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Nuclear News - 01/30/99
RANSAC Nuclear News Clips, January 30, 1999

(January 1999)
YADERNY KONTROL (NUCLEAR CONTROL). International security. Arms control.Nonproliferation. Journal of the PIR-Center for Policy Studies. Volume 41.Number 5. Moscow.
September-October, 1998

Deputy Director of IAEA, Dr. Victor Murogov, in his exclusive interviewto Yaderny Kontrol Editors, states: "The key political and strategicquestion for the IAEA is: should we play an active role, foreseeing andanticipating events, or merely a reactive role, observing events? Here wetouch upon one of the most central issues of our work. After the tragedy ofChernobyl, we spent more than ten years revising rules and standards inorder to increase the security of nuclear sites, as well as to improve theengineering and technology of their control systems. However, insufficientattention was devoted to the improvement of the fuel cycle of the nuclearpower industry and to the introduction of improvements of technology tiedwith disposed fuel containing highly toxic wastes.

On the whole, the number of reactors in the world - four hundred andfifty - have been stabilized. However, new amounts of waste spring up eachyear. This means that while the problem is not yet urgent, the handling ofspent nuclear fuel and radioactive wasted is gradually and persistentlybecoming a priority. Along this lines, we generally allow ourselves theluxury of neglecting to think about the future and using technology ofreactors and the nuclear fuel cycle, which were created thirty to fortyyears ago. It is perfectly clear that these technologies were born at atime when the fuel cycle was generally used for the production of plutoniumfor military purposes.But priorities have changed! The whole military and geopolitical situationof the world has changed! In order to discuss safe and productive optionsfor nuclear power engineering, we must force ourselves to stop feeding onthe past, to let go of useless stereotypes, to refuse discussions of thetype, "but my reactor is better", and glance into the future ... to attemptto focus not only on short-term perspectives, but those fifty years andmore ahead."
November 1998
65-th anniversary of VNIPIET (St.-Petersburg), the leading nuclear designinstitute.

Today VNIPIET is one of the greatest project institutes of Minatom, as faras the subject matter scope and many-sided character of the activities areconcerned.

VNIPIET - the All-Russia Planning and Research Institute for ComplexPower Technology - was founded in 1933. Since September 1945 it has beenthe leading institution on planning objects of the nuclear science andindustry. Now it is a State owned enterprise subordinated to the RFMinistry on Atomic Energy. The Institute's staff is numbering 2000employees. VNIPIET successfully collaborates with such companies andinstitutions as Siemens (Germany), DAM (Germany), China State Committee onNuclear Industry, US Army Corps of Engineers, Black & Vestch (USA), IVO(Finland), VTT (Finland), STUK (Finland), SGN (France), Cogema (France),NFT (Japan), IAEA.

The Institute had planned one time the most sophisticated objects, whereunique equipment and instruments were concentrated, for the purpose ofsolving problems of uranium isotopic enrichment, construction of weapongrade plutonium production reactors, as well as designing, manufacturingand testing of nuclear munitions.

In 90s unique long-term fissile materials' storage facilities weredesigned for the purpose of solving the problem of disposition of theweapon grade materials retrieved as a result of dismantling of nuclearwarheads.

At present works are being conducted on reconstruction of uraniumenrichment plants in China, which had been designed by the institute in50s, planning of a new enrichment plant, using centrifuge technology, ison.

Now VNIPIET takes part in implementation of target program«Restructuring and conversion of the nuclear industry in 1998-2000». Withinthe framework of this program the Institute takes part in planning objects,which provide nuclear weapons' reduction, manufacturing of new kinds ofnuclear munitions, safe storage and utilization of their components,designing of environmental protection facilities and also - facilities forradioactive waste (RW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing andtransportation. Unfortunately, a general trend in the Institute'sactivities is the cutting down of research works, including those conductedin many traditional fields, such as nuclear and radioactive materialstransportation, reactor water coolant chemistry, etc.

However, in spite of the existing objective difficulties, theInstitute's collective body looks ahead with optimism. The works plannedfor the near years are the confirmation.

