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Nuclear News - 04/21/99
RANSAC Nuclear News, 21 April, 1999

A. Nuclear Testing
1. Russia Presses Pakistan On Nuclear Proliferation, Reuters (04/21/99)

B. Russia's Nuclear Forces
1. Japan To Help Dismantle Russia's Nuclear Subs, Agence France Presse(04/21/99)

C. Nunn-Lugar Funds
1. Disarming of Russia Continues, Boston Globe (04/20/99)
A. Nuclear Testing
Russia Presses Pakistan On Nuclear Proliferation
April 21, 1999
(for personal use only)

MOSCOW -- Russian Prime Minister Yevgeny Primakov, reacting to missiletests by India and Pakistan, said on Tuesday all countries that haveconducted such tests should abide by agreements preventing nuclear proliferation.

In comments to reporters after talks with Nawaz Sharif, the firstPakistani Prime minister to visit Russia for 25 years, he signaled hisconcern for stability in Asia.

"Russia has a great interest in the nuclear states, those which havecarried out nuclear explosions, becoming parties to the agreementsbanning the proliferation of nuclear weapons and stopping nucleartests," Itar-Tass quoted Primakov as saying.

Interfax news agency quoted him as saying that unspecified measures were needed to tighten security in South Asia "so that there isstability in the region."

Indian nuclear test blasts last May were rapidly followed by rival Pakistan's first underground atomic tests. Last week Pakistan test-fired two missiles in response to a launch by India, causing Russia to express alarm.

India and Pakistan have not signed the international nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) but both have promised to sign the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Sharif said last week Pakistan Had no interest in continuing the arms race with India.

Tass said that Sharif had asked Russia to play a bigger role in peace-making in South Asia and that Primakov had replied: "We shallundoubtedly respond to this."

The Russian premier reiterated his support for what he calls amultipolar world, in which Moscow should strengthen relations with Asianand other countries and reduce U.S. influence.

Pakistani and Russian officials also signed an agreement on increasingtrade between their countries, hindered by political considerationsduring Soviet times and also by Moscow's 10-year intervention inAfghanistan until 1989.

Tass said trade turnover had fallen from $81.1 million to $55.6 millionin 1998 but the two countries saw great potential for cooperation.
B. Russia's Nuclear Forces
Japan To Help Dismantle Russia's Nuclear Subs
Agence France Presse
April 21, 1999
(for personal use only)

TOKYO -- Japan plans to offer Russia about $35 million to help dismantle 50 aging nuclear submarines in its Pacific Fleet, a report said here Wednesday.

The Japanese Foreign Ministry would send officials to Moscow later in the month to discuss details, said the daily Yomiurinewspaper.

Of the deteriorating attack submarines built during the Soviet era, 30 were docked at Vladivostok Military Port and 20 at Kamchatka Military Port, the report said.

The submarines were "weather beaten and in serious condition, which may affect Japan's environment," a Japanese Foreign Ministryofficial was quoted as saying.

Tokyo would offer about $35 million from a $100 million reserve set aside in 1993 to help the Soviet Union dismantle its nucleararsenal, the newspaper said.

The Japanese government planned to offer to expand a dockyard near Vladivostok where the Pacific fleet is based, it said, and help pay for removing spent nuclear fuel rods from the submarines and scrapping the hulls.
C. Nunn-Lugar Funds
Disarming of Russia Continues
David Filipov
Boston Globe
April 20, 1999
(for personal use only)

SERGIYEV POSAD, Russia - Relations between the United States and Russiamay have reached their lowest point since the fall of the Berlin Wall,but remarkably, that has not stopped a US-funded program to dismantlethe decaying, but still deadly, nuclear arsenal of the former SovietUnion.

At a secret defense factory in this industrial town north of Moscow,Russian submarine-launched ballistic missiles, which were once aimed atUS cities, are being disarmed and dismantled - with American equipmentand funding.

A nearby training center for Russia's strategic rocket forces usestechniques and equipment supplied by US specialists to weed out Russiansunfit to work with Moscow's nuclear weapons.

Even as Moscow wages a war of words with Washington over the conflictin the Balkans, more than $1 billion in US-funded projects to reduce thethreat posed by Russia's weapons of mass destruction have continuedalmost unabated.

The hardiness of these projects, commonly referred to as the"Nunn-Lugar" program after its Congressional sponsors, former SenatorSam Nunn and Senator Richard Lugar, provides a measure of geopoliticalcomfort despite a chill in US-Russian relations not seen since the endof the Cold War.

The staying power of these joint projects despite hard times in therelationship even suggests a model for how the West could have betterused the billions of dollars it spent to support Russia's sporadic, andso far largely unsuccessful, attempts at economic reform.

"The Russians see real results from Nunn-Lugar money," said PavelFelgenhauer, defense analyst for the Moscow daily Segodnya. "Unlikeother aid, where all of the money was spent and nothing changed, withNunn-Lugar money concrete things did happen. So the Russians want tokeep these programs, despite their suspicions."

