. However, the events ofthe past months have changed the international climate beyondrecognition, the daily wrote. NATO expansion and its adoption of a newdoctrine, its bombing of Yugoslavia and the U.S.'s rejection of the mainprovisions of the ABM missile treaty have caused serious concern aboutnational security in Russia. And Russia's military leaders believe itsnuclear power can be strengthened by, among other things, themodernization of Soviet-era nuclear weapons.
B. Lab-to-Lab Exchanges
Shelby Would Restrict Nuclear Lab Visits by Foreigners
Vernon Loeb and Walter Pincus
Washington Post Staff Writers
Wednesday, April 28, 1999; Page A12
(for personal use only)

Sen. Richard C. Shelby (R-Ala.), chairman of the Select Committee onIntelligence, introduced legislation yesterday that would restrictvisits by scientists from China, Russia and other sensitive countries tothe Department of Energy's nuclear weapons laboratories.

Shelby acted following reports that Chinese spies have obtained highlyclassified warhead design information developed at the laboratories. Hecalled his bill "a prudent step to safeguard this nation's mostsensitive secrets."

Shelby credited the administration with implementing comprehensivecounterintelligence reforms at the labs, but said those measures willtake years to put fully into place. According to his legislation, hesaid, Secretary of Energy would have to personally request a waiver andgive Congress 10 days' notice before a scientist from any one of sevensensitive countries could visit Los Alamos, Sandia or Lawrence Livermorenational laboratories.

"For the last decade, the Senate intelligence committee has beenconcerned with the need to strengthen the Department of Energy'scounterintelligence capabilities," Shelby said. "We have urged thedepartment to devote more attention and resources to this importantissue, and they have resisted and ignored our recommendations foryears."

The Shelby bill and a similar measure introduced last week by Rep. JimRyun (R-Kan.) represent the first legislative moves in a highly partisandebate in recent months over the administration's response to suspectedChinese espionage at the labs. The debate stemmed from numerouscongressional investigations last year into the transfer of sensitivedual-use technology, inquiries that also produced testimony regarding acriminal investigation into suspected Chinese espionage at Los Alamos.

Shelby and other leading Republicans have charged that theadministration has sacrificed national security and played downallegations of Chinese spying in its pursuit of engaging the Chinese.Administration officials deny the charge, noting that President Clintonissued a decision directive 14 months ago in response to the Los Alamosspy case quadrupling counterintelligence spending at the labs andmandating polygraph examinations for certain nuclear scientists.

In an interview in today's Los Angeles Times, Rep. Christopher Cox(R-Calif.), who heads a special panel looking into Chinese espionage,said China stole "the crown jewels of our arsenal" and that the spying"continues to this very day."

Shelby's legislation cutting off sensitive foreign exchanges facesuncertain prospects in Congress. After Shelby informed the White Houselast week that he planned to introduce the bill, Clinton immediatelyresponded, saying the measure would "halt valuable scientific exchangeprograms" with Russian scientists aimed at safeguarding Russia's nucleararsenal.

Sen. Pete V. Domenici (R-N.M.), chairman of the Budget Committee andthe appropriations subcommittee that funds the labs, said he has notseen the Shelby bill, but added: "I believe before we are finished therewill be an understanding of the significance of scientific exchanges tothe very lifeblood of these labs."

Domenici said that he has attended hearings with Shelby "and he has beenvery judicious. His questions have been very good and so I don't quiteunderstand why at this point he thinks this is necessary."

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