Among the works are the following:

  • repository of fissile materials and highly active plutonium, up-gradingof the RT-1 plant at the Production Association «Mayak» (Ozersk,Chelyabinsk Region);
  • up-grading of uranium enrichment production works and conversion of theADE-4 and ADE-5 production reactors (Seversk, Tomsk Region);
  • designing of a spent nuclear fuel storage facility and conversion ofthe ADE-2 production reactor (Zheleznogorsk, Krasnoyarsk Land);
  • up-grading of uranium enrichment production works at the UralsElectrochemical Combine (Novouralsk, Sverdlovsk Region), AngarskElectrochemical Combine (Angarsk, Irkutsk Region), Electrochemical Combine(Zelenogorsk, Krasnoyarsk Land).Participation is planned in a complex of works on the Federal Stateprograms, including the program «Radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuelmanagement». Works are being carried out on improvement of safety andextension of service life of the Leningrad NPP power units. Designdocumentation is being developed for construction of civilian and housingobjects in closed administrative & territorial units.

    A great deal of work is planned in the field of international economicalrelations with China (uranium isotopic enrichment plants), Sweden(assessment of variants of an industrial spent nuclear fuel storagefacility), France (safety assessment of a VVER-1000 SNF storage facilityimpact on the environment; RW disposal to geological structures), GreatBritain (improvement of RW and SNF management safety).

    «As to our international cooperation with Ukraine , - says Prof.V.Kurnosov, the Director-General of the VNIPIET, - our Institute, being theDesigner General of the «Ukrytie» («Shelter») object, is puzzled andanxious with the total disregarding of our proposals on transformation ofthe 4th power unit of Chernobyl NPP to a long-standing environmentally safestructure. We confirm once more our preparedness to work out jointly withthe Research and Design Institute of Power Engineering and the MiningInstitute of the Kola Branch of Russian Academy of Science, a design of thecompletely safe burial structure of the 4th power unit of Chernobyl NPP».
    November 5, 1998

    The United Nations Organization decided to create a global satellitesystem of control for implementation of the Treaty on Comprehensive NuclearTests Ban.

    The United Nations organization decided to create a global satellitesystem of control for implementation of the Treaty on Comprehensive NuclearTests Ban. The project's cost is estimated as $ 70 million. The system willbe based on the modern high-speed satellite communication technology, whichdoes not need any special ground-based infrastructure. Accumulated datawill be sent to the International Data Bank in Vienna for their subsequentdissemination among all the Treaty's member-states.
    November 6, 1998

    Implementation of a prospective project of creation of capaciousproduction works for nuclear waste processing may begin as early as thenext year.

    Half a year ago, just being appointed as the RF Minister on AtomicEnergy, Evgeny Adamov put forward an idea to go to the world's market ofspent radioactive materials utilization. The Minister declared, that Russiashould not limit itself only with fulfillment of the inherited from theUSSR contracts on uranium processing. According to estimates of theMinatom's experts, in ten years Russia would be able to earn more than $ 5billion a year by the utilization.

    At present, due to efforts of environmentalists, the market ofutilization of NPP spent fuel is intensively developing. Experts forecast,that by 2020 more than 500 thousand tons of spent fuel will be accumulated.

    USA are reprocessing now about a third of the total amount of spentnuclear fuel (SNF), France, Russia and Great Britain - a bit lesser. About20 percent of the SNF are not reprocessed by anybody. The spent materialsare accumulated at NPP sites in those countries, which don't haveappropriate technologies. In principle Russia could obtain that portion ofthe market with related incomes. The main advantage of Russia in thecompetition is the relatively low cost of reprocessing. Thereto, thecountry has vast scarcely populated areas contaminated with radionuclides,such as, for instance, the nuclear test site in Novaya Zemlya Archipelago,which are good for nothing but nuclear waste burial.If «nuclear» lobbyists are a success in drawing amendments to the Law,which now prohibits import of foreign radioactive waste to the territory ofRussia, there would be no legal obstacles for SNF reprocessing and burialof radwaste in Russia. And what about the environmental consequences? It iswell known, that a part of the country's territory is radioactivelycontaminated. It is typical, that both population and leadership of closednuclear cities, which would, obviously, implement the strategic plans ofMinatom, have nothing against the reliable and extremely profitablecontracts for SNF reprocessing. They only think it to be of importance,that the payments were made for an appropriate price, and the waste wereburied in a proper way. And only fears, that it wouldn't by done just so,were the main reason of «anti-nuclear» stand, taken by the majority of theState Duma's deputies.