Russian politicians, and many ordinary citizens, are upset at thebombardment of a fellow Slavic, Orthodox Christian nation by NATO, analliance that until a decade ago was the Cold War arch-enemy of theSoviet Union.

The Kremlin has consistently portrayed the United States as theaggressor in the Balkan conflict, and Yugoslav President SlobodanMilosevic, whom the West accuses of atrocities against ethnic Albanians,as the victim.

"Bill Clinton hopes to win, he hopes Milosevic will capitulate, give upthe whole of Yugoslavia, make it America's protectorate. We will notallow this. This is a strategic place, the Balkans," President Boris N.Yeltsin said yesterday to a meeting of Russian editors and publishers."We simply cannot ditch Milosevic. We want to embrace him as tight aspossible."

Such sentiments have led to cancellation or postponement of dozens ofjoint initiatives between Russia and NATO because, in the words of onesenior Russian commander, General Leonid Ivashov, "they are no longerappropriate at this time."

But across Russia, a number of Nunn-Lugar programs - which allowAmericans access to highly sensitive and until recently, top-secret,technology - are still underway.

They include:

construction of a new storage site in the Ural Mountains to keep 6,000bombs' worth of nuclear material out of the wrong hands;

a laboratory that will make it easier to keep track of Russia's 42,000metric tons of chemical weapons, a stockpile capable of destroying alllife on Earth many times over;

equipment and funding to help destroy ballistic missiles, missilelaunchers, strategic bombers and nuclear submarines under the 1991 Start I arms reduction treaty.

In the first days after NATO began its airstrikes, Russia asked that aplanned review session of the program in Moscow be postponed.

"But nothing else has been canceled," said an American official close tothe project. "This is an incredibly tense and difficult time for us, andthere are things to work out on both sides. They had to ask themselves afew questions. But we're moving forward."

The Nunn-Lugar program was initially created when the Soviet Unioncollapsed and it became clear the successor states did not have theresources to eliminate the cold war arsenal. Since 1991, over $2 billionin US funds has gone toward eliminating 3,800 nuclear weapons inKazakhstan, Ukraine, and Belarus - the entire nuclear arsenals of thosecountries - plus reducing Russia's arsenal by 96 submarine missilelaunchers, 50 missile silos, 273 strategic ballistic missiles and 30bombers.

Under agreements already reached, an additional 711 missiles and manymore submarine missile launch tubes will be eliminated. Other programs,such as improving security at 50 nuclear weapons sites, trainingpersonnel, and safeguarding transport and storage of fissile materials -are aimed at preventing the export of weapons of mass destruction fromRussia.

At first, the Russian military had a difficult time getting used to theidea that Americans would pay to dismantle Russian weapons.

"At first there was a big psychological problem,'' said Igor Safranchukof the Center for Policy Studies, a Moscow think tank that monitorsstrategic arms control issues. "Russian scientists didn't believe thatAmericans would help. But when equipment and money started coming, themood changed. There was a sense of humbled national pride, thatAmericans were financing disarmament by Russia, but it passed."

Commented the US official: "It took time to build trust, to get on thatbase where you would have been shot dead a few years ago."

US and Russian observers acknowledge that the Nunn-Lugar programshave only made a dent in Russia's legacy of the nuclear arms race. Butsources on both sides call the program a success.

As recently as February, Gen. Igor Valynkin, who heads Russia'sdepartment for nuclear safety, praised the US aid, which he saidincluded special containers for transporting Russian warheads, computersfor keeping tabs on atomic weapons, emergency kits, and screeningequipment such as polygraphs for the training center in Sergiyev Posad.

"All the computers [provided by the US] have been certified by Russianspecialists," Valynkin commented. "They have no bugs or any other hiddendevices to obtain secret information."

Valynkin's remarks point to another success of the Nunn-Lugar program.While the officials in charge of economic reform in Yeltsin'sgovernments have almost all been young economists who professedpro-Western views, the same could not be said about the old-linemilitary officials and defense factory directors the US has dealt withunder Nunn-Lugar programs. But it is the way Nunn-Lugar has worked, notthe Russian participants' political leanings, that has made itsuccessful.

"When the International Monetary Fund gave Russia credits, they wouldsay, 'now, restructure the economy'," said Safronchuk. "Nunn-Lugardidn't work like that. They would say, 'build this facility' or 'destroythese missiles.' And when the work was done, then the Russians would gettheir money."

The program has also established direct contact with Russian companies,said Russian and US sources, providing jobs and business at a time whenmost factories are at a standstill. This, too, is a reason whyNunn-Lugar has continued.

"Why should Russia refuse hundreds of millions of dollars? That would befoolish," said Alexander Pikayev, an arms control analyst at theCarnegie Moscow Center. "Because Russia receives American money andtechnology, the US in return receives more transparency of the Russiannuclear infrastructure, and maintaining this is very important for theUS."

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