    One more advantage of Russia before the Western competitors - arelatively low reprocessing cost due to use of cheap manpower and energysources. It should be particularly noted, that wage rates of workers ofArzamas-16, Chelyabinsk-65, Tomsk-7, Krasnoyarsk-26 are incommensurably lowas compared to their Western colleagues.
    November 6, 1998

    In Obninsk a training & methodical center has been opened for nuclearmaterials accounting and control.

    Nuclear safety has become a global problem. Last years Russia causesanxiety. The US Department of Energy, the Joint Nuclear Research Center ofthe European Union, the RF Minatom and Gosatomnadzor opened in Obninsk atraining & methodical center for nuclear materials accounting and control.EU allotted $ 2.3 million and the US Government - $ 3.5 million. The centerin Obninsk has become the world's fourth (there are two similar centers inthe USA and one more - in Italy).

    An instructor took a metallic pellet on a special scoop from anunderground depository and put it in a gamma-spectrometer. He said: «It'splutonium. Now we'll determine its composition, and the pellet will beprepared for marking it by the bar-code. That will allow as to know thepellet's state and location at any moment».

    The operation is performed in the laboratory of non-destructive testingof nuclear materials. In another laboratory a special remotely controlledprinter will plot an unwashed bar-code on the pellet, and the plutoniumunit will take its place in the SAMBA computer register (statisticalanalysis of nuclear materials balance). Any move of the unit will berecorded.

    Nuclear materials' control has been always arranged well at nuclearenterprises of Russia. But the data were recorded in a common copy-book.The bar-code computer technology commits less than one error per 10 millionoperations. The most up-to-date technologies of accounting & control arecarving their way to Russian nuclear industry. 30 Russian specialiststrained in the USA and Italy will teach the newest control techniques.Scientists from leading American laboratories - Los-Alamos, Livermore andBrookhaven - are invited to deliver lectures.

    A training course in the Obninsk center will last a week. First,specialists of Minatom and Gosatomnadzor will be trained, then - customsand military servicemen. Nuclear specialists from Lithuania, Belorussia,and Kazakhstan showed interest to the training course.

    The Center's laboratories are equipped with foreign-made instruments.There is only one Russian-made dosimeter in the arsenal. An employee of theCenter noted: «We work out instruments, which are no worse than the foreignones. However, they are not made serially because of the lack of money».
    November 13, 1998

    The holding will embrace all enterprises of the nuclear sector,including commercial structures.

    The Minister on Atomic Energy, Evgeny Adamov, proposes to create the«Atomprom» Concern in Russia. The holding will embrace all enterprises ofthe nuclear sector, including commercial structures. «This should be 100 %State-owned company, which would solve numerous problems of nuclear powerindustry and in such a way would save regional authorities from a lot oftroubles,» - the Minister said at the organization meeting of the Union ofTerritories and Enterprises of the Nuclear Power Industry of RussianFederation. Giving his estimate of the current situation in the branch,Adamov noted, that this year, for the first time in the last three years,electric power production at NPPs decreased by about 5 %. At the same time,Adamov said, last time situation somewhat improved with the produced powerrepayment in cash and with bank promissory notes. Adamov announced alsoabout the planned restructuring of the State Concern «Rosenergoatom»,currently including 8 of 9 operating nuclear power plants. It is supposedto be transformed into a State-owned unitary enterprise «Rosatomenergo»with daughter enterprises.
    November 19, 1998

    Krasnoyarsk chemists threat to discharge the waste in theAdministration Building.

    The Krasnoyarsk Land won't accept spent nuclear fuel from UkrainianNPPs until it receives payments in advance for world's price in hardcurrency, and Alexander Lebed, the Governor, is not allowed to take part asan equal party in negotiations between Russia and Ukraine, concerning theSNF destiny. That was claimed by Alexandra Kulenkova, the Vice-Governor onEnvironmental Protection and Use of Natural Resources.

    M-me Kulenkova has not given permission for the special train with SNFto enter the Land's territory. Such a decision was extremely surprising toadministration of the Mining & Chemical Combine in Zheleznogorsk, the onlyenterprise in the former USSR, where the SNF from VVER-1000 type reactorsis stored. A special train with SNF a few days ago left Zaporozhye and hasto come to Krasnoyarsk Land by November 19, 1998.

    A situation may arise, so that either SNF are accepted for storage bythe Combine or the region turns out to be on the verge of environmentaldisaster.

    Any time the IAEA may intervene the situation: in accordance withinternational agreements, a country, making and exporting nuclear fuel, hasto accept the spent materials.
    November 20, 1998

    Whatever it takes the United States.

    The Head of Minatom, Evgeny Adamov, is to be leave Moscow on November21, 1998 for visiting Iran. He is going to look personally into thesituation at the construction site of a nuclear power plant in Bushier,erected with the support of Russia.

    Evgeny Adamov is intending to make a proposal on putting off the term ofcompleting the NPP construction from 2002 to 2004. He said, that theyfailed to attain effective interaction between Russian and Iranianspecialists. A half a year ago the contract was reconsidered - thereuponthe Russian party has to carry out all the works on the turnkey basis.After reconsideration of the contract's provisions, Adamov said, the workwent on intensively, but the time had been wasted. Specialists from Russiacontinue to arrive to Bushier, in the near time the works will be conductedby two shifts. According to information of the «KD», the issue on the NPPconstruction in Iran was touched on next time by the US vice-president,Albert Gore, while his meeting with Evgeny Primakov on November 17, 1997 inthe course of the APEC summit in Kuala-Lumpur. USA still hope to persuadeMoscow to turn down the deal, which, as they think in Washington, isassisting to realization of nuclear ambitions of Teheran. In exchange forturning down the contract Russia is suggested of getting access to the mostup-to-date American technologies in the field of nuclear power engineering.However, Russia considers all that to be an attempt of the USA to move awaytheir main competitor on the world's market of nuclear technologies.

    Today 70 % of the NPP market is under the control of USA and Russia.Experts estimate, that by 2005 the volume of contracts at the market willdouble, at least. China and India are planning NPP construction. Malaysia,Indonesia, Philippines declared their intentions to develop nuclear power.The construction of a nuclear power plant with two 1000 MW power unitsmight cost today up to $ 2.5 billion. In the opinion of specialists, acountry, that manage to get the greatest number of contracts, would becomethe indisputable leader of the nuclear power industry of the XXI century.
    November 20, 1998

    In the RF State Duma a draft Law is prepared on the START-2 Treatyratification. The Duma's Committees on Defense and on InternationalAffairs, developing the draft Law, believe, that not only the interests ofthe country's national defense, but also its economical capabilities aretaken into account in the document.

    And the most important thing is, as the experts of the RF Ministry ofDefense think, that Russia has not already needed such a size of thenuclear shield. The country's security can be ensured in reality, usingmuch more modest arsenal of the Strategic Nuclear Forces (SNF). A few yearsrunning experts of the General Staff with figures in their hands work withthe deputies, trying to prove the expediency of ratification of the Treaty.

    Among numerous arguments in favor of ratification promulgated at apress-conference on November 18, 1998 by Roman Popkovich, the Chairman ofthe State Duma's Committee on Defense, only one would be really sufficient- Russia has no monetary resources to maintain nuclear parity at the levelof 5000 charges. In order to not only keep, but renew nuclear arsenals, thecountry would have to spend no less than 60 billion rubles annually (inprices before August 17, 1998). Utopianism of such a variant can be seeneasily - it would be sufficient to remind: the 1998 defense budget was 82.5billion rubles in total.

    The draft Law submitted by the deputies Vladimir Lukin and RomanPopkovich seems to take into account all wishes and reasons of opponents ofthe ratification. For instance, reservations are made for conditions ofRussia's eventual going out of the START-2 Treaty. In particular, thatcould take place in a case of violation by the USA of agreements onanti-missile defense. A points is, also brought in, concerning NATO'senlargement towards the East - we'd go out of the START-2, if NATO createsa danger to the national security of RF on the territory of Europeancountries, places nuclear or high-precision weapons there. At lastguarantees of stable funding and implementation of the program of theRussian SNF development up to 2010 are envisaged.
    VEK No. 45
    November 27 - December 3, 1998

    The new generation ballistic missile turned out to be a surprise forAmericans.

    Colonel Il'shat Baychurin, the Head of press-service of the StrategicMissile Forces (SMF), reported to «Vek»: «The home made «Topol-M» missilecomplex will be the basis of the SMF prospective grouping of strategicnuclear means». 6 up-graded complexes arrived to Tatishchev missile unit,near Saratov, four «Topols-M» have to be installed there by the end of thisyear. In such a way the first SMF unit will be equipped with the ballisticmissiles of new generation. «Vek» got access to the most completeinformation about the new complex. «Topol-M», like its predecessor, hasthree large solid-fuel engines. Their design, however, is quite different:at the new missile's tail section there are no latticed tail-planes andrudders, that makes for better flight. The up-graded «Topol» is morepowerful than the former one (some data allow to suppose the missile to beof the megaton class). It is 22.7 meters long, the diameter of its body is1.95 meters, its starting weight is 47.2 tons, its range exceeds 10thousand kilometers. The missile's warhead weighs 1200 kilograms. The warsection of the «Topol-M» was designed by a team of Moscow Institute of HeatEngineering, headed by Prof. Yuri Solomonov, the missile'sDesigner-General.

    He says, that due to new aerodynamic, ballistic and design features thewar unit is capable of penetrating any anti-missile defense (AMD) systemand striking a set target under any conditions. Other specialists claim,that the missile does not change its calculated trajectory even in a caseof a counter nuclear explosion. It has become possible to say about thefeatures after four successful test launchings of «Topol-M». Americans,following flights of the new Russian missile from satellites, recorded itscharacteristics and, according to information of experts, were surprised,that it was flying «in some unusual way». In the opinion of Americanspecialists, they have not yet found means of counteracting the «Topol-M».Russian missile specialists think, that such means «will not be foundsoon».

    Lev Solomonov, the «Topol-M» Deputy Designer-General, claims in thisconnection, that the missile's conduct in flight is so unusual, that it isunlikely to be intercepted by a hypothetical AMD system. Lev Solomonovexplained, that such features of «Topol-M» were attained «due its threemain unique solid-fuel engines and several tens of auxiliary ones».

    According to official statements of the Russian party, our country needsthe new «Topol-M» not for the purpose of threatening somebody, making useof the missile's unique capabilities. What does it mean?

    The thing is, Russia is going to use the missile system to substitutethree liquid fuel strategic MIRVed nuclear missiles, which are on war dutynow and which are, in particular, noted in the START-2 Treaty.

    Thus, the started re-equipment of the SMF unit near Saratov may beconsidered as not only military & technical but also diplomatic achievementof the Russian party.

    «Topol-M» may be made both in shaft and mobile variants. The designersmanaged to make it so, that in Tarishchevo the new complexes were installedin former missile shafts. The military did not have to change eitherdiameter or the depth of the launching shafts, they only limited themselveswith a new system of fastening container to the missile.
    November 21, 1998

    The RF Ministry on Atomic Energy does not exclude eventualreconsideration of provisions of the contract on low enriched uraniumdeliveries to the USA, as far as the American party does not observe thecontract's clauses. As the Minatom's press-service reported, the Americanparty has not yet settled accounts for the natural component of exportedRussian uranium. In the beginning of October 1998 Vladimir Vinogradov, theRF Deputy Minister on Atomic Energy, visited USA. During the visit he tookpart in negotiations with top officials of the US Department of State, theUS Department of Energy and also with representatives of such companies, asCogema (France), Nukem (Germany) and Cameco (Canada), the eventual buyersof Russian natural uranium. In particular, the Russian party suggested toreconsider prices, acting within the framework of the contract. However,the negotiations ended with failure. The contract's total cost is $ 12billion. The Minatom's press-service refuted rumors as to the eventual riseof the contract's cost to $ 8 trillion, calling the sum as «a fiction».
    November 24, 1998

    The RF Minatom took the NPP construction in Bushier in its hands.

    The four days visit of Evgeny Adamov, the RF Minister on AtomicEnergy, to the Islamic Republic of Iran is ending on November 24, 1998 bysigning of a joint protocol. Meanwhile, just after his arrival to Teheranthe Head of Minatom stressed: «This is not our Ministry's delegation. It isa delegation of Russia. The State Duma's Deputies Anatoly Lukyanov,Vladimir Gusev, Stepan Sulakshin came together with us. Another part of thedelegation includes specialists engaged in NPP construction and operation».Principals of the largest Russian higher educational institutions engagedin formation of nuclear specialists - the Moscow Engineering & PhysicsInstitute and Obninsk Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering - were alsoamong the delegation's members.

    Attending of the NPP, which is being constructed in Bushier, South Iran,under Russia's support, was the main item of the visit.

    As Vladimir Dudnik, the Chief of the construction works in Bushier,informed the «NG» correspondent, now 314 Russian specialists and workersare occupied at the NPP construction. And in total about 900 people work atthe construction site.

    The USA are known to be displeased with the Russian/Iranian project. Inthe opinion of Evgeny Adamov, the Americans cannot reconcile themselves tothe fact, that Iran went away from the area of their economical influence.Thereat Iran, as Adamov noted, is strictly observing all the clauses of theNuclear Weapons Non-Proliferation Treaty. Besides that, the contract is ofextreme importance to Russia, as far as its economical aspect is concerned.
    November 25, 1998

    Moscow and Teheran will strengthen their friendship "against America".

    Russia will not only complete the construction of a NPP in Bushier inaccordance with already signed contracts, but, likely, conclude newagreements with Iran. That was a sensational result of the official visitof the Head of Minatom, Evgeny Adamov, to Teheran.

    The visit was caused, on the one hand, by the Minister's will to inspectthe status of construction works in Bushier and, on the other hand, by anecessity to solve some problems arisen in the course of the plant'spreparation to mounting of two first power units. According to informationof «Segodnya», the Iranian party would like to speed up essentially the NPPputting into operation, and also - to arrange with Russia its plans ofgrowing the plant's capacities in near future. As a result of thenegotiations a protocol was drawn up and signed almost at the airfield justbefore the departure for Moscow. The document confirms Russia's readinessto hand over to Iran the nuclear power plant in Bushier with two 1000 MWlight-water power units (in full compliance with the basic 1995 contract)in 52 and a half months - i.e. in the midst of May 2003. Thereto, the plantwill be built under the turnkey condition.

    Besides, as members of the Russian delegation informed «Segodnya»,Teheran asked Russia to construct two more power units at the plant inBushier. Therewith, 1000 MW units are meant but not 440 MW ones, as it wassupposed earlier. Thus, Russian specialists will work at the nuclear objectin Bushehr, at least, for 5-6 years more. Of course, unless Teheran decidesto increase its nuclear power capacities by building one more series ofreactors. Thereat, the project's total cost may exceed $ 2 billion - if thecontract is signed, the Minatom is going to build the 3d and 4th units fromthe zero foundation cycle.

    The contract's enlargement would allow Minatom to solve many of its ownproblems, first of all, to give orders to some more enterprises of theformer Minsredmash.

    Meanwhile, Adamov's visit was also of political character, too. Whilehis meetings with Iranian leaders the Russian Minister uttered a number ofstatements, which seem evidently to be prepared beforehand in Moscow,therewith at the top level. In particular, saying about the US persistentattempts to prevent implementing of the Russian/Iranian contract, the Headof Minatom stated, that Russia would not give in the pressure and would notallow «third countries» to interfere its relations with Teheran.

    It is obvious, that already in the beginning of the next century Iranwill become one of the leading power producers in the Middle East.
    November 26, 1998

    USA and Israel call Moscow to cease the cooperation with Teheran innuclear field.

    Naturally, such a great project could hardly keep attracting theinternational attention. The US negative attitude to the NPP constructionin Bushier is well-known for a long time. However, as Evgeny Adamov, the RFMinister on Atomic Energy, noted, talking to the correspondent of «NG», theUS pressure could in no way influence on the terms of carrying out theworks. «The only thing, being a result of he pressure, is the cancellationby Ukraine of its obligations on supply to the NPP in Bushier of a turbinefor electric power generator, - the Head of Minatom stressed. - But we gavethe orders to our enterprises in St.Petersburg».

    Israel didn't stay indifferent to the occurring events, too. Accordingto information of the RIA «Novosti», the country's Prime-Minister, BenjaminNetanyakhu, declared, that the construction of reactors at the nuclearpower plant in Bushier under the support of Russia, may «expose to danger»the Near East region, as far as there is a probability, that Iran would«fit its missiles with nuclear warheads».

    As formerly, Russia insist with confidence: there is no militarycomponent in the nuclear program of Iran. Numerous IAEA inspections of bothdeclared and non-declared objects in the country could confirm that.
    November 26, 1998

    Capable of performing 100 billion operations per second and simulatingnuclear tests.

    An agreement on creation of a joint Russian/Indian Center of ComputerStudies was signed in Moscow after ending of a next, fourth meeting of theRussian/Indian working group on science and technology. The most remarkableis the fact, that in the joint center a PARAM-10000 supercomputer recentlymade by Indians will operate. The computer is capable of performing 100billion operations per second, that allow it to solve the most complicatedproblems, including nuclear tests' simulation. Formerly only Japan and USApossessed such computers. Now Russia will have opportunity to make use ofachievements of the highest technologies.

    The joint Indian/Russian computer center is planned to be used forsolving a wide set of problems linked with modeling and forecasting of themost sophisticated scientific and applied problems. Therewith, the computercenter, being formed, will not be a secret institution. It will alsofulfill commercial orders and offer for sale its own original developmentsand software at the international market.

    The Indian/Russian computer center will be accessible to many customers,unlike the similar center in the USA (the result of the US center'sactivities are closed for other countries). The USA always put numerousobstacles on the way of dissemination of high technologies, imposingvarious sanctions. In the course of the Moscow meeting it was especiallydeclared, the activities of the Indian/Russian center will be directedexclusively for peaceful purposes, and they will be opened to internationalcontrol.
    VEK No. 46
    November 27 - December 3, 1998

    The NPP in Bushier will grow with Russia's support.

    The objective of the visit of a small group of Russian journalists toIran was Bushier - a little town at the South-West of the country, where alarge NPP is being built with support of Russian specialists.

    As in 1994 Iran offered Russia to complete construction of the firstunit of the NPP, the project has become an item of discussion in the courseof practically all Russian/American meetings at various levels. Washingtonin the most sharp form came out against Russia's participation in theconstruction on the pretext of Teheran's capability to transform thepeaceful atom to the military one, to acquire nuclear weapon and to becomea threat to the region and the entire world. Teheran is categoricallyrefuting the ominous intentions. Special inspections of the IAEA confirmthe absence of military programs in nuclear field in the country, andMoscow claims, that the light-water reactors to be mounted in Bushier arenot good for weapon grade plutonium production. In the RF Embassy inTeheran, people engaged in the problem say: «It is just Russia to beworried first of all with regard to nuclear weapons' possession by Iran. Wehave no evidence as to Iran is conducting works for that purpose». Talkingto «Vek», Evgeny Adamov noted, that the US position can be also explainedby mercantile considerations. We are going, the Minister said, to continueour cooperation with Iran in this field and even to enlarge it - theIranian colleagues offered us to develop projects of construction of the2nd, 3d and 4th units of the NPP. Evgeny Adamov confirmed the informationat a press-conference after his return to Moscow. He also noted, that theBushier plant's spent fuel would be reprocessed in Russia and returned toIran for further utilization.

    Initially (almost twenty years ago) German specialists, including thosefrom the «Siemens» Corporation, began realization of the project inBushier. The plant's building was erected, but then under the US pressurethey declined their further participation in the project. Since then theNPP construction in Bushier has been stopped. As more than two years ago anagreement was signed between Moscow and Teheran on completing the NPPconstruction, it was stipulated by the Russian party, that Iranians shouldcarry out some construction and exploratory works before Russians start.However, the Iranian party failed to fulfill the obligations by a number ofreasons, including the refusal of Germans to give Iran a correspondingdocumentation. Recently, an additional agreement was signed. In accordancewith the new agreement, the Russian party pledged itself to carry out allnecessary works and hand over the power unit to the customer under theturnkey condition.

    It is much more difficult to complete construction, than to do it fromzero. According to Evgeny Adamov, at 30 storehouses there are more than 80thousand units of various technical equipment. Russian specialists have toinventory the equipment and determine whether it would fit the newconstruction outline or not. That will be done in order to decrease outlaysof the Iranian party. We are also going to use as many Iranian specialistsin the construction works as it is possible. Evgeny Adamov said, and insuch a way to train qualified workers for implementing future projects. Thenumber of Russian specialists in Bushier (there are 300 of them now) willincrease to 1500 in the near time. After two years' delays by objectivereasons, the Minister said, we begin the active stage of the works,according to new schedules.

    A nuclear power unit construction cost is about $ 1 billion. In totalRussia can get $ 4 billion in the near 10 years. It is not onlyadvantageous to the country's economy (a great number of new jobs will becreated in Russia to fulfill the complicated technological orders), butconfirms the Minatom's serious exports capabilities for other countries,which would like to make use of Russia's unique experience in constructionof functionally and environmentally safe nuclear power plants.

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